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Name _____________________________
Class _______________
2015 Spring Semester Final Exam Review
Date _______________
Exam date __________________
Use this review, along with your science journal and textbook, to study for your final
exam! Good luck!
1. The positions of the constellations appear to change throughout the year because ________________.
2. About 90 percent of the stars in space are ___________________________ stars.
3. A main sequence star becomes a _______________________ after it uses up the hydrogen in its core.
4. Describe our Sun. ___________________________________________________________________
5. A galaxy that has a shape similar to a football is a (n) ____________________ galaxy.
6. Describe the Milky Way Galaxy. _______________________________________________________________
7. What is the relationship of the stars, galaxies and the universe in order of decreasing size?
8. A __________________ is a region so dense that nothing, not even light, can escape its gravity field.
9. A sequence of star colors from hottest to coolest is ________________________________.
10. A measure of the amount of the light given off by a star is its ___________________________.
11. A measure of the amount of light received on Earth is a star's ____________________________.
12. The process of the Sun changing Hydrogen into Helium in its core is called nuclear _________________.
13. The _________________________________ states that between 15 and 20 billion yrs ago, the
universe began expanding out of an enormous explosion.
14. The complete range of the electromagnetic waves is called the __________________________.
15. Put the electromagnetic spectrum in order from longest to shortest type of wave.
16. An instrument used to view different colors of light produced by each type of light bulb is called a (n)
17. What is the difference between a nebula and a star? _________________________________________________
18. List the 3 pieces of evidence for the Big Bang theory. _______________________________________
19. What is a light-year and why do we use to measure some distance in space but not all distances? ______________
20. The life-cycle path of a star is determined by its initial _________________ and __________________.
21. Draw and label the parts of the life cycle of a star: low mass protostar, high mass protostar, main sequence star,
neutron star, nebula, supernova, white dwarf and red giant.
The diagram above shows a standard spectrum compared to a spectrum produced from a distant
star. What conclusions can you make about red shift/blue shift? ________________________________
23. Based on the H-R diagram above, which star has the greatest absolute magnitude? __________________________
24. Based on the H-R diagram above which statement is true?
a. Vega is smaller than Canopus but hotter than Spica.
b. Sirius B is the same size as Procyon B and hotter than our Sun.
c. Pollux is the same size as Arcturus and cooler than Proxima Centauri A.
d. Canopus and Rigel are the same size and as hot as Spica.
Plate Tectonics & Topographic Maps
The youngest rocks are found where on the ocean floor? _________________
26. Where do you find evidence of plate movement? _______________________
27. What evidence was found on different continents that helped prove continental drift
28. What is the idea called that said the continents have moved over time? _________________________
29. At what boundaries do plates move apart? ______________________________________________
30. At what boundaries do plates move towards each other? ____________________________________
31. At what boundaries do plates slide past each other? ________________________________________
32. Why did people not believe in continental drift? __________________________________________
33. What is the name of the giant landmass before the continents drifted? _________________________
34. What causes seafloor spreading? ______________________________________________________
35. What forms when two continents collide? _______________________________________________
36. What forms when two ocean plates collide? _____________________________________________
37. What forms when an ocean and a continental plate collide? _________________________________
38. Who thought of the idea for continental drift? ____________________________________________
39. What is the newer theory called that combines convection current movement and ocean floor spreading?
40. The difference in value between two contour lines is the ______________________.
41. How does a person determine the contour interval?_________________________________________
42. The zero contour line is _______________________.
43. The line that is shaded darker than the other contour lines is the _________________________.
44. A topographic map is _________________________________________________________________.
45. The closer the contour lines, the _____________________ the slope; the further apart the contour lines, the
___________________________ the slope.
46. Contour lines form ______________ when they cross streams or valleys. This ___________ points
_______________ or _____________________.
47. Closed depressions are shown by __________________________________________.
48. Every contour line eventually _____________________________________________.
49. A ________________________ is a side view of a particular area.
50. The _________________________________ can be determined by estimating the distance between contour lines.
51. How does a person determine the contour interval?_________________________________________
52. Determine the contour interval of the map below. _________________________________________
53. Which “Sister” has the highest elevation? ______
Seasons, Lunar Cycle and Tides
52. What does the earth do on its axis every
24 hours? What does it cause? ________________________________
54. How long does it take the earth to revolve around
the Sun? __________ What is this called? ________________
What is the degree of tilt of the earth on its axis? ______
What would happen if Earth did not have this tilt?
What shape is Earth’s orbit around the Sun?
57. Describe what causes seasons.
57. Label the seasons for the northern hemisphere on the diagram below.
58. Describe what Earth’s northern hemisphere will experience when the north end of the axis is tilted toward the Sun.
(use direct/indirect light and longer/shorter days in your answer)
59. The summer solstice occurs on June 21 or 22. Why does Texas experience more sunlight at this time?
60. Complete the chart below
Winter Solstice
Spring Equinox
Summer Solstice
Fall Equinox
When does it occur?
How is Earth’s axis
tilted? Towards,
Away, Not towards
nor away
Describe daylight
and nighttime hours.
Do daylight and
nighttime hours stay
the same?
61. Explain what happens to water vapor and atmospheric pressure as elevation increases. _____________
62. Label all 8 positions of the Moon.
63. We see different phases of the moon at different times during the month. What causes this?
64. Draw and label the positions of Earth, Moon, and Sun in a lunar eclipse.
65. Draw and label the positions of Earth, Moon, and Sun in a solar eclipse.
66. Eclipses do not occur all the time. Explain why the Earth’s orbit around the Sun and the Moon’s orbit around the
Earth prevents eclipses from occurring more frequently.
67. What causes tides on Earth? ___________________________________________________________
68. What is the maximum number of tides that occur in a day? ___________________________________
Atmosphere & Weather
69. Define convection and give an example.__________________________________________________
70. What impact does the Coriolis Effect have on Earth’s winds and waters?
71. What is weather? ____________________________________________________________________
72. What is climate? ____________________________________________________________________
73. What causes ocean currents?___________________________________________________________
74. What is the relationship between air pressure and air temperature? ______________________________
75. What is a front?_____________________________________________________________________
76. What kind of weather does a low pressure system bring? ____________________________________
77. What kind of weather does a high pressure system bring? ____________________________________
78. What is an El Nino and what weather does it bring to the southern United States? _________________
79. Can you read temperature, fronts and weather conditions off a weather map? ____________________
80. Based on the weather map, what kind of weather can be expected in Houston in the coming days? ______________
81. What type of weather is Florida experiencing currently? _________________________________________________
82. If you were driving from San Francisco to Seattle, what kind of weather will you be driving in?
83. Study what is happening below due to convection currents in the atmosphere. Label the pictures as either land or
sea breeze.
84. The many overlapping food chains in an ecosystem make up ____________________
85. The interactions of living and nonliving things in the environment is ________________________
86. ____________________ obtain energy by breaking down wastes and nitrogen and recycling the remains of dead
87. A process that needs sunlight as a source of energy to make food is ___________________________.
88. What 2 things are products of photosynthesis? __________________________________________________
89. A collection of organisms and the nonliving factors that affect an ecosystem is called a (n) _____________
90. All of the living things in an ecosystem are called _____________________, while the nonliving parts of an
ecosystem are called ______________________.
91. The groups of organisms most likely to contain chlorophyll are the ____________________________
92. The place an organism lives that provides the things the organism needs is called its ____________
93. The job or role of an organism where it lives is called its ________________________.
94. Define population. ___________________________________________________________________
95. Which term refers to an environmental factor that prevents a population from increasing? ____________________
96. What does a food chain show about flow of energy? _____________________________________________
97. A waste product of respiration that producers take in during photosynthesis is ____________________
98. The behaviors and physical characteristics of species that allow them to live successfully in their environment are
called ____________________________________.
99. What is the percentage of energy passed on from producers to consumers to decomposers? _________________
100. Organisms that can make their own food are called _______________________.
List 2 examples: ___________________________________________________
Consumers that eat both plants and animals are classified as ___________________________________.
Consumers that eat only plants are called __________________________________________________.
103. Bacteria & fungi are ___________ that obtain energy by breaking down wastes and the remains of dead
104. Be able to read a food chain, food web, tell producers, 1st consumers, 2nd consumers: which way the arrows go.
103. Based on the food web shown above, what provides the least amount of energy to other organisms?
105. When a species dies out it is considered? __________________________________.
List the three types of symbiotic relationships and how they affect each other.
107. Describe the relationship in the following scenarios
a. Egrets stand on a cow’s back and eat insects the cow disturbs as it walks through a pasture.
b. Fleas take blood from a kitten in a shelter; the kitten gets sicker over time.
c. The clownfish lives in the anemone and attracts bigger fish for the anemone to eat.
d. A lion chases down a gazelle
e. A mongoose eats ticks from a warthog and the warthog likes the grooming attention it gets.
_________________ ___________________ are physical features of an organism.
________________ _____________________ are the things organisms do to survive.
110. A Viceroy butterfly looks like a Monarch butterfly and this causes confusion for hungry predators. This is an
example of _________________________________.
111. A squid can blend in with stalks of algae on the sea floor to avoid predators.
This is an example of