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Genetics /Microbiology Final Exam Study Guide
This study guide is to provide you with a listing of topics covered during the second half of the year in
Genetics and Microbiology. It is important for you to know the details of these major concepts and to be
able to relate their importance. As this is a listing of major concepts for your review it is not an all
inclusive of every question on the final exam. Good practice would be to write down what you
remember about each topic and then to review your notes, ppts, worksheets, study guides, labs, and
textbook sections to clarify as needed.
Behavioral Disorders
What are behavioral traits?
Techniques for studying behavioral traits
IQ scores rangesGenetic and Environmental influences
Behavioral Disorders- Overview/Definition/Symptoms
Schizophrenia
Narcolepsy
Anorexia
Bipolar
Autism
DNAScientists/ their discoveries andexperiments
Structure of DNA- components
Purines vs Pyrimidines
Base pair rules
Chargaff’s Rule
DNA replication
Process
Enzymes involved
Compare and contrast the different RNAs
Introns vs Exons
Protein Synthesis- steps
Transcription
Translation
Biotechnology
Restriction enzymes
Plasmids
Recombinant technology
Gel Electrophoresis
Process
Methodology
Interpretation of results
Determination of genotypes
Nucleotide sequence using a gel pattern
Microbiology
Structures of a microbial cell-
Appendages and function
Flagellar morphology- types
Morphology
Basic shapes and arrangements.
ReproductionGram Stain
Theory
Differences between Gram positive and Gram negative based on cell wall differences
Gram Stain Test Procedure
Reagents and Results for Gram positve and Gram negative
Bacterial Growth Requirements
Temperature
pH
Gas Requirements
Differences between aerobic and anaerobic bacteria
What is a facultative anaerobe
Bacterial Growth Curve-Draw and label
4 different phases and what occurs in each
Which phase is best for antibiotic testing?
Which phase is best for biochemical testing and gram staining?
Metabolism
What are oxidation and reduction reactions
Aerobic Respiration- steps and ATPs produced in each
Glycolysis
Krebs Cycle
Electron transport
Final electron acceptor?
What are NAD and FAD – what is their significance in production of ATP?
Types of Fermentation
Anaerobic Respiration
Final electron acceptors?
Role of Enzymes
Structure- apoenzymes, holoenzymes, cofactors
Factors that influence them
Control Mechanisms
Competitive Inhibition
Feedback
Host- Microbe Interactions
Symbiotic relationships
DiseasePathogensVirulenceDescribe Koch’s postulates
Microbial Control- Physical and Chemical Control
Resistance Levels
Compare and Contrast : DisinfectionSterilizationSanitizationAutoclave use-
UV radiation and effects on Bacillus spPasteurization-
Anibiotic Disk Diffusion Test- Kirby-Bauer
Procedure
Standardization
Interpretation of Results
Quality Control
Characteristics of an ideal Antimicrobial Drug
How do antimicrobials attack bacterial cells?
Immunology3 lines of defense
Cellular vs humoral immunity
Describe Inflammatory Response
Passive and Active Immunity
How does a vaccine work?
Define an effective vaccine?