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Transcript
Pages 17-36
CNS
“TOM”
Butyrophenone
Atypical D4
Flumazenil
Methylphenidate
Phenytoin
Thiopental
Carbamazepine
Atypical D4-r
Pimozide
Risperidone
Thioridazine
Haloperidol
Imirpamine
Clomirpramine
Trazadone
Bupropion
SSRIs
Fluoxetine
Phenelzine
Lithium
Alprazolam
Propranolol
-r
-r
Morphine & O2
Morphine
Morphine OD
Meperidine
Hydromorphone
Tramadol
Naloxone
Pentazocine
Butorphenol
Nalbuphene
 GABA
 Fast Na Ch.
Methoxyflurane
Enflurane
Isoflurane
Halothane
Nitric Oxide
Thiopental
Kentamine
Droperidol
Fentanyl
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Short –acting BDZs:
Triazolam
Onazelam
Midazolam
Haloperidol & Droperidol
6.
Clozapine – Thioridazine – Olanzepine – Risperidone = Do not cause EPS
7.
BDZ antidote for OD
8.
Txt attention deficit disorder
9.
Causes aplastic anemia/ gingival hyperplasia/ cleft lip & palate
10. Short acting Barb
11.
DOC trigeminal neuralgia. Txt lennox gestaut seizures in kids
12. Thioridazine; Olamzapine; Clozapine
13. Txt Tourette’s
14. Good for negative symptoms
15. Most anti cholinergic neuroleptic
16. Neuroleptic malignant hyperthermia due to chronic D2 block. give Dantrolene and Bromocriptine
17. Enurisis
18. Txt OCD See aggressive behavior w/ use
19. Priapism
20. Helps to quit smoking
21. Primarily used for OCD
22. Good for negative symptoms
23. Irreversible MAOI
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Txt manic phase of Bipolar Disorder
Causes goiter by (-) conversion of T4 to T3
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Low salt diet will lead to Li toxicity
DOC stage fright
29. Social phobia
30. Spinal analgesia. Euphoria. ++euphoria. ++sedation. Constipation.
31. Supraspinal analgesia. Dysphoria. +respiratory depression. +sedation.
32. Admin. is contraindicated to pts on morphine sedation=  CO2 sensitivity and O2 admin. can stop breathing.
33.  ICP = do not give to pt. with head trauma
34. 1.pinpoint pupils 2.’d respiraiton 3.coma
35. Anesthetic used during labor
36. (+) used in renal failure
37. Ambulatory txt for mod. to severe pain
38. Txt opioid OD. Reverses respiratory depression
39. Part (+) & part (-)
40. Part (+) & part (-)
41. Part (+) & part (-)
42.  seizure focus= Barbs & BDZs
43.  electrical activity spread = Phenytoin & Carbamazepine
44. Can be nephrotoxic. Needs low MAC for anesthetic induction.
45. Can cause tonic/clonic muscle spasms
46. Can cause bronchospasm
47. Can cause ventricular extrasystoles & Malignant hyperthermia & Hepatitis
48. No effect on HR. Needs high MAC for anesthetic induction.
49. Short acting Barb.
50. Dissociative anesthetic
51. Can be used in combo w/ Fentanyl for neuroleptoanalgesic effect
52. Neuroleptic tranquilizer. Has mild alpha block
53. Can be used on combo w/ Droperidol for neuroleptoanalgesic effect
Page 1
Midazolam
Primidone
C & A delta Fibers
Esters
Amides
Amphetamine
Bromocriptine
Benztropine
Amantidine
Diphenhydramine
Pergolide
Ethosuximide
Tranylcypromine
SSRI & MAOI
Labor opioids
Desipramine causes
54. Used transdermally for chronic pain
55. Pre anesthetic. Induces amnesia
56. Biotransformed to Phenobarb.
57. First fibers to be blocked w/ anesthesia
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
Procaine, Tetracaine, Benzocaine
Broken down and make PABA (allergen)
Lidocaine, Mepivaciane, Bupivaciane, Etidocaine= “i” before “caine” always an amide
Metabolized in the liver
DA reuptake (-)’r. MAOI. Parkinson’s txt
63. D2(+). Used w/ L-Dopa for “on-off” phenomenon of Parkinson’s
64. Ant M w/ some DA reuptake (-). Parkinson’s txt
65.  DA reuptake. Can cause livido reticularis= skin mottling.
66. Txt early Parkinson’s stages
67. > Effective & longer acting than Bromocriptine
68. DOC for Absence seizures
69. MAOI = antidepressant
70. Fatal combo, especially seen with the use of Paroxetine or Fluoxetine (SSRIs) and Tranylcypromine (MAOI)
71. Meperidine & Nalbuphine
72. Sudden cardaic death in children
Anti-Infective
1.
2.
3.
Malaria profylaxis
Used for extraerythrocytic forms Plasmodium vivax or P. ovale
Quinolone derivative
Hepatic coma DOC
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Clavulanic acid
12.
Piperacillin
13.
14.
15.
PABA structural analogs
Inhibit Folic acid synthesis
Should not be used in anuric pt due to production of (-) Nitrogen balance & d BUN levels.
Doxycycline is the exception
3rd generation cephalosporin
DOC for bacterial meningitis in kids (ie… HiB)
One dose txt of gonorrhea
Neomycin (aminoglycoside) – it supresses the normal flora = g NH4 production = g free
nitrogen levels in the bloodstream.
Irreversible (-)r of  lactamases, but ot of transpeptidase = use w/ a  lactamase sensitive
penicillin
Txt Pseudomonas aeruginosa & Klebsiella
Broad spectrum antibiotic
Txt Mycobacterium tuberculosis
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
Most commonly used drug for TB.
Usually combined w/ Rifampin and/or Ethambutol
Pre Txt w/ Pyridoxine (Vit B6) can prevent peripheral neuritis‘
Txt of Hookworm disease
Depolarizing NMJ (-)r
A = Aminoglycosides
T = Tetracyclines
C = Chloramphenicol
E = Erythromycin (macrolide)
L = Clindamycin
L = Lincomycin
Txt intraabdominal infections (ie… w/ Bacteroides fragilis)
Traditional txt has been Clindamycin & Gentamycin
Broad spectrum antibiotic
Bone marrow depression (common) – Aplastic anemia (rare)
Gray baby syndrome (chloramphenicol cannot be conjugated)
DOC Typhoid Fever (symptomatic Salmonella infection)
DOC HiB meningitis in kids – especially resistant strain to ampicillin
Txt trypanosomiasis
Primaquine
Ciporfloxacin
Sulfonamides
Tertacyclines, anuria & the exception
Ceftriazone
Streptomycin (aminoglycoside)
Isoniazid
Pyrantel Pamoate
Buy “AT” 30, “CELL” at 50
Cefoxitin
Chloramphenicol
Nifurtimox
Metronidazole
35. Txt Leishmaniasis & Amebiasis
Page 2
Txt P. carinii
Tetracycline
TMP-SMX
Benzathine Penicillin G
Praziquantel
Melarsoprol
Stibogluconate
Fluconazole
Amphotericin B
Ketoconazole MOA
Griseofulvin MOA
Mefloquine
36.
37.
38.
39.
Good for anaerobic bacteria = Bacteroides fragilis
DOC Trichomoniasis
DOC Giardia lamblia
TMP-SMX & Pentamidine
40.
41.
42.
43.
Txt of Brucellosis & Cholera
Txt Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
Txt spirochete infections = Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
(-) dihydrofolate reductase activity
44. Long duration of action = given once every 3-4 weeks for Txt of Syphilis
45. Txt Schistosomiasis (trematode [fluke] infections)
46. Txt Trypanosomiasis that has neurological symptoms
47. Txt Leishmaniasis
48. Txt fungal encephalitis
49. Polyene antifingal
50. (-) fungal ergosterol synthesis = disrupts membrane
51. Accumulates in keratinized layers of the skin = used in dermatomycoses infections
52. Anti malarial
53. Txt Chloroquine resistant strains = P. falciparum
54. Txt for Malaria when inside RBC
Chloroquine
Nifurtimox
Erythromycin
Nystatin
Acyclovir
55. DOC Chagas disease due to Trypanosoma cruzi
56. Used in pts allergic to penicillins
57. Topical txt of superficial mycotic infections = Candidiasis
Imipenem
Cefoperazone side effects
Vancomycin
Meropenem
Nafcillin
Peripheral neuropathy
Sulfonamides & newborns
“O.N.E.” for gonorrhea
Ribavirin
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
Guanine analog
Txt Herpes infections
Used w/ Cilastatin
Can cause seizures
Bleeding due to vit K level alterations
Contraindicated in pts w/ bleeding disorders
Used for MRSS (methicillin resistant Staph. Aureus)
“Red neck”: due to histamine release causes facial flushing
used w/ Cilastatin
Does not cause seizures (cf w/ Imipenem)
Only penicillin that does not need dose adjustment in renal impairment
69. Seen w/ use of:
70. Metronidazole – Isoniazid – Vincristine – ddI – AZT – Allopurinol
71. Kernicterus can occur
72.
73.
74.
75.
76.
Fluoroquinolones used in a one dose deal for gonorrhea:
O = Ofloxacin
N = Norfloxacin
E = Enoxacin
Txt RSV (Respiratory Syncytial Virus)
Anti-Neoplastics
Cyclosporine
Cyclophosphamide
Cisplatin’s toxicities
Methotrexate
Leucovorin Rescue
Bleomycin toxicities
Azathiorine
MOPP
77.
78.
79.
80.
81.
Protects against rejections from organ transplants
Does not induce bone marrow depression
Alkylating agent of both purine & pyrimidine bases of DNA
Txt CLL
Nephro- & Ototoxicity
82. Antimetabolite of folic acid: (-)dihydrofolate reductase
83. Can block/reduce Methotrexate =  folic acid via a reduced folate
84. Pneumonitis & pulmonary fibrosis
85.
86.
87.
88.
89.
90.
Used in organ transplantation = kidney allografts
Allopurinol can  its activity by (-) its biotransformation to xanthine oxidase
Chemotherapy used in the txt of Hodgkin’s disease
M = Mechlorethamine – nitrogen mustard
O = Oncovin (Vincristine) – prevents microtubule assembly
P = Procarbazine
Page 3
Tamoxifen
Flutamide
Megestrol
Fluoxymesterone
Methotrexate
Brain tumor Txt
Streptozocin
Cytarabine (AraC)
Dactinomycin
Etoposide
Paclitaxel
Amifostine
91.
92.
93.
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
99.
100.
101.
102.
103.
104.
105.
106.
107.
108.
109.
110.
P = Prednisone – glucocorticoid, inducing apoptosis
(-) estrogen receptor
Txt of breast tumors, can see associated endometrial CA
Antiandrogenic
Used w/ Leuprolide (LH-RH analog)
Txt prostatic CA
(-) progesterone receptor
Txt endometrial CA
Androgenic steroid
Txt mammary CA in postmenopausal women
Folic acid analog that (-) tetrahydrofolate synthesis by (-) dihydrofolate reductase
Txt of ALL
Txt of Psoriasis
Lomustine
Carmustine – Causes pulmonary fibrosis
Attaches to  cells
Txt of pancreatic insulinomas
Pyrimidine analog
DOC for AML
Used for Wilms tumor & rhabdomyosarcoma
111. Used for oat cell CA
112. Used for ovarian CA
113. Can  nephrotoxicity due to chronic use of Cisplatin
Path
Mobitz I
Mobitz II
P wave
a wave
T wave
Wavy fibers
Janeway’s lesions
Osler’s nodes
Thiamine defcy
Fibrinous Pericarditis
Serous Pericarditis
Friction Rub
Hemorrhagic Pericarditis
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
PML’s infectious agent
Edema
Adult Polycystic Kidney
Disease
Malignant HTN & Kidneys
Nephritic signs
Nephrotic signs
114. Usually due to inferior MI. Rarely goes into 3rd degree block.
115. Txt w/ Atropine or Isoproterenol.
116. BBB association. Often goes to 3rd degree AV block. Usually due to anterior MI.
117. Atrial depol.
118. LA contraction
119. Vetricular repol.
120. Eosinophilic bands of necrotic myocytes. Early sign of MI.
121.
122.
123.
124.
125.
126.
127.
128.
Acute bacterial endocarditis.
Nontender, erythematous lesions of palms & soles.
Subacute bacterial endocarditis.
Tender lesions of fingers & toes.
Wet Beri Beri heart. Dilated (congested) cardiomyopathy due to chronic alcohol consumption
Dyr Beri Beri = peripheral neuropathy
Wernicke-Korsakoff = ataxia; confusion; confabulation; memory loss
Associated w/ MI: Dressler’s
129. Associated w/ nonbacterial; viral (Coxsackie) infection; immunologic reaction.
130. Pericarditis association
131. Associated w/ TB or neoplasm
132.
133.
134.
135.
Aka infiltrative cardiomyopathy that stiffens the heart
Due to amyloidosis in the elderly
Due to , also see schaumann & asteroid bodies in young (<25 yoa).
JC Virus (Papovavirus = dsDNA, naked icosahedral capsid)
136.
137.
138.
139.
140.
141.
Pc (more seeps out)
c (less reabsorbed)
 permeability
Block lymphatic drainage
Commonly see liver cysts & Berry aneurysms along w/ kidney cysts. Hematuria & HTN also present.
3 cysts in ea. Kidney w/ + family history confirms diagnosis
142. Petehial hemorrhages are seen on kidney surfaces = Flea-Bitten surface = young black men
143. Hematuria; RBC casts; HTN
144. Proteinuria; Hypoalbuminemia; Edema
Page 4
Podocyte Effacement seen w/
ASO seen in
Crescentic GN
Hereditary Nephritis
Membranoproliferative GN
TypeI Membrano
Proliferative GN deposits
TypeII Membrano
Proliferative GN deposits
Focal segmental
glomerulosclerosis deposits
Cold agglutinins
Scrofula
Aspirin-Asthma Triad
Ferruginous bodies
Pancoast’s tumor causes
Fatty degeneration
Cloudy swelling
Hydropic degeneration
Liquefaction necrosis
Coagulation necrosis
Caseation necrosis
Fibrinoid necrosis
Fat necrosis
Hemoptysis
Pulmonary embolism
Phlebothrombosis
Saddle embolus
Paradoxical embolism
Tuberculoid granuloma
Cellulitis
PSA
5-HT
 Feto Protein
CEA
Chromosome 13
Chromosome 11p
Vinyl Chloride
145. Minimal Change (Lipoid nephrosis) disease
146.
147.
148.
149.
150.
151.
152.
153.
154.
Acute post-streptococcal GN (due to HGASrtep)
Anti streptolysin O
Rapidly progressive GN – nephritic syndrome
Associated w/ multi system disease or post-strep/post infectious glomerular nephritis
Alport’s syndrome. X linked
Renal disease w/ deafness & ocualr abnormalities
Can be secondary to complement deficiency; chronic infections; CLL
See tram tracking
C3 & IgG deposits
155. Only C3 deposits
156. Aka Dense deposit disease
157. IgM & C3 deposits
158. Seen in atypical pneumonia
159. It is IgM Ab with specificity for I Ag on adult RBCs
160. TB in the lymph nodes
161. Nasal polyps – Rhinitis – bronchoconstriction
162. Hemosiderin (pigment w/ Fe3-) covered macrophages that have been pahgocytised
163. Ulnar nerve pain & Horner’s syndrome
164.
165.
166.
167.
168.
169.
170.
171.
172.
173.
174.
175.
176.
177.
178.
179.
180.
181.
182.
Made up primarily of triglycerides
Most commonly due to alcoholism which commonly leads to hepatic cirrhosis
Associated w/ CCl4Failure of cellular Na pump
Seen in Fatty degeneration of the liver and in Hydropic (Vacuolar) degeneration of the liver
Severe form of cloudy swelling
Seen with hypokalemia induced by vomitting/diarrhea
Rapid enzymatic break down of lipids
Seen commonly in Brain & Spinal cord (CNS) injuries
Seen in suppurative infections = pus formation
Result of sudden ischemia
Seen in organs w/ end arteries limited collateral circulation) = heart, lung, kidney, spleen
Combination of both coagulation & liquefaction necrosis
Seen w/ M. tuberculosis & Histoplasma capsulatum infection
Seen in the walls of small arteries
Associated w/ malignant hypertension, polyarteritis nodosa, immune mediated vasculitis
Result of lipase actions liberated from pancreatic enzymes
Seen w/ Acute pancreatitis = saponification results
Blood in sputum
183. Most commonly thrombus from lower extremity vein
184.
185.
186.
187.
188.
189.
190.
191.
192.
From a vein of lower extremities, of a pregnant uterus, in Congestive heart failure, bed ridden pt,
As a complicaiton in a pt w/ Pancreatic CA due to d blood coagulability
Embolus lodged in bifurcation of pulmonary trunks
 RV strain = RV & RA dilate = Acute cor Pulmonale
Right to Left shunt allows a venous embolism to enter arterial circulation
Patent ovale foramen or Atrial septal defect
Collection of macrophages w/o caseation
Seen w/ Sarcoidosis (non-caseating); Syphilis; Brucellosis and Leprotic infections
Spreading infection due to streptococcus
193. Prostate Specific Antigen = elevated in prostatic CA
194. In cases of metastatic carcinoid, txt w/ Methysergide (5HT antagonist)
195. Hepatocarcinoma
196. Neural tube defects
197. Carcinoembryonic Antigen = elevated in Colon CA
198. Retinoblastoma
199. Wilms tumor of the kidney
200. Associated w/ Angiosarcoma of the liver
Page 5
Agent Orange
Parasites & CA
Ochronosis
Lead poisoning
Heroin OD, clinically
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Atypical mycobacterium
Cold abscesses
Actinomyces isrealli
Congenital Syphilis
Warthin-Finkeledy cells
Diphyllobothrium latum
Subacute Bacterial
Endocarditis
Acute Bacterial Endocarditis
Mitral Insufficiency
Left Anterior Descending
branch
Left Circumflex branch
Dissecting Aneurysm
Cor Pulmonale
Acute Cor Pulmonale
Bronchopneumonia
Lobar pneumonia
Bronchiectasis
Cold Agglutinins
Panlobular Emphysema
Bulla
Farmer’s Lung
Bagassosis
Silo-Filler’s Lung
201. Contains dioxin
202. Implicated as a cause of Hodgkin;s disease, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma & soft tissue sarcomas
203. Schistosoma haematobium = Urinary bladder CA
204. S. mansoni = Colon CA
205. Aspergillus flavus = potent hepatocarcinogen
206. Alkaptonuria
207. Error in tyrosine metabolism due to Homogentisic acid (oxidizes tyrosine)
208. Involving intervertebral disks = Ankylosing Spondilitis = Poker spine
209. See dark urine; dark coloration of sclera, tendons, cartilage
210. Acid fast inclusion bodies
211.  urinary coproprophyrin
212. Anemia: microcytic/ hypochromic
213. Stippling of the basophils
214. Gingival line & lead line in bones: x-ray
215. Mental retardation
216. Massive pulmonary edema w/ frothy fluid from the nostrils
217. Small head, small eyes, funnel chest, ASD, mental deficiency, and hirsutism
218. M. kanasasii & M. avium intracellulare
219. Liquefied TB lesions similar to pyogenic abscesses but lacking acute inflammation
220. Farmers infection
221. Lumpy jaw (from chewing grain) & PID (IUD), but most common is due to saprophyticus
222. Saddle nose, Saber shin, Hutchinson’s teeth, nerve deafness, interstitial keratitis
223. Reticuloendothelial giant cells on tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen
224. Seen with Rubeola (measles) due to paramyxovirus
225. Tapeworm infection causing megaloblastic anemia by consuming large amount of vit B12 in the host
226.  Hemolytic Streptococci (S. viridans) = usually in pt w/ pre-existing heart problem
227. Staph aureus,  Hemolytic Streptococci, E. coli
228. Common among drug addicts & diabetics
229. Ruptured papillary muscle
230. Branch of the Left Coronary artery
231. Highest frequency of thrombotic occlusion
232. MI = anterior wall of the LV, especially in apical part of interventricular septum
233. Branch of the Left Coronary artery
234. Occlusion = MI of posterior/lateral wall of the LV
235. False aneurysm: it is splitting of the media of the aorta
236. Usually accompanied w/ long history of severe hypertension, also seen w/ familial hyperlipidemia,
atherosclerotic disease, Marfan’s Collagen disease
237. Zones of medial necrosis +/- slitlike cysts = Medial Cystic Necrosis of Erdheim
238. Right ventricular strain, associated w/ right ventricular hypertrophy
239. Sudden right ventricular strain due to a massive pulmonary embolism
240. Lobular (rather than lobar)
241. Due to Staph aureus; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Klebsiella; E. coli
242. Abscess formation is common
243. Due to Strep. Pneumoniae infection (5% due to Klebsiella)
244. Red Hepatization: days 1-3 of the pneumonia
245. Gray Hepatization: days 3-8 of untreated pneumonia
246. Complicaitons: pleural effusion; atelectasia; fibrinous pleuritis; empyema; fibrinous pericarditis; otitis
media
247. Permanent dilatation of the bronchi – predisposed by chronic sinusitis and post nasal drip
248. Supparation associated
249. Lower lobe > than upper lobe involvement
250. Found w/ Mycoplasma pneumoniae
251. 1 – antitrypsin deficiency, causing elastase  =  compliance in the lung
252. Associated w/ Emphysema = “Bleb” = outpouching - If it ruptures causes Pneumothorax
253. Due to Micropolyspora faeni (thermophilic actinomycetes)
254. Due to M. vulgaris (actinomycetes)
255. Inhalation of sugar cane dust
256. Due to Nitrogen dioxide from nitrates in corn
Page 6
G6PDH Deficiency
HbF 
Multiple Myeloma
Hodgkin’s Disease
Polyarteritis Nodosa
Sprue
Regional Enteritis
Whipple’s Disease
Kulchitsky cells
Ulcerative Colitis
Vaginal Adenosis
Scirrhous Carcinoma
Hofbauer Cells
Retinopathy of Prematurity
IgA deficiency
Priamry Sjorgen’s
Secondary Sjorgen’s
LDH1 & LDH2
LDH3
LDH4 & LDH5
Keratomalacia
Metabisfite Test
Microangiopathic Hemolytic
Anemia
Wright’s stain
Mononucleosis
T(8;14)
T(9;22)
Langerhan Cell Histiocytosis
Myeloid Metaplasia
Multiple Myeloma
T(14;18)
Focal Segmental GN exs
Nephrotic Syndrome exs
Schistosoma Haematobium
257. Sex-linked chronic hemolytic anemia w/o challenge or after eating fava beans
258. Heinz Bodies appear in RBCs
259. Sickle Cell Anemia
260. Lytic lesions of flat bones (“salt & pepper lesions”) = vertebrae, ribs, skull; Hypercalcemia; BenceJones protein casts
261. Malignant neoplasm of the lymph nodes causing pruritis; fever = looks like an acute infection
262. Reed Sternberg cells
263. Immune complex disease of Ag-Ab complexes on blood vessel wall
264. Half of the immune complexes have Hepatitis B Ag
265. Can see fever; abd.pain;  wt; HTN; muscle aches
266. Celiac disease due to a gluten-induced enteropathy = small intestine villi are blunted
267. High titers of anti-gliadin Abs &  IgA levels
268. Crohn’s Disease
269. Association w/ Arthritis; Uveitis; Erythema Nodosum
270. Intestinal Lipodystrophy = malabsorption syndrome
271. Neural cest cells from which carcinoids arise = of the Bronchi; GIT; Pancreas
272. Inflammatory disease of the colon w/  colon CA incidence
273. Crypt abscess in the crypts of Lieberkuhn
274. Pseudopolyps when ulcers are deep
275. Not transmural involvement
276. Women exposed to DES (Diethylstilbesterol) in utero before the 18 th week of pregnancy
277. Some develop clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina & cervix
278. Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma w/ fibrosis – most common type of breast carcinoma
279. Lipid laden macrophages seen in villi of Erythroblastosis Fetalis
280. Retrolental Fibroplasia = cause of bindness in premies due to high O2 concentrations
281. Pt has recurrent infections & diarrhea w/  respiratory tract allergy & autoimmune diseases
282. If given blood w/ IgA = develop severe, fatal anaphylaxis reaction
283. Dry eyes & dry mouth, arthritis.  risk for B cell lymphoma. HLA-DR3 frequent. Autoimmune disease.
284. Rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, or systemic sclerosis association
285. RA association shows HLA-DR4
286. Myocardium. LDH1 higher than LDH2 = Myocardial Infarction
287. Lung tissue
288. Liver cells
289. Severe Vit A deficiency. See Bitot’s spots in the eyes = gray plaques = thickened, keratinized ET
290. Suspending RBCs in a low O2 content solution
291. Can detect Hemoglobin S, which sickles in low O2
292. Can be due to Hemolyitc Uremic Syndrome & Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
293. See Helmet cells
294. Stain for Burkitt’s lymphoma
295. Due to EBV infeciton
296. If Mono is treated w/ Ampicillin, thinking that it is a strep pharyngitis, a rash will occur.
297. Burkitt’s lymphoma = c-myc oncogene overexpression
298. CML = c-abl/bcr gene formation = Philadelphia translocation
299. Letter Siwe syndrome; Hand Schuller Christian Disease; Eosinophilic Granuloma
300. Birbeck granules are present = tennis racket shape
301. Alkaline phosphatase /normal compare to CML = low to absent
302. Anemia; splenomegaly; platelets > 1 million = extensive extra-medullary hematopoiesis
303. Weakness; wt. loss; recurrent infection; proteinuria; anemia;  proliferation of plasma cells in BM =
plasma cell dx
304. Serum M protein spike – most often of IgG or IgA
305. Hypercalcemia ( bone destruction)
306. NH Lymphoma = bcl2 proto-oncogene overexpression seen w/ Small Cleaved Cell (Follicualr) Lymphoma
307. IgA Focal GN = Berger’s disease; SLE; PAN; Schonlein-Henoch purpura (anaphylactoid purpura)
308. Focal (Segmental) GN; Membranous GN; Lipoid (Minimal Change) GN; Membranoproliferative GN; Hep
B; Syphilis; Penicillamine
309. Infection is assocaited w/ Squamous cell CA of the Bladder (most common Bladder CA is transitional
cell type)
310. Associated w/ portal HTN due to intrahepatic obstruction
Page 7
Penicillin Resistant PID
Duret Hemorrhages
Hypertensive Hemorrhage
Cerebral Embolism from
Neurosyphilis
5pTrisomy 13
Acute Cold Agglutinaiton
Chronic Cold Agglutinaiton
RBC Osmotic Fragility
Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas
Singer’s Nodules
Paraseptal emphysema
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
Betel nuts
Fundal (Type A) Gastritis
Antral (Type B) Gastritis
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
Acute Pancreatitis
Radiating Back Pain
Complete Hydatidiform Mole
Partial Hydatidiform Mole
Cold Nodules
Acidophils
Basophils
Lacunar Strokes
CSF of Bacterial Meningitis
CSF of Viral Meningitis
Marble Bone Disease
C5a
C3b
Anaphylotoxins
Vasoactive Mediators
Platelet Aggregation
Platelet Antagonist
Intrinsic Pathway
Extrinsic Pathway
311. PID is usually due to N. Gonorrhoeae, but if unresponsive to penicillin think of Bacteroides species
312. Severe  in ICP w/ downward diplacement of cerebellar tonsils into Foramen Magnum causing a
compression on the brainstem w/ hemorrhaging into the pons & midbrain
313. Nearly always associated w/ death due to damage to the vital centers in these areas
314. Predilection for lenticulostriate arteries = putamen & internal capsule hemorrhages
315. MI w/ Mural Thrombi; Atrial Fib Thrombi = Marantic thrombi; L-sided Bacterial Endocarditis;
Paradoxical Embolism of septal defect
316. Tabes Dorsalis =  joint position sensation,  pain sensation, ataxia, Argyl Robertson pupils
317. Syphilitic meningitis
318. Paretic neurosyphilis
319. Cri di Chat: mental retardation; small head; wide set eyes; low set ears; cat-like cry
320. Patau’s: small head & eyes; cleft lip & palate; many fingers
321. Abs to I blood group Ag. Mediated by IgM Abs
322. Complication of EBV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections
323. Associated w/lymphoid neoplasms. See agglutination & hemolysis in tissue exposed to cold. IgM Abs
324. Hereditary Spherocytosis
325. Small Lymphocytic: low grade B cell lymphoma of the elderly. Related to CLL.
326. Small Cleaved cell (Follicualr): low grade B cell lymphoma of the elderly. T(14;18) bcl-2 oncogene
327. Large Cell
328. Lymphoblastic: high grade T cell lymphoma of kids progressing to T-ALL
329. Small Non Cleaved = Burkitt’s: high grade B cell lymphoma. EBV infection. Starry sky histo
appearance. T(8;14) c-myc proto-oncogene. Related to B-ALL
330. Benign laryngeal polyps associated w/ smoking & overuse of the voice
331. Associated w/ blebs (large subpleural bullae) that can rupture and cause pneumothorax
332. Obstructed due to bronchogenic carcinoma. Causing swollen face & cyanosis.
333. Associated to oral cancer.
334. Antibodies to parietal cells; pernicious anemia; autoimmune diseases
335. Associated w/ Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori infection. 90% of duodenal ulcer
336. Autoimmune origin; middle aged women; anti-mitochondrial Abs
337. Jaundice; itching; hypercholesterolemia (can see cutaneous xanthomas)
338.  pancreatic enzymes = fat necrosis; sapponification = hypocalcemia;  serum amylase
339. Severe epigastric ab pain; prostration; radiation to the back
340. Chronic pancreatitis
341. No embryo. Paternal derivation only. 46XX
342. Embryo. 2 or more sprems fertilized 1 ovum: triploidy/tetraploidy occurs
343. Hypoplastic Goiter nodules that do not take up radio active iodine. [Opposite: hot & do take up iodine]
344. Mammotrophs = Prolactin
345. Somatotrophs = GH
346. Thyrotrophs = TSH
347. Gonadotrophs = LH
348. Corticotrophs = ACTH & FSH
349. Small/focal aa occlusions. Purely motor or sensory.
350. Sensory: lesion of thalamus
351. Motor: lesion of internal capsule
352.  Glucose;  Protein;  Neutrophils;  Pressure
353. Normal Glucose; +/- Protein;  Lymphocytes
354. Osteoporosis: Albers-Schonberd Disease = inspite of d bone density, many fractures =  osteoclasts
355. Involved in Chemotaxis (for Neutrophils)
356. Involved in Opsonization (& IgG)
357. C3a & C5a (mediate Histamine release from Basophils & Mast cells)
358. Vasoconstriction: TxA2; LTC4; LTD4; LTE4; PAF
359. Vasodilation: PGI2; PGD2; PGE2; PGF2; Bradykinin; PAF
360. d Vascular Permeability: Hist.; 5HT; PGD2; PGE2; PGF2; LTC4; LTD4; LTE4; Bradykinin; PAF
361. ADP; Thrombin; TxA2; collagen; Epinephrine; PAF
362. Prostacyclin (PGI2)
363. F XII (Hagman): APTT
364. F VII: PT
Page 8
Lines of Zahn
Currant Jelly appearance
Emigration: Chemotaxis
Transudate
Exudate
Hurler’s
Galactosemia
Phenylketonuria
Autosomal Dominant Diseases
Autosomal Recessive Diseases
X Linked Recessive Diseases
Hypersensitivity Reactions
“ACID”
Transplant Rejections
Blood Metastasis
Lymph Metastasis
Aflatoxin
Cleft Lip
Cleft Palate
Craniopharyngioma
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus
365. Aterial thrombi = pale red colored (dark red is venous thrombi)
366. Post mortem clots
367. Margination
368. Pavementing
369. Adhesion
370. Chemotaxis
371. Phagocytosis
372. Intracellular microbial killing
373. Specific gravity < 1.012 – low protein
374. Specific gravity > 1.020 – high protein
375. Lysosomal storage disease
 L Iduronidase – Heparan/Dermatan Sulfate accumulation
376. Deficiency of Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyl Transferase.  Galactose 1 Phosphate
377. Deficiency: Phenylalanine Hydroxylase.  Phenyalanine & degradation products
378. Mousy body odor
379. Adult Poly Cystic Kidney Disease
380. Familial Hypercholestrolemia Disease
381. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telengectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu)
382. Hereditary Spherocytosis
383. Huntington’s Disease (chromosome 4p)
384. Marfan’s Syndrome
385. Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen’s)
386. Tuberous Sclerosis
387. Von Hippel Lindau Disease
388. Tay-Sachs
389. Gaucher’s
390. Niemann-Pick
391. Hurler’s
392. Von Gierke’s
393. Pompe’s
394. Cori’s
395. McArdle’s
396. Galactosemia
397. PKU
398. Alcaptonuria
399. Hunter’s Syndrome (L-Iduronosulfate Sulfatase deficincy,  Heparan/Dermatan Sulfate)
400. Fabry’s Disease ( Galactosidase A deficiency,  Ceremide Trihexoside)
401. Classic Hemophilia A (Factor VIII deficiency, F8 Gene on X chromosome is bad,  Ceremide Trihexoside)
402. Lisch-Nyhan Syndrome (HGPRT deficiency,  Uric acid)
403. G6Phosphatase deficiency (G6PDH deficiency,  Ceremide trihexoside)
404. Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy (Dystrophin deficinecy,  Ceremide Trihexoside)
405. Type I (Anaphylactic): IgE mediated. Exs: Hay Fever; Allergic asthma; Hives
406. Type II (Cytotoxic): Warm Ab autoimmune hemolytic anemia; hemolytic transfusion reactions;
Erythroblastosis Fetalis; Grave’s Disease; Goodpastures
407. Type III (Immune Complex): Insoluble complement bound aggregates of Ag-Ab complexes. Exs:
Serum sickness; Arthus Reaction; Polyarteritis Nodosa; SLE; Immune Complex Mediated Glomerular
Disease
408. Type IV (Delayed = Cell mediated immunity): Delayed hypersensitivity. Involves memory cells. Exs:
Tuberculin reaction; Contact dermatitis; Tumor cell killing; Virally infected cell killing
409. Hyperacute Rejection = occurs w/in minutes of transplant. Ab mediated.
410. Acute Rejection = occurs w/in days to months of transplant. Lymphocytes & macrophages. Only
rejection type that can be treated w/ therapy.
411. Chronic Rejection = occurs months to years of transplant. Ab mediates vascular damage.
412. Sarcoma, exception – renal cell CA: early venous invasion
413. Carcinoma, exception – renal cell CA: early venous invasion
414. Seen w/ Aspergillus.  risk for Hepatocellular CA
415. Incomplete fusion of maxillary prominence w/ median nasal prominence
416. Incomplete fusion of lateral palatine process w/ each other & median nasal prominence & medial
palatine prominence
416. Pituitary tumor - usually calcified
Inolved in Vision relay
Page 9
Medial Geniculate Body
Lung Development
Heart’s 1st Beat
Foregut
Midgut
Hindgut
Hypnagogic Hallucinaitons
Type I Error
Subdural Hematoma
Epidural Hematoma
Type II Error
Power
Sensitivity
Specificity
Positive Predictive Value
Negative Predictive Value
Odds Ratio
d-Dimers
Delusion
Loose Association
5 Stages of Death
1st Branchial Arch
2nd Branchial Arch
Median nerve lesion
Radial nerve lesion
Common peroneal lesion
Diract inguinal hernia
Indirect inguinal hernia
@ Diaphragm T8, T10, T12
Hemiballism
O Linked Oligosaccharide
N Linked Oligosaccharide
MLF Syndrome
ADA Deficiency
Raphe Nucleus
 waves
Irreversible Glycolysis
Enzymes
Irreversible Gluconeogenesis
Enzymes
Pellagra
Involved in Hearing relay
Glandular: 5-17 fetal weeks
Canalicular 13-25 fetal weeks
Terminal Sac 24 weeks to birth
Alveolar period birth-8yoa
21-22 days
Mouth  Common Bile Duct - supplied by Celiac Artery
Duodenum, just below Common Bile Duct  Splenic flexure of the Colon supplied by Superior Mesenteric
artery
Splenic Flexure  Butt crack  supplied by Inferior Mesenteric Artery
Narcolepsy
: “Convicting the innocent” – accepting experimental hypothesis/rejecting null hypothesis
Ruptured cerebral bridging veins
Ruptured middle meningeal artery “intervals of lucidness”, 2ry to Temporal bone fracture
: “Setting the guilty free” – fail to reject the null hypotesis when it was false
1-
TP/TP + FN
TN/TN + FP
TP/TP + FP
TN/TN + FN
ad/bc
DIC
Disorder of thought content
Skip from topic to topic
Denial – Anger – Bargaining – Depression – Acceptance
Meckel’s cartillage – gives rise to incus/malleus bones of ear
Reichert’s cartillage – gives rise to stapes bone of ear
No pronation
Wrist drop – seen w/ humerus fracture
Foot drop. No dorsiflexion or eversion of the foot
Goes through superficial inguinal ring.
Medial to inferior epigastric artery
Seen in older men
Goes through deep & superficial inguinal ring
Lateral to inferior epigastric artery
Seen in young boys – processus vaginalis did not close
T8 = Inferior vena cava
T10 = Esophagus/ Vagus
T12 = Aorta/ Thoracic duct/ Azygous vein
Wild flailing of 1 arm. Lesion of the sub thalamic nucleus
In the Golgi
In the RER
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia: medial rectus palsy on lateral gaze; Nystagmus on abducting eye.
Seen w/ MS
SCID
Initiation of sleep via 5HT predominance
Alert; Awake; Active mind – also seen in REM, therefore we say “paradoxical sleep”
Hexokinase
PhosphoFructo Kinase = Rate Limiting Step
Pyruvate Kinase
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase
PyruvateCarboxy Kinase
PEPCarboxyKinase
Fructose 1,6 BiPhosphatase
Glucose 6 Phosphatase
**muscle dose not take part in Gluconeogenesis, only takes place in the liver, kidney & GI epithelium
Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia
Page 10
TLCFN
LCAT or PCAT
HMGCoA Reductase
Ketogenic amino acids
Glucogenic amino acids
Keto & Gluco amino acids
Carnitine Shuttle
Cori Cycle
(-) Na+ Pump (ATPase)
TCA Cycle Products
Cones
Rods
Gastrula
Epiblast
Sydenham’s Chorea
(+) Frei Test
Sabouraud’s Agar
FMR1 Gene Defect
Barr Body
Aortic Insufficiency Signs
Scleroderma :”CREST”
Cretinism
Hemochromatosis Triad
Niacin Deficiency (Vit B3 deficiency)
Hartnup’s Disease
Malignant Carcinoid Syndrome
INH use
Needed as co-factor for Pyruvate DH complex &  Ketoglutarate DH complex
Esterification of cholesterol: lecithin cholesterol acetyltransferase
Lecithin = Phosphatidylcholine, therefore phosphotidylcholine acetyltransferase
Rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis
Changes HMGCoA  Mevalonate
(-) by Lovastatin
Leucine & Lysine
Methionine, Threonine, Valine, Arginine, Histadine
Phenylalanine, Trytophan, Isoleucine
Feeds FA into the mitochondria for their consumption
Keeps muscles working anaerobically.
Transfers lactate to the liver to make glucose which is sent back into the muscles for energy use
Ouabain [(-) K+ pump]
Vanadate [(-) phosphorylation]
Digoxin [ heart contractility]
“Citric Acid Is Krebs Starting Substrate For Mitochondrial Oxidation”
Citrate  Aconitate  Isocitrate   Ketoglutarate  Succinyl  Succinate  Fumarate  Malate
OAA
Color vision. Contain Iodopsin = Red-Blue-Green specific pigment. For acuity.
Contain Rhodopsin pigment. High sensitivity. Concentrated in the fovea. Night vision.
Seen @ 3rd week: Ecto, Meso & Endo
@ 2nd week: forms the primitive streak, from which Meso & Endo come from. Directly gives rise to Ecto.
Post streptococcal infection. Necrotizing arteritis of the caudate, putamen, thalamus
Chlamydia trachomatis types L1, L2, L3 = Lymphogranuloma venereum
Culture for all Fungi
ie…Culture Cryptococcus neofromans which is found in pigeon droppings
Fragile X Syndrome: macro-orchidism; long face; large jaw; large everted ears; autism, mental retardation
Present in Kleinfelters: Male: XXY
Not present in Turner’s: Female: XO
Traube Sign = Pistol shot sound over the femoral vessels
Corrigan pulse = water hammer pulse over coratid artery = aortic regurgitation
Calcinosis; Raynauds; Esophageal; Sclerodactyl; Telangiectasis
Sporadic: bad T4 phosphorylation or developmental failure of thyroid formation
Endemic: no Iodine in diet: protruding belly & belly button
Micronodular pigment cirrhosis; Bronze Diabetes; Skin pigmentation = due to  Fe3+ deposition
Signature Drug Toxicities
Agranulocytosis
Aplastic Anemia
417. 
Clozapine, Chloramphenical
418. 
419. 
420. 
Chloramphenicol
NSAIDs
Benzene
Atropine-like Side Effects
Cardiotoxicity
421. 
Tricyclics
422. 
423. 
Doxorubicin
Daunorubicin
Cartilage Damage in Children
Cinchonism
Cough
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
Disulfiram-like Effect
424. 
Fluoroquinolones (Ciprofloxacin & Norfloxacin)
425. 
Quinidine
426. 
ACE Inhibitors
427. 
Lithium (Txt w/ Amiloride)
428. 
429. 
Metronidazole
Sulfonylureas (1st generation)
Extrapyramidal Side Effects
Fanconi’s Syndrome
Fatal Hepatotoxicity (necrosis)
430. 
Antipsychotics
431. 
Tetracycline
432. 
Valproic Acid
(Thioridazine, Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine)
Page 11
433. 
434. 
Halothane
Acetaminophen
Gingival Hyperplasia
Gray Baby Syndrome
Gynecomastia
435. 
Phenytoin
436. 
Chloramphenicol
437. 
438. 
439. 
440. 
Cimetidine
Azoles
Spironolactone
Digitalis
Hemolytic Anemia in G6PD-deficiency
441. 
442. 
443. 
444. 
445. 
Sulfonamides
Isoniazid
Aspirin
Ibuprofen
Primaquine
Hepatitis
Hot Flashes, Flushing
446. 
Isoniazid
447. 
448. 
449. 
Niacin
Tamoxifen
Ca++ Channel Blockers
Induce CP450
450. 
451. 
452. 
453. 
Barbiturates – Phenobarbital
Phenytoin
Carbamazepine
Rifampin
Inhibit CP450
454. 
455. 
Cimetidine
Ketoconazole
Interstitial Nephritis
456. 
457. 
458. 
459. 
Methicillin
NSAIDs (except Aspirin)
Furosemide
Sulfonamides
Monday Disease
460. 
Nitroglycerin
Orange Body Fluids
Osteoporosis
461. 
Rifampin
462. 
463. 
Heparin
Corticosteroids
Positive Coombs’ Test
Pulmonary Fibrosis
464. 
Methyldopa
465. 
466. 
Bleomycin
Amiodarone
Red Man Syndrome
Severe HTN with Tyramine
SLE-like Syndrome
467. 
Vancomycin
468. 
MAOIs
469. 
470. 
471.
Procainamide
Hydralazine
INH
Tardive Dyskinesia
472. 
473.
Antipsychotics (Thioridazine, Haloperidol, Chlorpromazine) Clozapine: only antipsychotic to not
give you tardive dyskinesia
Tinnitus
474. 
475. 
Aspirin
Quinidine
Industrial exposure  tolerance during week  loss of tolerance during weekend  headache, -
ach, dizziness upon re-exposure
Micro
Lactose formers
Non lactose formers
May lack color
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
“CEEK”
Citrobacter
Enterobacter
E.Coli (K1 capsule most important)
Klebsiella
“SHYPS”
Shigella
Yersinia enterolytica (AKA Pestis)
Proteus
Salmonella
“These rascals may microscopically lack color”:
Treponema
Ricksetta
Mycobacterium
Page 12
Motile:
make H2S
Non Motile: noH2S
 cAMP
Have Capsules [ie… are Quellung Reaction (+)]
Dimorphic Fungi
Have  Prophage
Spore Forming Bacteria
IgA Proteases
Widal Test
Wayson’s Stain
Pneumonic Plaque Transmission
Splenectomy
Invasins
Fusiform
S. viridans
Obligate Aerobes
Obligate Anaerobes
Staph aureus
Spirochetes
Non Motile Gram (+) Rods
Acid Fast Organisms
Pigment Producing Bacteria
Bacterial Morphology
Inclusion Bodies
Schistosoma Japonicum Monsoni
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
Mycoplasma
Legionella
Chlamydia
“CAPE”
Cholera
Anthracis (Poly D glutamate capsule)
Pertusis (via Gi)
E.coli (LT enterotoxin)
“Some killers have pretty nice capsules”
Strep. Pneumoniae
Klebsiella
HiB
Pseudamona Aeroginosa
Neisseria meningitis
Cryptococcus neoformans (only encapsulated fungal pathogen)
“Can Also Have Both Shapes”
Cocciodes
Aspergillus
Histolpasma
Blastomyces
Sprothrix schenkii
“OBED”
O = Salmonella
B = Botulinum
E = Erythrogenic strep
D = Diptheria
Bacilus & Clostridium (have calcium di-picolinate)
42. Neisseria, Haemophilus, S. pneumoniae
43. Salmonella (Salmonella begins in the ileocecal region) agglutination indicates Abs to O, H, Vi Salmunella Ags
44. Yersinia
45. Person to person cf w/ Bubonic plaque that was via infected flea
46. Predisposes to septicemia
47. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
48. Vincent’s trench mouth
49. Dextran mediated adherence
50. Pseudomonas & Mycobacterium
51. Clostridium, Actinomyces, Bacteroides
52. A Protein, Catalase +/ Coagulase +
53. Treponema, Borrelia, Leptospira
54. Corenybacterium D & Nocardia
55. Mycobacterium; Cryptosporidium; Nocardia (partially); Legionella micdadei; Isospora
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
Serratia – red (can cause pseudohemoptysis)
Pseudomonas A – piocyanin blue/green
Staph Aureus – yellow – Protein A
Mycobacteria – photo/scoto chromogenic – caritinoid – yellow/orange
Corneybacterium D – black/gray – pseudomembrane plaque in throat
Bacteroides (Porphyromonas) melaninogenicus – black (heme)
E. coli – irredescent green sheen
Pneumococci – lancet shaped diplococci
Neisseria – kidney bean shaped diplococci
Camphylobacter – gulls’ wings/comas
Vibrio Cholera – coma shaped
Corneybacterium D – club shaped (nonmotile, G+Rod)
Yersinia – safety pin seen in Wayson’s stain
Rabies – Negri bodies – intracytoplasmic
Pox virus – Guarnieri – intracytoplasmic & acidophilic
CMV – Owl’s eyes – intracytoplasmic & intranuclear
HSV – Cowdry bodies – intranuclear
Intestinal – contact w/ bad water
Page 13
Schistosoma Haematolium
Non Human Schistosom
Clonorchichis
Fasciola Hepatica
Fasciola Biski
Paragonimus Westermani
Oxidase (+)
Micro Aerophilic
Urease (+)
Coagulase (+)
Obligate Intracellular Bacteria
Protozoa
Obligate Non Intracellular Parasites
Haemophilus Factors
All cocci are
“Eaton Fried Eggs”
Mycoplasma
Sabrands
Malassazia furfur
Measles’ 3C’s
Non Motile Bacilli & Clostridium
Bloody diarrhea agents
YW-135CA
Indian Ink
Naegleria causes
Need Cysyeine for growth
Endotoxins, G(+) or G(-)
Ecthyma Gangrenosum, seen w/
Endospores G(+)
Multi Brain Abscess
Single Brain Abscess
 risk for Strep pneum Infection
 Hemolysis/Optochin Sensitive
 Hemolysis/Optochin Resistant
Staph. Saprophyticus
Staph. Epidermidis
 Hemolysis/Bacitracin Sensitive
 Hemolysis/Bacitracin Resistant
EFII Ribosylation
Bacillus Anthracis: 3 toxins
74. Vesicular – contact w/ bad water
75. Swimmer’s itch – contact w/ bad water
76. Chinese liver fluke – eating raw fish. Txt: Praziquantel
77. Sheep – eating raw fish. Txt: Praziquantel
78. Giant intestinal flukes – eating raw fish. Txt: Praziquantel
79. Lung fluke – eating raw fish. Txt: Praziquantel
80. Neiserria and most Gram (-)s
81. Camphylobacter & Helicobacter
82.
83.
84.
85.
86.
87.
All Proteus – can cause Staghorn/Struvite calculi (NH4- Mg2- stones): alkaline urine
Ureaplasma
Campylobacter pylori (Helicobacter)
Cryptococcus
Nocardia
Staph A & Yersenia pestis
88. Chlamydia Pistacci (Chlamydia do not make own ATP); Mycobacterium Leprae; all Rickettsia
except Roachalimea (make suficient ATP to survive)
89. Plasmodium; Toxoplasma ghondi; Babesin; Leishmania; Trypanosoma Cruzi
90. Treponema palidum & Pneumocystis Carinii (cannot be cultured on inert media but
can be found extra cellularly in the body)
91. X = Protoporphyrin & V = NAD
92. Gram (+) except for Neisseria & Moraxella
93. Mycoplasma pneumoniae has fried egg colonies on Eaton agar (needs cholesterol)
94.
95.
96.
97.
98.
No cell wall. Membrane has cholesterol. Smallest living bacteria.
P1 protein inhs ciliary action
Fried egg colonies
Atypical pneumonia – young adults
Fungal media
99. Spaghetti & meat ball
100. Cough – Coryza – Conjunctivitis. Can also have photophobia
101. May lead to subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis
102. B. Anthracis & C. Perfringens
103. EIEC – EHEC – Shigella - Yersenia enterocolitica – Entaemeba histolytica –
Salmonella – Campylobacter jejuni
104. N. meningitidis vaccine capsualr polysaccharide strains
105. Cryptococcus neoformans
106. Colonization in the nasal passages after swimming
107.
108.
109.
110.
111.
112.
“Ella likes cysteine”:
Francisella
Brucella
Legionella
Pasturella
Gram (-): N. meningitidis
113. Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Target shaped skin lesions w/ a black center and red ring
surrounding the lesion
114. Gram (+): Bacillus & Clostridium – made up of dipicolinate & Keratin
115. Nocardia
116. Actinomyces israelli
117. Asplenic; Sickle cell anemia; immunocompromising illness
118. Strep. Pneumoniae
119. Strep. Viridans (Subacute Endocarditis)
120. Novobiocin Resistant (UTIs)
121. Novobiocin sensitive (Endocarditis in IVDUs)
122. Strep. Pyogenes (pharyngitis; Scarlet fever; cellulitis; impetigo; Rheumatic fever))
123. Hyaluronic capsule; non-motile; M proteins; Endotoxin A
124. Strep. Agalactiae (Diabetes predisposes to infection)
125. Diphtheria toxin & Pseudomonas exotoxon A
126. Protective Antigen (PA)
Page 14
(work via adenylate cyclase)
Woolsorter’s Disease
Grows in Rice
Clostridium Perfringens
Clostridium Difficile
Spastic Paralysis toxin
Clostridium Botulinum
Infant Botulinum
Thayer Martin Agar
DOC for N. gonorrhoeae
K1 E. Coli Capsular Ag
The A’s of Klebsiella
Rice H2O Diarrhea
Raw seafood intoxicaiton
Helicobacter Txt
 risk of P. aeroginosa infection
Contact lens’ infection
Cat Bites
Undulant Fever
Bordet Gengou Agar
Lowenstein-Jensen medium
Cat Scratch Disease
Pink Eye
True Hemaphrodite
Pseudo Hemaphrodite
Male Pseudo Hemaphrodite
HLA Genes Location
Parvovirus B19
Interferon MOA
Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis
Parainfluenza Causes…
Swimming Pool Conjunctivitis
RSV
Removed tonsils, find what virus
Bone Fever
HbsAg
HbeAg
Anti-Hbc
Filamentous Bacteria
Listeria contaminates
Shiga like Toxin
Necrotizing Fasciitis
Relapsing Fever
Loffler’s Medium
Chlamydiae Developmental Cycle
127. Lethal Factor = toxic to macrophages
128. Edema Factor =  cAMP
129. Bacillus anthracis. DOC: Penicillin
130. Bacillus Cereus
131.
132.
133.
134.
135.
136.
Double Zone  Hemolysis (test)
Lecithinase:  toxin = lyses RBCs
80% of gas gangrene (myonecrosis) cases
2 Toxins: Enterotoxin (Exotoxin A) & Cytotoxin (Exotoxin B)
Pseudomembranous colitis (can be precipitated by clindamycin/ampicillin)
Clostridium Tetani toxin
137. Bad canned foods have neurotoxin = flaccid paralysis (block Ach release)
138. Floppy Baby Syndrome. Pre formed toxin in honey
139. Neisseria ID
140. Ceftriazone
141. Related w/ neonateal meningitis
142.
143.
144.
145.
Alcoholics
Aspiration pneumonia
Abscesses in the lungs
Vibrio Cholera: metabolic acidosis
146. Vibrio parahemolyticus
147. Bismuth salts; Metronidazole; Tetracycline (or amoxicillin)
148. Burn patients & Cystic fibrosis
149. Pseudomonas aeroginosa
150. Pasteurella multocida
151. Brucella
152. Bordetella pertusis ID
153. M. tuberculosis ID
154. Bartonella henselae. Leion can resemble Kaposi’s sarcoma.
155. Toxoplasmosis
156. Adenovirus (type 8)
157. Testes & Ovaries are present
158. External genitalia does not coincide w/ gonads
159. Testicular Feminization
160. 6p
161. Fifth Disease: Erythema Infectiosum (ssDNA). Linked w/ sicle cell anemia
162. Inhibits viral replication (translation or transcription)
163. Seen w/ infections from Enterovirus & Coxsackie A
164. Croup (Laryngotracheobronchitis)
165. Adenovirus (types 3 & 4)
166. Bronchiolitis in infants
167. In 80%, Adenovirus. In the immunosuppressed, activation can occur
168. Dengue: Group B Togavirus, from the Arbovirus, transmitted by mosquitos
169.
170.
171.
172.
173.
174.
175.
Appears in blood soon after infection, before onset of acute illness
Disappears w/in 4-6 months after the start of clinical illness
Appears early acute phase, indicates higher risk of transmitting the disease
Disappears before HbsAg is gone
Present in beginning of clinical illness
Seen in the “window phase”
Actinomycetes = Nocardia; Actinomyces; Streptomyces
176. Milk, cheese, vegetables (coleslaw) in recent infections
177. E. Coli 0157/H7: Hemorrhagic colitis & Hemorrhagic uremic syndrome
178. Group A Streptococci
179. Borrelia recurrentis
180. Corneybacterium diphtheriae
181. Elementary Body: infeccious particle that Enters the cell
182. Reticulate Body: made from elementary body. Replicates, differentiates and
Page 15
Trench Fever
“Spotted Fever” Members
Thrush Txt
Rose Bush Thorns
Contact lens solution infection
Filiariasis Causant
Freshwater lake infection
Reduviid bug bite
Schistosoma Haematobium causes
Schistosoma Mansoni causes
Snail, intermediate host of…
Ixodes scapularis transmits
Nantucket Protozoa
Infection by Reduviid Bug
Infection by TseTse Fly
Infection by Sandfly
Infection by Ixodes Tick
Infection by Anopheles Mosquito
Trophozoites w/ “Face-Like” Appearance
Nonseptate Hyphae
Histoplasmosis Geography
Coocidioidomycosis Geography
Blastomycosis Geography
Paracoccidioidomycosis Geography
Roseola Infection, aka
Herpangina
Orthomyxovirus
Paramyxovirus
Togavirus
Flaviviris
Bunyavirus
IgA Protease Activity
Diphtheria: ABCDEFG
releases elementary bodies to infect other cells
183. W/ infection you will see Glycogen containing inclusions
184. Cell wall lacks muramic acid
185. Rochalimaea quintana
186. Rickettssia rickettsii (RMSF) & R. akari (rickettsial pox) in the U.S.
187. R. sibirica (tick typhus in China) & R. australis (typhus in Australia)
188. Nystatin txts candidiasis of the mouth
189. Have Sporothrix schenckii
190. Acanthamoeba
191. Wucheria bancrofti (infection aka elephantitis & wucheriasis
192. Causes amebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri
193. Transmits Trypanoma cruzi (Chagas’ disease): Romana’s Sign
194. Bladder calcificaiton & cancer
195. Presinusoidal HTN, splenomagaly, esophageal varices
196. Schistosomiasis
197. Babesia (clinically rembles malaria) & Borelia burgdorferi
198. Babesia microt
199. Trypansoma cruzi: Chagas’ Disease
200. Trypansoma brucei gambiense & rhodiense: African Sleeping Sickness
201. Leishmaniasis: Mucocutaneous Diseases by L. braziliensis & Visceral Disease by L. donovani &
Dermal Leishman by L. tropica, mexicana, peruviana
202. Babesia microti: Babesiosis & Borrelia burgdorferi: Lyme Disease
203. Malaria
204. Giardia lamblia
205. Zygomycosis: Rhizopus & Mucor. Only mycosis w/o septate.
Infect Ketoacidotic Diabetics.
206. Ohio, Mississippi, Misouri River valleys
207. Southwestern deserts, California
208. States east of Mississippi River
209. Latin America
210. Exanthema Subitum: “Sixth Disease” (Human Herpes Virus-6 dsDNA, enveloped)
211. “Hand-Foot-and-Mouth” Disease: Coxsackie A (Picornavirus +ssRNA)
212. –ssRNA, enveloped virus.
213. Spike Glycoproteins (peplomeres): HA = Hemagluttinin & NA = Neuraminidase.
These peplomeres are what give the virus antigenis variation
214. Influenza A & B
215. –RNA, enveloped. Most common cause of respiratory infections in kids
216. Mumps
217. Croup(Parainfluenza virus)
218. Rubeola(Measles virus)
219. RSV
220. +ssRNA, enveloped
221. 3 Day Measles: German Measles: Rubella/ Rubivirus
222. Encephalitis viruses: Alphaviruses: Eastern (more severe) and Western Equine
Encephalitis
223. Dengue Fever – icterus & hemorrhage w/ blac vomit
224. Yellow fever
225. St. Louis Encephalitis – no hepatitis or hemorrhage
226. –ssRNA, enveloped
227. California Encephalitis – severe bifrontal headaches
228. Hantavirus – hemorrhagic fever w/ acute resp. distress syndrome
229. H. Influenzae (needs factors V & X for growth)
230. Strep. Pneumoniae
231. N. meningitidis
232. N. gonnorhoae
233. W/ this activity these bugs are able to colonize the oral mucosa.
234. Adenopathy
235.  Prophage encodes the exotoxin
236. Corneybacteria is Club shaped
Page 16
237. Diphtheria
238. Elongation Factor II
239. Granules (metachromatic)
240. Parvovirus: “Part of a virus”
Only ssDNA
Only dsRNA
Naked RNA
2 circular DNAs
BK
Hepadna, Retrovirus?
Picornovirus: “PERCH”
Hemorrhagic Fevers
Segmented viruses
Eclipse Phase
Latent Phase
Naked Capsid Virus
Enveloped Virus
Interferon
241. Reovirus, “RepeatOvirus”
242. “Naked for CPR”: Calcivirus; Picornovirus; Reovirus
243. Papovavirus & Hepadnavirus
244. Papovavirus. Seen in kidney transplant patients (causes renal disease)
245. No, but has reverse transcriptase
246. Poiliovirus; Echo; Rhino; Coxsackie; Hep A
221. Filovirus & Bunyavirus (Hantavirus)
All are RNA: Orthomyxo; Arena; Bunya; Reo
No internal virus. 1 total virus per cell
No external virus. Extracellular virus found
Nucleocapsid. DNA or RNA + Structural proteins
Membrane. Nucleocapsid + Glycoprotein
AIDS structural prots
AIDS regulatory prots
AIDS gp41 env prot
AIDS gp120 env prot
AIDS p17 gag prot
AIDS p24 gag prot
AIDS p7p9 gag prot
DNA Viruses
Non virus specific. Works by RNA endonuclease = digests viral DNA + inh viral prot
synth
Gag, pol, env
Tat, rev, nef
Transmembrane
Surface
Matrix
Capsid
Nucleocapsid
A = Adeno
H = Herpes
H= Hepadna
P = Pox
P = Parvo
P = Papova
E
Brick. Rep
In Cyto
AH H PPP --- ico Rep in Nuc
SS
Circ
(+) RNA Viruses
E
C P R F T C ------ ico (+) Linear.
No segment. Rep in Cyto
Helical
R-Tase &
Rep in Nuc
(-) RNA Viruses
8
2
3
F O R P A B ---- (-) E Helical
Linear. Non seg.
C = Calici
P = Picorno
R = Reo
F = Flavi
T = Toga
C = Corona
F = Filo
O = Orthomyxo
R = Rhabdo
P = Paramyxo
A = Arena
B = Bunya
Bullet
Anti sense
Hepatitis Window Period
Hepatitis
Downey Type II cells
A
Picorna
After HbsAg disappears & Before HbsAb appears
B
Hepadna
EBV
C
Flavi
Page 17
D
Delta
E
Calici
Infection by Aedes Mosquito
“Hot T-Bone stEAk”: ILs
Yellow Fever: Flavivirus: Black vomit, jaundice, high fever
IL1 =  Temp: HOT
IL2 = stimulate T cells
IL3 = stimulate Bone Marrow stem cells’ growth & differentiation (GM CSF)
IL4 = stimulate IgE (& IgG)
IL5 = stimulate IgA (& eosinophils)
IL2, IL4, IL5, IFN gamma
ILs Secreted by CD4s
ILs Secreted by Macrophages
C5a
IL1 & TNF 
Neutral chemotaxis.
When it is w/ C3a, participates in anaphylaxis
When both Alternative and Classic pathways come together
Alternative: C3b, Bb, C3b + C3a  C5
Classic: 2b, 3b, C3a + C4b  C5
Quintana
C5 Convertase
Only Richettssia not Intracellular
Plasmodium Life Cycle
Sporozoites: from blood to liver
Primary tissue schizont
Trophozoites: in RBC
Erythrocytic schizont
Merozoite: ruptured RBC
Gametozyte
Zygote: inside the mosquito
Acanthamoeba
Mucor, Rhizopus, Absidia
Cryptococcus Neoformans
Candida
Aspergillus Fumigatum
Cocciodes
Histoplasma Cap
Star shaped cysts
Nonseptate, filamentous, 90 degree branching, indian in, capsular halos
Monomorphic
Yeast normally, pseudo & true hyphae in tissue infections
45 degree branching point, asoc’d w/ cystic fibrosis & burns pt
Hyphae in wild. Artroconidia. Arthocondida & Hyphae. Sherules w/ endospores
Hyphae in wild. Microcondida w/ tuberculate macrocondida. Fac intracellular. In the
tissue it’s a yeast w/ a small neck.
Hyphae in wild
Blastomycosis
Sporothrix Schenkii
PCP
Gram (-) Bugs w/ Exotoxins
Hypahe in wild. Potas iodide in milk. Pneumonia in alcoholics.
Obligate parasite. Kills type I pneumo cells. Ground glass
E. Coli; V. Cholera; Bordetella Pertussis
Dermatophytes
Fever
Trichophyton: SHN
Microsporium: SH
Epidermophyton: SN
Tinea tavus: permanent hair loss
Diagnosis
Trophozoites or cysts in stool
Trophozoites or cysts in stool
Acid fast oocysts
Trophozoites or cysts in stool
Motile trophozoites
Fever Spike
Vivax
Benign 3 degrees
48h
Enlarged Host Cell
Ovale
Benign 3 degrees
48h
Oval/Jagged
Malariae
4 degrees of Malarial
72hrregular
Crescent
Falciparum
Malignant 3 degrees
Transmission
Cysts
Cysts
Cysts
Cysts
Trophozoites
E. Histolitica
Giardia
Cryptosporidium
Balantium C.
Trichomonas V.
Miscellaneous
1. Fastest growing tumor – Burkitt’s
2. PE’s are found in half of all autopsies
3. Courvoisier’s Law: tumors that obstruct the common bile duct cause enlarged gallbladders, but obstructing
gallstones do not (too much scarring), so if you can palpate the gallbladder you’e probably looking at cancer.
4. Only DNA virus to replicate in cytoplasm: Pox
5. Only RNA virus to replicate in nucleus: Influenza
Page 18
6.
7.
8.
9.
Bacillus anthracis has the only protein capsule
Bordetella pertussis (Whooping Cough) elicits lymphocytosis rather than granulocytosis
Bronchioalveolar carcinomas grow without destroying the normal architecture of the lung
Cryptococcus neoformans often lacks a capsule and, when stained with GMS, looks just like Pneumycistis carinii,
except that Cryptococcus lacks the prominent nucleoli.
10. Weil Felix reaction: (+)R. rickettssi & (+)Proteus vulgaris & P. mirabilis
11. Treponema pallidum (Syphilis) tests: 1)VDRL 2)FTA-Abs: most widely used 3)TPI (immobilization test – most
expensive but the Gold Standard)
Cytokine
Source
Function
IL 1
12. Monocytes, macrophages
Stimulates T cell proliferation & IL2 produciton
IL 2
13. Macrophages, T & NK cells
Stim prolif of B, T & NK cell
IL 3
14. T cells
GF of tissue mast cells & hematopoietic stem cells
IL 4
15. T cells
 growth of B & T cells/  HLA II Ags
IL 5
16. T cells
Maturation of B  plasma cell
IL 6
17. T cells, monocytes
Maturation of B & T cell/ (-) fibroblasts
IFN 
18. B cells, macrophages
Antiviral activity
IFN 
19. Fibroblasts
Antiviral activity
IFN gamma
20. T & NK cells
Antiviral activity, (+) macrophages,  HLA II Ags
TNF 
21. Macrophages, T & NK cells
T cell prolif, IL 2 prod, cytotoxicity
TNF 
22. T cells
T cell prolif, IL 2 prod, cytotoxicity
Tumor Suppressor Genes
Genes
VHL
APC
WT-1
Rb
BRCA-2
p53
NF-1
BRCA-1
DCC
DPC
NF-2
Chrom.
3p
5p
11p
13q
13q
17p
17q
17q
18q
18q
22q
Associated Tumors
Von Hippel Lindau, Renal Cell CA
Familial adenomatous polyposis, Colon CA
Wilm’s tumor
Retinoblastoma, Osteosarcoma
Breast CA
Most human Cas
Neurofibromatosis type 1
Breast CA, Ovarian CA
Colon & Stomach CA
Pancreatic CA
Neurofibromatosis type 2 = bilateral acoustic neuroma
Physio Equations:
Resistance in Series: Add all
Resistance in Parallel: Invert the answer
RENAL:
Filtration Fraction =
GFR
RPF
Filtered Load = GFR x [Conc]
GFR: Glomerular Filtration Rate RPF: Renal Plasma Flow
Excretion Rate = [Urine] x VelUrine
Page 19
Clearance =
[Urine]xVel(Urine)
Excretion
or
[ Plasma ]
[Plasma ]
Renal Blood Flow =
ERPF
1  Hct
Clearance of PAH = [ERPF]
Free Water Clearance = VelUrine -
ERPF: Eff renal plasma flow
Urine(osm) xVel(urine )
P(osm)
CARDIO:
CO = HR x SV
CO =
O 2(consumed )
PulmonaryA  VO2difference
MAP = Diastolic + 1/3 Pulse Pressure
CO =
MAP
TPR
Pulse Pressure = Systolic – Diastolic
MAP = TPR x CO
F=
P1  P 2
R
LUNGS:
PAO2 = (760 – 47) FO2 -
PACO2
R
Where:
FO2 = [O2]
Flow =
PACO2 = Alv. Press. Of CO2
O2consumed
AtoVO2difference
Velgas Diffusion =
VentTot = VentTidal x #of Respirations
Compliance =
Vol
Pr ess
P=
R = Resp. Exchange Ratio
Tension
Radius
Resp Doubles: 150mmHg & 40mmHg
CO 2 produced
 .8 or 1
O 2consumed
Area
x Gas Diffusion Constant x Difference of Partial Press
Thickness
VentAlv = (VentTidal – VentDead) x # of Respirations
1.0 =
Va/Q
New PCO2 = 20
Diffusing Capacity =
New PO2 = 170
Page 20
COuptake
PACO2