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Transcript
Study Guide for Chapter 7 – DNA
The following questions all concern things we’ve read about in the text, discussed in class,
watched in movies, worked on with models or activities, or completed on worksheets. Please...
- Study the notes we took in class
- Reread chapter selections
- Study worksheets we never collected, which you graded yourself in class.
These are SOME questions you should be able to answer if you have been studying.
(10-15 minutes EVERY NIGHT is all it takes to be an expert)
What is DNA? What does DNA stand for?
What are the two main purposes of DNA?
What is a nucleotide? What are the three basic parts of a nucleotide?
What are the four different bases that are used to make nucleotide “rungs”?
What is Chargaff’s rule?
What did Rosalind Franklin discover?
What did Watson and Crick discover about the shape/structure of DNA? How did they arrive at
their hypothesis?
What is a double helix? What is a 7th grade way of saying double helix?
What does complementary mean?
Why does Adenine only pair with Thymine, and Guanine only pair with Cytosine?
Why do you think it is important that the twisted ladder is the same thickness throughout?
What does replicate mean?
What is a template?
How does DNA replicate? Describe the process.
What is chromatin? What is a chromatid? What is a chromosome?
Replication involves making a copy. The copies are identical. But they’re also different - how?
What is a gene?
How is a gene like a recipe in a cookbook?
What is mRNA? What does the “m” stand for?
What role does mRNA play in protein synthesis? Why does a cell use mRNA, and not use
other methods to make proteins?
What is a ribosome?
What is tRNA? What does the “t” stand for?
What role does tRNA play in protein synthesis?
What is a codon?
Why does the language of DNA use three letter words, and not two letter words or one letter
words?
What is uracil? What is its purpose?
How is a protein constructed? What are amino acids?
Why do proteins have three dimensional shapes, instead of just staying as a long, straight string
of amino acids?
What is a mutation? What is a mutagen?
What are three things that can happen if the sequence of bases on DNA is changed?
NOTE: Please understand that this is not guaranteed to be a complete list of questions or
vocabulary words. If it was discussed in class, notes, worksheets, readings, etc. it
can show up on a test or quiz.
MORE ON NEXT PAGE
Study Guide for Chapter 6 – HEREDITY / MEIOSIS
The following questions all concern things we’ve read about in the text, discussed in class,
watched in movies, worked on with models or activities, or completed on worksheets. Please...
- Study the notes we took in class
- Reread chapter selections
- Study worksheets we never collected, which you graded yourself in class.
These are SOME questions you should be able to answer if you have been studying.
(10-15 minutes EVERY NIGHT is all it takes to be an expert)
1) What is heredity? What is genetics?
2) What is blended inheritance? Why did we used to believe that blended inheritance was the
way things worked?
3) Who was Gregor Mendel? What did he do that helped genetics?
4) What is cross-pollination? What is self-pollination?
5) What is pollen? What is an ovule?
6) What are the different parts of the female flower? The parts of the male flower?
7) What benefits does self-pollination give you? What detriments does self-pollination provide?
8) What does true-breeding mean, in terms of self-pollination?
9) What is a characteristic? What is a trait? Are they the same, or are they different?
10) Why did Mendel want to use true-breeding plants?
11) How did Mendel stop plants from cross pollinating?
12) What are first generation plants?
13) What did Mendel discover when he bred purple, true-breeding plants with white truebreeding plants? How did he explain why blended inheritance didn’t work?
14) What does dominant mean? Recessive?
15) What happened when Mendel bred first generation plants to produce a second generation?
16) How does this support his theory of heredity?
17) What is a ratio?
18) What is the expected ratio of purple to white flowers when you breed true-breeding purple to
true-breeding white flowers? Why?
19) What is the expected ratio of purple to white flowers when you breed ist generation hybrids
to each other? Why?
20) What were Mendel’s conclusions about inheritance? (reread page 179)
21) What are genes? What are alleles?
22) What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
23) What does homozygous mean? What does heterozygous mean?
24) What is a “hybrid”?
25) Practice using a Punnett Square, and figuring out the ratio of dominant to recessive traits.
26) What is genetic variation? Why is it so important?
27) What does diploid mean? What does haploid mean?
28) What is meiosis? How is it the same as mitosis? How is it different from mitosis?
29) How does meiosis help support Mendel’s understanding of heredity?
30) TOUGH QUESTION: In order for a species to slowly change (evolve), beneficial mutations
must alter DNA in the cells of an organism, which can then pass on those changes to the
next generation. Which cells would be the most effective in helping evolution occur? Why?
NOTE: Please understand that this is not guaranteed to be a complete list of questions or
vocabulary words. If it was discussed in class, notes, worksheets, readings, etc. it
can show up on a test or quiz.