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Below is an original drawing in a book called Micrographia.
1. Whose work is this?
2. What was he drawing?
3. What is the significance of this observation?
4. What technology enabled him to make this drawing?
5. The “cell theory” is a fundamental concept of biology. List the 3 aspects of this concept.
6. Below is an image of an electron microscope. On the right are two images of ciliated cells in the
trachea of a rabbit. Label each image with the proper type of electron microscope used (scanning or
7. What enables an electron microscope to image something much
smaller than a light microscope is capable imaging?
Below is a diagram of a specific type of cell.
8. Is this a prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell? How do you
9. Does this type of cell have DNA (genetic material)?
10. Which characteristics of life (from chapter 1)
would this organism possess?
11. What is the generalized name for organisms of this
cell type?
Below is a diagram of a specific cell type.
12. Label the organelle that defines this type of cell.
13. Would this be a single-celled or multi-celled organism?
14. List the 4 kingdoms (groups of organisms) whose
organisms are composed of this type of cell.
Below is a diagram (and electron microscope photos) of a “nucleus” and surrounding “organelles”.
15. Label the following parts of the nucleus: nuclear
envelope, nuclear pores, nucleolus, and chromatin.
16. What is the function of the nucleolus?
17. Label the endoplasmic reticulum.
18. What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum?
19. Would this be considered “rough ER” or “smooth ER”?
How do you know?
20. What is the function of ribosomes?
Below is a diagram the represents the formation of a “lysosome” and the processes of “intracellular
digestion” and “autophagy”.
21. The transport vesicle originates from the rough
endoplasmic reticulum. In this scenario, what special
type of proteins would this vesicle be transporting?
22. Where does the lysosome originate?
23. You will notice that the small red dots in the
lysosome are the same ones as in the transport
vesicle. If the food entering the cell was sucrose, what
specific molecule would the small red dots represent?
24. What is “autophagy” and why is this process
necessary for homeostasis?
Below is a diagram of an “animal cell”.
25. Label the mitochondria in this cell.
26. Why is the mitochondria sometimes called the
“powerhouse” of the cell?
27. List two types of human cells that would contain
a vast amount of mitochondria.
28. To whom can you give credit for the inheritance
of ALL your fabulous mitochondria?
Below is a diagram of a “plant cell”.
29. Do plant cells contain mitochondria? If so,
label it in the diagram.
30. What energy converting organelle does the
plant cell have that animal cells do not? Label
this organelle.
31. Label the central vacuole. What is the
function of this organelle?
32. What is the external barrier of a plant cell
called (animal’s do not have this structure)?
Label this structure.
33. Mitochondria and chloroplast contain their own genetic material (DNA that is not yours!). What is
the name of the theory that explains how they ended up in eukaryotic cells? Briefly explain the theory.
34. Below is an image of a cell taken with a “confocal light microscope” using “fluorescent labels”
attached to cytoskeleton (blue) and the nucleus (red).
34. In which macromolecule group does cytoskeleton
35. Cytoskeleton has a multitude of functions. Explain two
of these functions.
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