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Genetics Unit Review
DNA
 Name and identify the 3 parts of a nucleotide.
 Describe the structure of DNA, including the four different nucleotides, sugarphosphate strings, 5’ to 3’ directionality, antiparallel, and base pairing.
 Identify and differentiate purines and pyrimidines in both DNA and RNA
 Describe the forces contributing to the stability of the DNA molecule (there are 3)
 Explain the organization of genetic material in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms,
including plasmids and chromosomes.
 Compare the structure and function of RNA and DNA
Questions p. 247-9 # 3, 30, 39
History of Genetics
 Describe the research and contributions of : Mendel, Meischer, Levene, Avery,
McLeod, McCarty Chargaff, Franklin, Watson and Crick, Beadle and Tatum,
Nirenberg an Hienrich
 List at least three other major events in genetics research
Questions p. 247-9, # 20, 26, p. 281 # 7
Replication
 Name the 3 phases of semi-conservative replication, and be familiar with the details
of what happens in each phase.
 Explain (include a drawing) how elongation of a daughter DNA strand takes place:
 In the direction of the movement of the replication fork
 In the direction opposite to the movement of the replication fork
 Describe how replication errors are identified and corrected.
 Identify important enzymes involved in replication and their roles.
 Describe telomeres and their role in replication
Questions p. 247-9, # 4, 9, 11, 15
Genome
 Distinguish between genes and genome
 Explain the one gene-one enzyme theory
 Define introns and exons, multi-gene families, pseudogenes, repetitive sequences.
Questions p. 247-9 #38
Genetic Code
 Write the central dogma in your own words, and include the benefits of this process
 Define codon and describe its three characteristics
 Classify the types of RNA and their functions
 Utilize the codon table to identify:
 Amino acids for a given codon
 The start codon
 A stop codon
Questions p. 281-3 # 6, 8, 9
Protein Synthesis
 Identify the 3 steps of transcription and translation
o Be familiar with what happens in each phase
o Be able to illustrate the process of translation
 Provide anticodon sequences for a given amino acid
 Explain the roles of DNA, mRNA, tRNA and rRNA in protein synthesis
 Identify important enzymes in transcription and translation, and their roles.
Questions P. 281-3, # 11, 12, 26, 27, 32
Gene Expression
 Identify and describe control mechanisms for genetic expression for both eukaryotes
and prokaryotes.
 Describe pre-, mid-, and post-transcription controls, (eg. 5’cap and poly A tails) and
pre-, mid-, and post- translation controls
 Explain regulation shown by the lac and trp operons
Questions p. 281-3, # 19, 24
Mutations
 Identify substitution, insertion, deletion, chromosomal mutations
 Describe how mutagens such as radiation and chemicals can change the genetic
material

Questions p. 319-21 # 5, 8, 21
Genetic Engineering
 Describe restriction endonucleases and their role in recombinant DNA
 Explain the process of gel electrophoresis and why it works
 Describe the purpose of PCR, its 3 steps, and how it is used to determine a DNA
sequence. Include the use of dideoxynucleotides and the different sized fragments
that result in your explanation
Question p. 319-21 # 10, 13, 15, 25
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