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Group 7B: Restorative Forest Management Introduction It’s no surprise to hear that the debate over the proper way to manage the forests of the world has been a long and heated one. The argument has gone on for over a hundred years and is constantly changing, however, through the years, three distinct opinions have emerged. The most common practice globally is to simply clear cut patches of forests for timber gain. “Cut now, worry later.” Nationally, however, Americans can see lumber companies importing their timber from foreign countries; the idea of “let’s maintain our own lands.” The trouble with these methods is that importing from foreign countries encourages these clear cutting practices, which has caused a lot of harm to the planet. Forest-dwelling species of plants and animals go extinct every day, largely because of habitat destruction, while carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere continue to rise. Also, by encouraging clear cutting, consumers compromise their standard of ethics by indirectly supporting the destruction of environments found in countries that are considered worse off than the United States. There is a solution though. More recently, a new method of harvesting has developed termed “sustainable forestry.” Sustainable forest management encourages harvesting locally, but in a fashion that supports the conservation of the forest. How can this work? The “worst first” method individually selects trees for harvesting that, by a carefully created set of standards, is deemed less adequate for growth. Harvesters can select the “worst” trees to harvest, then move onto the next site, allowing for other, higher quality trees to continue to grow. Furthermore, trees that effect they overall health of the forest can be removed in order to improve overall ecosystem quality. There are many reasons to support these methods of harvesting, including various environmental, economic, ethical, and recreational benefits, as will be discussed. Looking at the history, sustainable forestry seems to be the clear solution, the compromise of keeping the aesthetic appearance of our nation, while still being able to meet the needs of consumption. History of Appalachian Forest Harvesting The forests of Appalachia have had such a rich and diverse history and have seen many different management styles with a variety of consequences. Research of Appalachian management practices indicates that more specifically, the past 130 years have seen largest change in Appalachian forests. The typical late 1800’s management practices echoed the sentiments of “Manifest Destiny” and progress through the expansion ideal as frequent clear-cut style harvesting, slash fires and high disturbance regimes were the norm. Large harvest operations, such as this are known as clear-cutting and result in even-aged timber stands and usually a dominance of only a handful of species that are the most competitive. In turn, during the Great Depression there was a scarcity of timber and selective cutting based on diameter and species became common practice. According to William Luppold and Gary Miller, “In 1973, the adoption of floating exchange rates ushered in an era of international trade” (Luppold and Miller, 2005). This produced an increased demand from the baby-boomer market for the timber that had subsequently had time to regenerate and grow into commercial sized lumber and could be processed into hardwood products. This market further emphasized an extreme selective cutting regime that only harvested the very best quality and the most popular timber species. These ‘waves’ of management practices are evidence of the evolution and expansion of forestry practices. One of the most commonly faced dilemmas when forming or reevaluating a management practice and schedule is what method should be used. One must keep in mind that the composition of a forest is directly affected by the removal of just a portion or all of the standing trees. Often times the success of a management practice is gauged by its regeneration, or the amount of time it would take before another harvest could be performed. Forest regeneration is a long-term process that measures the resilience or ability of a disturbed site to ‘bounce back’ by taking advantage of all necessary and available resources needed for growth; however certain disturbances, such as fire, can affect the distribution of some of these resources. According to Trimble, research has shown that, “harvest patterns determine the long-term success of hardwood regeneration” (Trimble, 1973). Furthermore once a forest is reestablished the time it takes for timber to mature until the point of another harvest is a considerably long time. It clear when researching the history of forest harvesting that demand and many different markets have influenced forest composition. “Product prices and production costs determine what portion of the canopy is removed at a harvesting site; the overall market determines long-term harvesting activities on a landscape level during a market era” (Lowell et al, 2008). Lowell continues with, “harvesting during a given era has the greatest impact on forest composition and related production and marketing practices in future eras.” Early harvests initially focused on high-value species, such as spruce or white pine, however “subsequent harvests were less discriminating as numerous species were removed” (Carvell, 1986). As a result, heavy cutting was known to be incredibly detrimental and future harvests were performed by partial cutting; however the problem of more complete and destructive harvests has made its return within the past few years. Certain harvesting methods favor regeneration of certain species. For instance, clear cutting promotes red oak and yellow poplar regeneration. Along those lines, consumer demand certainly dictates forest harvest; during the 1950’s and 1960’s, the USDC Bureau of the Census indicated that furniture industries “were the principal users of hardwood lumber” and walnut, maple, and cherry were the species in high demand (USDC Bureau of the Census, 1961, 1966, 1971). However, the wood of yellow-poplar is very versatile and could be stained to match more expensive woods such as walnut or cherry (Frye, 1996). This versatility increased its popularity and demand and during the 1950’s yellow-poplar was commonly the only harvested species, and left other species, such as red oak to reemerge and take over (Wray, 1952). This type of ‘highgrading’ selective harvesting is ineffective as it chooses only the very best in terms of quality and species, and does not leave the healthiest managed forest as possible. Methods and Techniques of Timber Harvesting James Grace, Director of the Pennsylvania Bureau of Forestry, claims that stewardship is, “sound harvesting practices [that] focus on the residual forest stand – what remains to become the future forest; poor practices focus on what is being removed and how much money it's worth.” The purpose of harvesting trees is to manage an area based on objectives of its landowner; this may include improving recreation, wildlife habitat, water quality, or for profit. However there is a problem when the area to be managed is public land which is under the jurisdiction of the single decision of its managing forester. There are two types of harvests that are used to meet these objectives. A silvicultural harvest is “designed to either improve the residual stand (intermediate treatments) or to harvest with the intent of establishing a growing new forest (reproduction or regeneration cut)” (Grace, 2001). The primary focus in silvicultural harvesting is the remaining stand and its health rather than the trees that have been removed. Contrastingly non-silvicultural harvests emphasize the monetary value and profit from the trees being harvested; the concern for the remaining stand is low to non-existent. There are several types of harvesting techniques that are used to produce the desired composition and dynamic of forest, whether they are intentional or not. The diameter-limiting cutting technique is “useful on unevenly aged stands in order to avoid high-grading and to allow the younger trees to grow vigorously with the additional resources.” The single-tree selection method is used in uneven stands and attempts to retain the age distribution by removing all size-classes equally in order to keep a similar proportion to that of pre-harvest. This age-distribution also allows for mature trees which will in turn, “ensure an adequate source for regeneration, even with heavyseeded species that serve as mast for wildlife”. The shade provided from the mature trees also protects seedlings from overexposure to light and buffers against extreme temperatures. Also, the single-tree selection method has the greatest amount of benefits when compared amongst other techniques. For instance, there are, “greater numbers of seedlings and saplings per unit of area, less distance and more regular spacing between the regeneration openings, and added understory brightening due to periodic thinning and regularly scheduled cutting to recruit new age classes across fixed proportions of the stand area at predictable intervals.” In simpler terms, single-tree selection results in an unevenly-aged stand that is balanced. Other methods produce mismanaged stands, which have an “irregular distribution” of age classes that has “a weak correlation between dbh.” There are many more advantages of selective harvesting such as, reduction of erosion and blow down on soils due to good rooting depth, allowing trees to develop crowns and “good rates of radial increment exist in all diameter classes,” limits the risk of forest fires and is aesthetically pleasing. On the economic side, benefits include, always having highvalued and mature trees in the forest, “even-flow sustained yield in each stand, offering the opportunity for income at frequent intervals” and always a “steady supply of accessible saw timber” when needed (Nyland, 1996). Contrastingly, the effects of clear cutting are disastrous and ineffective environmentally, economically or ethically. It is estimated that after a clear-cut it takes 35-40 years for a clear cut forest to produce another timber crop of any value. Even still, clear cutting requires that you move around a lot to ensure that there is a steady stream of supply that meets the demand, thus leaving a path of destruction behind. Furthermore, a clear-cut forest only allows fast-growing and exploitative species to grow. According to the Forest Encyclopedia Network, “On the best sites in the Southern Appalachians (oak site index greater than 70), clear cutting favors yellow-poplar, often resulting in pure stands of that species” (Harlow et al, 1997). This poses a problem environmentally, especially in terms of wildlife habitat and support. An example of a clear-cutting failure is the inability of oak reproduction after the exploitative species produce a canopy (Johnson, 1993). Oak is one of the staple species for wildlife and wildlife habitat management, and without their presence wildlife will undoubtedly suffer. Furthermore, clear-cutting has been known to increase unwanted vegetation that is competitive to the point of smothering out other desired species (Boring et al, 1981). While clear-cutting may have proved effective in “drier ecosystems” such the Missouri Ozarks it is not successful or effective in the Appalachians (Beck and Hooper, 1986). Furthermore it goes without saying that clear-cutting leaves a barren, aesthetically unpleasing land, which if done as a widespread application will severely reduce recreation and tourism to Appalachia, which is sometimes the main source of income of some towns. In summation, clear-cutting “decreases aesthetic value, biodiversity, old growth, and wildlife values” (Johnson, 1993). Comparatively, it is unrealistic to say that land will not remain unmanaged in this day and age. Even the most pristine places that are considered ‘untouched’ are still under some sort of management regime. Management also seems to conjure up a negative image; however, management is necessary in public lands and if executed right will produce the healthiest and most efficient forest. The Appalachian Forest is comprised of many recreational opportunities, and the shear amount of visitors does require that a management practice be in place. The Appalachian Trail and its accessibility depend on a light management plan as well. Environmental Impacts The overall biodiversity of tree species in Southern Appalachian Hardwood forests has improved over the past 10 years, but still has room for improvement. Northern Red Oaks are one of the most important species in the Southern Appalachians. Their high quality wood and rapid diameter growth make this species very desirable for saw. As mast producers, they provide acorns which are a good food source for wildlife. A majority of the time, oak species are out competed by yellow poplar trees for canopy and sapling space. Execution of the regenerative practice of forest harvest allows for us to focus on the regrowth and stability of northern red oaks for future stand generations. Red oak species are known for being long-lived and often take at least twenty years to reach a sustainable, healthy age and to regenerate. The regenerative method allows us to fell specific age groups to avoid eliminating reproductively successful trees. Younger trees are left to grow and older trees are felled, providing soil nutrient availability and canopy space. Basically, the “worst” tree species are culled leaving sufficient resources and space for younger, native species to thrive. An average of 2.29 trees grows for every tree harvested in Southern Appalachia (Beck, 2003). This supports our theory that some harvest rather than none at all is beneficial to the overall population and success of Appalachian hardwood stands. Strengthening the growth of established red oaks through the regenerative, shelter wood method improves the chance of maintaining oaks in the next stand. In the Southern Appalachians specifically, the position of Northern Red Oak once occupied 25 percent volume of the original stand; the species has deteriorated each year to the point where at age 20, these oaks are ten to fifteen feet shorter than other species (Beck, 2003). Since they are shade-tolerant species, they are often out competed by yellowpoplars. The Northern red oak is a great source of cover and nesting sites for many birds and mammals. The leaf litter from these oaks is commonly browsed by deer and rabbits while red oak bark is sometimes used as a medicinal tool for heart troubles and bronchial infections. If prescribed burns are chosen as the method of clearing a forest completely, very severe damage to red oaks results. The cambial tissue at the base of the trees dies, creating an entry point for decay-causing fungi (Yanai, 2003). Wildfires are also lethal to other species of saw timber trees found in the Southern Appalachians. This method of clear cutting completely destroys canopy until tree species can successfully regenerate. In the Southern Appalachians, the risk of regeneration failure of shade tolerant species is very high. By removing 100% canopy, species that grow in full to intermediate shade like oaks, hickories, and maples will be overgrown and out competed by shade-intolerant species like yellow-poplar and cherry trees. Clear cutting also destroys habitat for Appalachia wildlife as well as food sources, leaving stands without mature growth of native species for up to 20 years at a time. If Appalachian forests are left alone to naturally grow, prolonged leaf litter decomposition results in areas that do not regenerate promptly. This negatively changes the moisture balance and nutrient content in the soil. Cutting during poor seed success years may cause regeneration failure particularly to species with sensitive seed production periods. Staggered regrowth of specific species after a regenerative, selective cut allows for the soil to retain nitrogen and other nutrients. Vitousek et al. (1979) suggested that this accumulation of nutrients explains patterns of nitrate losses from forest ecosystems. His study also determined that specific Appalachian selective cuts of non-native species yielded a higher success of site regeneration and sequestered nutrients in biomass. Canopy gaps are directly correlated with seedling density and the opportunity for species to evenly regrow (Clinton 1994). Leaving stands to grow without regenerative culling reduces canopy space for saplings of shade tolerant and intolerant species. Species richness decreased significantly when forests were left alone for canopy to regrow and increased directly with canopy gap size. Restorative forest management successfully increases a significant amount of stream flow when compared to clearcutting. A study conducted in Vitousek (et al. 1979) yielded that after a fresh cut of southern Appalachian hardwoods, stream flow increased 26cm, or 28% above the flow expected if the forest was left alone. One to two years after the regenerative cut, peak flow had increased by 14-15% and storm flow volume increased by 10%. Leaving hardwood stands alone to grow and reproduce at an undisturbed rate cuts down on root water filtration and absorbs the nutrients from the soil that would otherwise be lucrative for seedlings or saplings, the water table, and streams. An analysis was done on local stream solute concentrations which yielded increases in nutrient loss after clear cutting (Potter,1991). Costs “A good deal of the planet's biological diversity lives in forests (mostly in the tropics), and this diversity diminishes as trees fall. Healthy forests protect watersheds and generate clean drinking water; they remove carbon dioxide from the air and thus help maintain the climate. Forests count -- not just for their ecological and industrial services but also for the sake of order and beauty” (Ausubel and Victor, 2000). There are plenty of reasons one could argue for leaving alone our forests here in the Appalachian, and there are just as many to argue for the destruction, what it all boils down to are the costs and benefits of each opposing side. Sustainable forestry attempts to minimize costs of both sides and produce just the benefits. By using this third practice, people are really able to “have their cake and eat it too.” The biodiversity found in the forest is undeniable. It is believed that over half of the world’s animal and plant species can be found in the rainforest alone, and that is just one biome. By harvesting forests locally, we can further protect the rainforest and develop more independence from foreign businesses in product production. By selectively harvesting only the amount of trees that is needed for production, we can further protect native plant and animal species, encourage biodiversity, and maintain the aesthetic appeal of the Appalachian region. Restoring biodiversity in the Appalachian Mountains is critical in the lumber industry because many trees have already been overharvested in the region to the point of disappearance. The trees that do still stand will continue to get better and better in quality because selective harvesting can use the “worst first” approach, leaving behind the strongest of the species behind to thrive. As previously mentioned by Ausubel and Victor, the environmental benefits of selective forestry isn’t just for the immediate surrounding and species present on the land being surveyed, it can benefit species throughout the region and state, by effecting the watersheds and performing carbon-fixing mechanisms for a better quality of air. The Appalachian region has seen some of this effect already. Streamline Timberworks in Floyd County have been using a carbon positive approach. Streamline Timberworks uses selective harvesting so that carbon dioxide can naturally be fixated into oxygen, however, they go a step further in their practice. Streamline Timberworks do not use fuelled machines in the process of tree removal. Lumber jacks go in and saw down individual trees by hand and then draft horses are hooked up to the fallen logs and pull the logs to where they can be sorted. Although their methods for helping reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by selective harvesting isn’t the norm, their practices can be seen in other businesses that go above and beyond the already carbon positive approach associated with selective harvesting. The best part of practices like Streamline’s is, through the years, it has been found that “it costs exactly the same” economically as it would to clear-cut the lumber (Rutledge 2008). Economic loss would result from sustainable forestry not being the main method of harvesting in the Appalachia and should be considered. Clear-cutting trees eliminates patches of forests and as clear-cutting continues to be a common practice, the available land for outdoor recreation will continue to fall. This wouldn’t be a problem if outdoor recreation was becoming less popular, however statistics show that the amount of people engaging in outdoor activities such as hiking, camping, and hunting is increasing. By cutting away vast sections of forest in the area, many local parks and recreation jobs are eliminated, which further effects the local economy. At the same time, if trees are only imported from other regions or countries, local harvesting jobs will suffer. When it comes to the job sector, regions shouldn’t be limited more than is necessary. If there is an environment that will encourage recreation jobs, those jobs should be encouraged, but the lumber resources shouldn’t be ignored either. Sustainable forestry keeps the community from having to choose which they would prefer. “Virginia has abundant forests that provide natural beauty, habitat, jobs, an important economic sector, and a wide array of forest products.” In Virginia alone, there are 144,000 people employed in forestry-related jobs (Virginia Department of Forestry 2004). The amount of these types of jobs could easily increase if some lands were protected less and available for harvest more and other lands were protected more and harvested less. For the past sixty or so years, Jackson Forest in California has been an outstanding demonstration of the economic benefits associated with using sustainable forestry. At any given time there have been over 250 full time, private sector jobs generated from managing the forest. Annual tree growth has and continues to exceed the number of trees that are harvested, which allows for an increase in harvesting in following years and a product of higher quality. Local educators and students are able to use the forest as classrooms, laboratories, and study guides. Investors in the forest have seen their stocks more than triple and public revenues of over 160 million dollars have been generated. In addition to the public revenue, Mendocino County, where Jackson Forest is, was able to collect $600,000 in yield tax revenues in 1996; half of the tax revenues went to the public county schools (Wilson 1997). Jackson Forest not only shows us that selective harvesting can work, it also shows us how many benefits can come from managing the forest sustainably and taking advantage of the various government incentives for businesses to go “green,” such as tax revenues. Tax revenues and guidelines vary some from state to state. Some of the incentive and cost-share programs in the state of Virginia include the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP), Environmental Quality Incentive Program (EQIP), Riparian Buffer Forest Tax Credit, Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program (WHIP), and Reforestation of Timberlands (RT). It is also possible in Virginia to have your forest certified if it is practicing sustainable forestry. Certification allows consumers to know the product they are buying comes from a well-managed forest; it also helps business owners financially by allowing “greater access to markets and the potential to increase the prices for [the owner’s] forest products” (Munsell 2009). So in summary, the costs of using the selective harvesting approach cannot come close in comparison to the benefits that would result, and the costs of both clearcutting and importing lumber can be neutralized by sustainable management. Furthermore, it would be irresponsible not to manage Appalachian forests this way. Importing wood and taking another country’s resources just so the United States can maintain its aesthetic appeal is morally wrong. And by not tapping into this resource many economic opportunities would be lost, which is dangerous in this economy. Over 23 billion dollars can be generated each year in forest products in addition to another 4 billion in social and environmental benefits (Virginia Department of Forestry 2004). We need to take advantage of this especially since 62 percent of all timber production in 2006 occurred in the southern region (USDA 2010). Proposed Solution/Management Practice Through our research we affirmed that restorative forest management via selective harvesting would be the best approach for proper and efficient management of the Appalachian forests. While selective harvesting has a bad reputation for high-grading, we highly recommend against this practice, and suggest intermediate thinning treatments that will not discriminate in regards to species or size; however we propose that stands be thinned and managed in regards to how overall forest health could be promoted. In order to achieve this management goal we suggest to only harvest a certain amount of trees per year through the grid method. By this we mean that forests will be divided into sections (or grids) wherein each site will be individually assessed for its thinning treatment. We must keep in mind that a great deal of the Appalachian forests will have to be maintained for recreation and tourism purposes. For this we suggest that harvested trees that are not merchantable as lumber be used and reinvested into improving recreation or site quality. For instance, non-merchantable or non-desirable trees can be used in terracing systems that help prevent soil erosion on higher grades of trail. Furthermore, felled trees that are left in place also improve habitat for wildlife and feed essential nutrients back into the ecosystem as they decay. Invasive species will be retained will be retained unless their presence impedes or affects growth of other historically native species. The trees that are economically valuable and will be sold and in turn the money that is generated will be used towards conservation programs, educational programs and for recreation. Moreover, these will be small operations performed with chainsaws and a small crew in order to eliminate an elaborate and disturbing entry for selection cutting as well as avoiding unnecessary skid rows. This also reduces extraction costs, site disturbance, and is minimally invasive to habitat. While compared to clear-cutting and non-management, selection cutting is slightly more complicated, however is most effective for the Southern Appalachian forests for the above listed reasons.In summation, we want to keep a diverse stand of trees and to avoid over-harvesting a few species. Our main goal through selective harvesting is not for economic values or gain, but rather to encourage a healthier forest and ecosystem. Conclusion When evaluating what is in the best interest of the forest ecosystem of Southern Appalachia, hardwoods should be managed following a selective, uneven aged plan. This style of management includes selective species cuts which in turn yield more of a continuous canopy, a healthier nutrient base for the soil, and increase overall biodiversity of tree and wildlife species in the area. The “worst” trees including nonnatives and overly-dominant species are selected to be cut and removed leaving sufficient space, nutrients, and water for sensitive native or younger species to grow successfully. The local economy is supported through this approach from resulting forestry jobs, improved stream and water quality, and general positive aesthetics. Forest management practices of clearcutting have dated back as far as the 1800’s while Manifest Destiny was the practiced way of life. Between that period and today, we have steadily discovered a need for reevaluating the effects of clearcutting to implement a more stable harvest practice that did not promote severe species competition favoring shade intolerant species. The costs and risks of not acting or clear cutting these Southern Appalachian forests leave sensitive, native tree species open to be out competed by other species. Restorative forest management stabilizes the viability of native tree species to combat the effects of pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Wildlife habitat is preserved while still contributing to our local economy through harvest of specific age and species of trees for lumber markets. Sources Ausubel, Jesse H. and Victor, David G. Restoring the Forests. Dec 2000. Foreign Affairs. Vol. 79. No 6. Pg. 127-144. March 2011 Credible because from a respectable magazine. Used to find basic background on topic Beck, D. E.; Hooper, R. M. 1986. Development of a Southern Appalachian hardwood stand after clearcutting. Southern-Journal-of-Applied-Forestry. 10: 168-172; 12 ref. Credible because it is a peer-reviewed journal article. Used to make argument for our position. Boring, L. R.; Monk, C. D.; Swank, W. T. 1981. Early regeneration of a clear-cut southern Appalachian forest. Ecology. 62: 1244-1253. Credible because it is a peer-reviewed journal article. Used to make argument for our position. Carvell, K.L. 1986. Effect of past history on present stand composition and condition. P. 1-7 in Proc. Of guidelines for managing immature Appalachian hardwood stands, Morgantown WV. Credibly because it is a peer-reviewed journal article. Used to examine history of Appalachian forests and past management. Clinton, B.D., Boring, L.R., and Swank, W.T., 1994, Regeneration Patterns in Canopy Gaps of Mixed-Oak Forests of the Southern Appalachians: Influences of Topographic Position and Evergreen Understory, American Midland Naturalist, v. 132, p. 308-319. Credible because it is a peer-reviewed journal article. Used to examine effects of forest harvest on canopy cover. Clinton, B.D., Vose, J.M., Swank, W.T., 1996, Shifts in Aboveground and Forest Floor Carbon and Nitrogen Pools After Felling and Burning in the Southern Appalachians, Forest Science, v. 42. p. 431-444. Credible because it is research performed by Southern Virginia foresters. Used to examine effects of clear cutting and burning on air and soil. Frye, L.R. 1996. The most popular furniture woods: the historic perspective. Wood and Wood Prod. 100(14): 304-307. Credible because research is sponsored by government organization. Used to research historical Appalachian forest composition. Grace, James R. "Timber Harvesting & Forest Sustainability." (2001): n. pag. Web. 9 Apr 2011. <http://www.forestrycenter.org/library.cfm?refID=73625>. Credible because it is research performed by a state forester. Used to examine forestry practices. Harlow, R.F.;Downing, R.L.;Van Lear, D.H. 1997. Responses of wildlife to clearcutting and associated treatments in the Eastern United States. Tech. Pap. 19. Clemson, SC: ClemsonUniversity,DepartmentofForestResources. 66p p. Credible because it is a peer-reviewed journal article. Used to examine effects of clear-cutting. Johnson, Paul S. 1993. Perspectives on the ecology and silviculture of oak-dominated forests in the central and eastern states. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-153. 28 p. Credible because it is a peer-reviewed journal article. Used to examine the ecology and silviculture of forest composition. Lowell, Eini C.; Becker, Dennis R.; Rummer, Robert; Larson, Debra; Wadleigh, Linda 2008. An integrated approach to evaluating the economic costs of wildfire hazard reduction through wood utilization opportunities in the southwestern United States. Forest Science, Vol. 54(3): 273-283. Credible because from a peer-reviewed journal. Used to evaluate costs and timber demand. Luppold, William G.; Miller, Gary W. 2005. Influence of Markets on the Composition of Central Appalachian Forests. In: Alavalapati, Janaki R.R.; Carter, Douglas R., eds. Competitiveness of southern forest products markets in a global economy: trends and predictions, proceedings of the Southern Forest Economics Workshop 2004; 2004 March 14-16; St. Augustine, FL. School of Forest Resources Conservation, University of Florida: 113-122. Credible because it is a peer reviewed article. Used to analyze markets and compostition of Appalachian forests. Nyland, R.D. 1996. Silviculture concepts and applications. New York: McGraw-Hill Co., Inc. 633 p p. Credible because it is a college-level textbook. This textbook was used extensively and was an excellent basis to many introductory and intermediate level forestry concepts. Munsell, John F. and Gagnon, Jennifer L. Virginia Cooperative Extension. 2009. “Investing In Sustainable Forestry: A Pocket Guide for Virginia’s Forest Landowners.” Pg 13-14. April 2011 Credible because from Virginia Cooperative Extension, a government funded research and educational program/facilities, headed at Virginia Tech and Virginia State University. Used to find tax incentive programs. Oracle Educational Foundation. “Species: In The Rainforest” 1996. Web. <http://library.thinkquest.org/27257/rainforest.html> April 2011. Credible because from an educational organization. Used to gather information about biodiversity in the rainforest Potter, C. S., Ragsdale, H. L., Swank, W. T., 1991, Atmospheric Deposition and Foliar Leaching in a Regenerating Southern Appalachian Forest Canopy, Journal of Ecology, v. 79. p. 97-115. Credible because it is a peer-reviewed journal article. Used to gather information about effects of canopy change on soil. Rutledge, Jason. “Draftwood: A Truly Carbon Positive Approach” 2008. Web. <http://www.draftwood.com> Credible because certified as a “green business.” Used to gather information about carbon positive approaches to restorative forestry and the cost of restorative forestry. Shenandoah Resource Conservation and Development Council. “Local Woods: A Comprehensive Directory of Shenandoah Vally Resources.” 2004. Web. Feb 2011 <http://www.shenandoahrcd.org/ForestryLocalWoodProducts.htm> Credible because from website managed by the Shenandoah Conservation Council. Used to gather information about Virginia jobs in forestry and the revenue generated Streamline Timberworks and Healing Forest Foundation. “Streamline Timberworks Sustainable Forestry Floyd County Virginia LCF Group” 2009. Web. March 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xcTZ5x3TZ78> Credible because backed by Healing Forest Foundation. Used as case study for a carbon positive business using sustainable forestry. Trimble, G.R., Jr. 1973. The regeneration of central Appalachian hardwoods with emphasis on the effects of site quality and harvesting practice. USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap. NE-282. 14 p. Credible because it is a peer reviewed article. This was used as a reference for composition and regeneration of forests. USDA. Draft National Report on Sustainable Forests. Dec 2010. Web. Feb 2011. Pg 113-181 <http://www.fs.fed.us/research/sustain/2010SustainabilityReport/documents/draft2010s ustainabilityreport.pdf> Credible because from USDA. Used for statistics on South’s role in National timber removal USDC Bureau of the Census. 1961. United States Census of Manufacturers: 1958. U.S. Dep. Of Com., Bur. of the Census. Washington, D.C. Credible because it is a government organization. Used to track lumber demand. USDC Bureau of the Census. 1966. United States Census of Manufacturers: 1963. U.S. Dep. Of Com., Bur. of the Census. Washington, D.C. Credible because it is a government organization. Used to track lumber demand. USDC Bureau of the Census. 1971. United States Census of Manufacturers: 1967. U.S. Dep. Of Com., Bur. of the Census. Washington, D.C. Credible because it is a government organization. Used to track lumber demand. Wilson, Richard. "A Forest to Conserve and Harvest" Santa Rosa Press Democrat. 23 Nov. 1997. Web. <http://www.foreverredwood.com/jacksonforest.php.> Feb. 2010. Credible because from newspaper. Used for case study of successful sustainable forestry Wray, R.D. 1952. Forest statistics for West Virginia. USDA For. Serv. W V No. 1. U.S. 48 p. Credible because research is sponsored by government organization. Used to research historical Appalachian forest composition. Yanai, R.D., Currie, W.S., Goodale, C.l., 2003, Soil Carbon Dynamics after Forest Harvest: An Ecosystem Paradigm Reconsidered, Ecosystems, v. 6. p. 197-212. Credible because it is research done specifically on Appalachian Hardwood forest harvest. Used to assess effect of forest harvest on entire ecosystem - habitat, soil, water, etc.