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Chapter 9: Cellular Basis for Inheritance
1. asexual reproduction
2. sexual reproduction
3. chromatin
4. chromosome
5. sister chromatid
6. centromere
7. cell cycle
8. interphase
9. mitotic phase
10.mitosis
11.cytokinesis
12.prophase
13.metaphase
14.anaphase
15.telophase
16.benign tumor
Name:__________________
17.malignant tumor
18.cancer
19.metastasis
20.meiosis
21.karyotype
Chapter 9: Cellular Basis for Inheritance
Name:__________________
1. asexual reproduction- process in which a single cell or set of cells produces offspring
that inherit all their genetic material from one parent
2. sexual reproduction- process in which genetic material from two parents combines
and produces offspring that differ genetically from either parent
3. chromatin-DNA and protein molecules in long, thin fibers; genetic material of the
eukaryotic nucleus
4. chromosome- condensed threads of genetic material formed from chromatin as a cell
prepares to divide
5. sister chromatid- one of a pair of identical chromosomes created before a cell divides
6. centromere- region where two sister chromatids are joined together
7. cell cycle- sequence of events from the production of a eukaryotic cell to the time the
cell itself reproduces
8. interphase- stage of the cell cycle during which a cell carries out its metabolic
processes and performs its functions in the body
9. mitotic phase- stage of the cell cycle when a cell is actively dividing
10. mitosis- a nucleus and duplicate chromosomes of a cell divide and are evenly
distributed, forming two daughter nuclei
11. cytokinesis- process by which the cytoplasm of a cell is divided into two; usually
follows mitosis or meiosis
12. prophase- first stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, when the already replicated
chromosomes condense
13. metaphase- second stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II when the spindle is fully
formed and all of the chromosomes are held in place
14. anaphase- third phase of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, in which the sister
chromatids separate and move toward the poles of the spindle
15. telophase- final stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, in which the chromosomes
reach the spindle poles, nuclear envelopes form around each set of daughter
chromosomes, and the nucleoli reappear
16. benign tumor- mass of cells that remain at their original site
17. malignant tumor-mass of abnormal cells resulting from uncontrolled canceer cell
division
18. cancer- disease caused by severe disruption of the mechanisms that normally control
the cell cycle
19. metastasis- spread of cancer cells beyond their original site in the body
20. meiosis- type of cell division that produces 4 cells, each with half as many
chromosomes as the parent cell
21. karyotype- display of a person's 46 chromosomes
22. homologous chromosome- one of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited
from each parent
23. sex chromosome- one of the two chromosomes of the 23rd pair of human
chromosomes which determine an individual’s gender
24. diploid- having two homologous sets of chromosomes
25. gamete- egg or sperm sex cell that contains a single of chromosomes, one from each
homologous pair
26. haploid- having a single set of chromosomes
27. fertilization- the fusion of the nucleus of a haploid sperm cell and the nucleus of a
haploid egg cell, forming a diploid zygote
28. zygote- diploid cell formed when the nucleus of a haploid sperm cell fuses with the
nucleus of a haploid egg cell
29. crossing over- exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes
during prophase I of meiosis
30. genetic recombination- new combination of genetic information in a gamete as a
result of crossing over during prophase I of meiosis
31. spindle- framework of microtubules that guide the movement of chromosomes
during mitosis and meiosis
Chapter 9: Vocabulary Quiz
____1. interphase
____ 2. metaphase
A. Chromosomes reach the spindle poles,
nuclear envelopes form around each set of
daughter chromosomes, and the nucleoli
reappear
____ 3. prophase
B. The spindle is fully formed and all of the
chromosomes are held in place
____ 4. telophase
C. The sister chromatids separate and move
toward the poles of the spindle
_____5. anaphase
D. Stage of the cell cycle during which a cell
carries out its metabolic processes and performs
its functions in the body
E. The already replicated chromosomes
condense
_____ 6. metastasis
A. Mass of cells that remain at their original site
_____ 7. benign tumor
B. Disease caused by severe disruption of the
mechanisms that normally control the cell cycle
C. Display of a person's 46 chromosomes
_____ 8. malignant tumor
D. Spread of cancer cells beyond their original
site in the body
_____9. cancer
E. Mass of abnormal cells resulting from
uncontrolled cancer cell division
_____10. karyotype
_________________ 11. Having a single set of chromosomes
_________________ 12. Framework of microtubules that guide the movement of
chromosomes
_________________ 13. One of a pair of identical chromosomes created before a cell
divides
_________________ 14. Region where two sister chromatids are joined together
_________________ 15. Process by which the cytoplasm of a cell is divided into two;
usually follows mitosis or meiosis
_________________ 16. Having two homologous sets of chromosomes
_________________ 17. New arrangement of genetic information in a gamete as a
result of crossing over during prophase I of meiosis
_________________ 18. Exchange of genetic material between homologous
chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
_________________ 19. One of a matching pair of chromosomes, one inherited from
each parent
_________________ 20. Condensed threads of genetic material formed from chromatin
as a cell prepares to divide
cytokinesis
crossing over
sister chromatid
centromere
homologous
chromosome
spindle
haploid
diploid
chromosome
genetic
recombination
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