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Michael Faggett
Intro to Journalism
Annotated Bibliography
URL Address:
Aiello, Giorgia. (2006). Theoretical Advances in Critical Visual Analysis: Perception,
Ideology, Mythologies, and Social Semiotics. Journal of Visual Literacy, 2: 89-102
This article presents some advances in the study of social semiotics and how social
semiotics contribute to the progression of the study of critical visual analysis. This
article benefits the research of sports figures who work in television media by providing
research that legitimizes the claim that sports figures in television media display codes
and various messages of communication that spark triggers to viewing audiences. The
article is also helpful to this research because it the article outlines the “doctrine” and
platform of social semiotics, therefore allowing one to make the assertion that athletes
turned sports broadcasters serve as a form of social semiotics in television media.
Barnett, Stephen. (1970). Cable Television and Media Concentration, Part I: Control of
Cable Systems by Local Broadcasters. Stanford Law Review, 2. (22) 221-239
This article explains the increased influences of mass media in society as well as the
control broadcasters carry over the venue of cable television. Intended for attorneys
specializing in media affairs and the educated, concerned, constituent, this article lays
out the perils and disadvantages of allowing the mass media to carry a concentrated
control over society. This article serves a vital importance in researching former athletes
who now work in television media because it gives insight into the intuitive effect these
athletes can have in the television studio and on home audiences. By looking into these
intuitive effects, one can claim that athletes utilize their prominent status and name
recognition to garner ratings for their respective broadcasting network or station, thus
exacerbating the concentrated control broadcasters carry over the venue of cable
Cave, Martin and Robert W. Crandall. (2001). Sports Rights and the Broadcast Industry.
The Economic Journal, 111: 4-26.
This article shows the impact that increase of televised sporting events has on both
broadcasting networks and sports leagues. Cave and Crandall delve into the ominous
danger of sports leagues relinquishing their broadcasting rights to networks. This article
helps the research of athletes who work in media by exhibiting the empowerment sports
figures give the various broadcasting networks when those former athletes work for
broadcasting network. This article gives credibility to one’s claim that athletes who now
work in television media amplify the clout that their broadcasting networks possess,
which, in turn, garners mass revenue and ratings for the network.
Eitzen, D. Stanley. (Ed.). (2005). Sport in Contemporary Society: An Anthology. Boulder,
CO: Paradigm Publishers
This anthology of articles deals with various aspects of sports in society, some of which
include the socialization of sports through the mass media, sports as a microcosm, and
problem of excess in sports. For the sake of research athletes working in television media,
the articles that deal with the socialization of sports through the mass media benefit the
research process by providing a distinct perspective on how the mass media indoctrinates
society on sports. More specifically Michael Messner’s article “The Gender of Sports
Media”, is conducive to the researching process because he presents the argument that
sports media in general is a patriarchal entity. Based on Messner’s claim, one can argue
that athletes who now work in television media, particularly male athletes, continue this
patriarchal display of sports media. That display, in turn, creates an attitudinal effect that
leads audience members to believe and expect sports to be portrayed in a “macho man”
Entertainment and Sports Programming Network. (2008, June). Retrieved April 13, 2009 from
The article retrieved from the Entertainment and Soprts Programming Network (ESPN)
reveals Michael Strahan, former professional football player, signing a contract to
become a sports commentator for FOX network. Strahan signed the contract right after
he retired from the National Football League in 2008. This article is beneficial to the
research of athletes who work in television media because it shows how quick the
transition an athlete can make from the football field to the television studio. This article
is also beneficial because it can lead one to assert that networks seek to hire former
athletes in order to amass ratings and revenue for themselves. More specifically, one can
claim from reading this article that networks seek to hire outspoken and recognizable
athletes in order to garner ratings and amass revenue for themselves.
Evans, Jr., Arthur S. (1997). Blacks as Functionaries: A Study of Racial Stratification in
Professional Sport. Journal of Black Studies, 1. (28): 43-59
This article outlines a varied perspective on how functionaries (broadcasters and
other media members) affect society’s mentality on the topics and issues the
functionaries present, discuss, and argue. This article particularly targets the AfricanAmerican constituency because it discusses the lack of black functionaries in sports
media at the time of its publication, which now can be somewhat argued by the increase
of black functionaries in sports media over the past twelve years. The article benefits the
research of athletes who now work as sportscasters because it gives a chronological
depiction of how time has progressed and black functionaries have become more
prominent in television media since the publication of the article. It also is conducive
to the research because it gives a focused yet biased perspective on how functionaries
influence society.
Griffin, Geoff (Ed.) (2005). Are Athletes Good Role Models? Farmington Hills, MI:
Greenhaven Press.
This book features a myriad of articles and statements made by athletes, authors, and
members of sports media on the issues including whether or not athletes are role
models, race, gender, etc. Most of these statements were made during the athletes’
playing careers, but it still gives a clear view on how athletes’ view their impact on
society. This book is vital to the research of athletes who work in television media
because it provides athletes’ (Charles Barkley and Dennis Rodman) views on how
they influence society as a whole. With the information presented in this book, one can
claim that athletes fail to recognize fully the effect they impress on society, which can
potentially worsen as they work in television media.
Hundt, Reed E. (1996). The Public’s Airwaves: What Does the Public Interest Require of
Television Broadcasters? Duke Law Journal, 6: 1089-1129.
This article discusses the paradigm of the public for television broadcasters. Hundt
asserts that television broadcasters serve as public servants, meeting the needs of the
public constituency. Hundt also asserts that governmental involvement via Congress and
the Federal Communications Commission place the pressure on broadcasters to meet the
requirements of “public interest.” This article is indubitably profitable to the research of
athletes who work as television broadcasters because it provides an alternate view of how
they affect society. With the research presented in this article, one can claim that athletes
who work in television media garner such attention and create such an effect on society’s
attitudes, emotion, and to an extent, behaviors because society demands that they do so.
Karen, David and Robert E. Washington. (2007). Sport and Society. Annual Review of
Sociology. (27): 187-212
This article discusses the depth of which sports are engrained into American society and
how sports impact other facets of American society: economics, culture, education, etc.
The article is specifically intended for sociologists and students but is beneficial in
researching athletes who work in television media because it delves into the profound
nature into which sports impacts American culture. With the information and research
presented in this article, one can argue that the presence of sports figures in television
media such as Charles Barkley, Terry Bradshaw, Joe Morgan, and others affects the
various elements of American culture due to their work in the field of television media.
For example, Charles Barkley’s views on politics potentially influences how some
Americans view politics in the nation. Thus, this article serves as a fundamental basis to
show the media effects former athletes turned sportscasters have when seen on television.
National Basketball Association. (2007, June). Retrieved April 13, 2009, from
The article retrieved from the National Basketball Association’s (NBA) official website
released the details of the television contract the NBA signed with the Entertainment and
Sports Programming Network (ESPN) and Turner Network Television in 2007. The
article gave the specifics on how many games each network would broadcast and how
much money the NBA would garner from the deal. It is vital to the research of athletes
who now work in television media because it shows the importance of television media
to the general well being of major sports organizations. With the information presented,
one can claim that sports figures are vital to the broadcasting of sports events in order to
gain ratings for networks and revenue for the various sports organizations.