Practice Test – Geology 106, Chapter 18 from The Changing Earth written and formatted by Joseph Wilkinson 1. What is a fossil? 2. What are the conditions required for fossilization? _______________ and _______________. 3. The concept of a species as we know it today was introduced by _______________ in his book _______________. 4. Separate species can/cannot interbreed (circle correct answer). 5. Soft body tissue is more likely/less likely (circle correct answer) to be preserved than hard body parts, due to a) decay, b) scarcity, c) scavenging, d) abundance, e) high carbon content, f) d and e, g) a and b, h) b and d. 6. Carbonization is an altered preservation of soft body parts that occurs primarily to a) reptiles, b) fish and leaves, c) birds, d) one-celled organisms, e) shells. 7. Fossilized internal molds are primarily imprints of bivalves and gastropods. TRUE/FALSE 8. Describe four ways by which soft body tissue can be preserved. 9. List three hard body parts that are often preserved unaltered. _______________, _______________, and _______________. 10. An imprint of an internal surface of an organism is known as a) an internal cast, b) an internal mold, c) an external cast, d) an external mold, e) a cast. 11. The taxonomies used today to classify animals and plants scientifically were devised by _______________, who presented them in his books _______________ and _______________. 12. Describe permineralization, petrification, recrystallization, and pyritization. 13. List three ways by which the hard body parts of an organism are altered and preserved. _______________, _______________, and _______________. 14. Alfred Russell Wallace did not believe that any species had ever gone extinct. TRUE/FALSE 15. Charles Darwin collected data that he ultimately synthesized into his theory of natural selection during an 1831 trip to the _______________ Islands. In 1859, he published a book called _______________, in which he presented his theory and the arguments in its favor. 16. What is the difference between a gastrolith and a coprolite? 17. List (in order) the primary links in the food chain. _______________, _______________, _______________, _______________, and _______________. 18. Describe and explain Charles Darwin’s ideas on the origin of species by natural selection. 19. Georges Cuvier used comparative anatomy to support the work of Jean Baptiste de Monet de Lamarck. TRUE/FALSE 20. _______________ believed that individual organisms could acquire characteristics during their ontogeny (development) in response to environmental stimulation or change. _______________ believed that these characteristics were heritable. 21. What is a species? 22. List (in order) the primary taxonomical groups used to classify plants and animals scientifically. _______________, _______________, _______________, _______________, _______________, _______________, _______________. 23. Current evolutionary theory is known as a) the Theory of Evolution, b) the Theory of Natural Selection, c) the Law of Evolution, d) the Darwin Theory, or e) the Wallace-Darwin Theory. 24. What is the difference between adaptive radiation (divergence) and adaptive convergence? 25. Name five common causes of extinction. _______________, _______________, _______________, _______________, and _______________. 26. List three patterns of evolution. _______________, _______________, and _______________. 27. Name six pieces of evidence for organic evolution. ______________________________, ______________________________, ______________________________, ______________________________, ______________________________, and ______________________________. ANSWERS: 1. A fossil is any evidence of life preserved in a material from the geologic past. Fossils must be more than five thousand years old. 2. quick burial and hard body parts. 3. George de Buffon; Histoire Naturale. 4. cannot. 5. B (fish and leaves) 6. less likely; G (scavenging and decay). 7. TRUE 8. Soft body tissue can be preserved by refrigeration in permafrost areas, by desiccation in arid climates (the water is removed from the tissue, delaying or preventing decay), by preservation in tar pits like the famous La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles (bones are particularly porous; they absorb tar, aiding their preservation), and by preservation in amber (sap, originally exuded by conifers and then hardened; this type of preservation applies almost exclusively to insects). 9. shells, bones, and teeth. 10. B (an internal mold). 11. Carolus Linnaeus; Systema Naturae and Species Plantarum. 12. Permineralization, petrification, recrystallization, and pyritization are all processes by which hard body parts of living organisms are altered and preserved as fossils. During permineralization (also known as “partial replacement”), ground water deposits silica into the pores of a material, usually bone or wood. Some tissue remains, but the material is preserved. Petrification (also known as “complete replacement”) is very similar to permineralization, but the tissues themselves are eventually replaced by silica - none of the original material is preserved. During recrystallization, the calcite comprising a shell is gradually dissolved, to be replaced with more calcite (with larger crystals). Pyritization is the deposition of a protective layer of pyrite over an object, usually a shell. 13. permineralization, petrification, recrystallization, and pyritization. 14. FALSE; Jean Baptiste de Monet de Lamarck believed the concept of species extinction to be invalid. 15. Galapagos Islands; On the Origin of Species. 16. A gastrolith is a rock from the gizzard of a large herbivorous dinosaur. Coprolites are comprised of fossilized fecal matter. 17. solar energy (the sun), primary producers (plants), primary consumers (herbivores), secondary consumers (carnivores), decomposers (bacteria, maggots, carrion feeders). 18. Charles Darwin believed that individual traits could be inherited, and that environmental factors (such as climate, food, oxygen, predation, competition, and disease) determined which individuals survived to reproduce (and pass on their genes). This system (natural selection) resulted in the continuation of the attributes most suited to the surrounding environment, and the “survival of the fittest” individuals. 19. FALSE; Cuvier attempted (and failed) to use his field, comparative anatomy, to oppose Lamarck’s budding theories. 20. Erasmus Darwin; Jean Baptiste de Monet de Lamarck. 21. A species is a group of individuals with identical or nearly identical anatomy (excepting sex differences) that is distinct from that of other groups. Individuals within a species are able to interbreed and produce fertile, viable offspring. 22. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. 23. E (the Wallace-Darwin Theory). 24. When similar creatures look different because they adapted to different environments, this is known as adaptive radiation (divergence). When different creatures look similar because they adapted to the same environment, this is known as adaptive convergence. 25. disease, predator introduction, climate change, catastrophe, and food-supply loss. 26. adaptive radiation (divergence), adaptive convergence, and extinction. 27. the branching organization of life, comparative anatomy (homologous and vestigial organs), embryology, geographic distribution of species, fossils, and genetics.