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Geol 170
Exam #1 review
List of topics
Formation of the Earth: when and how (planetismals)
Earth’s structure
Chemical: Core, Mantle, Crust
Physical: inner core, outer core, mesosphere, asthenosphere, lithosphere
Plate tectonics:
- sources of heat, heat transfer in asthenosphere, convection cells
- types of plate boundaries (divergent, transform, convergent)
- convergent: subduction and collision
- evidence of plate tectonics, Pangaea
- Plate boundaries
Stress and strain
- Types of stress (compression, tension, shear)
- Types of strain (elastic, brittle, ductile)
- Factors determining ductile vs. brittle strain
- Folds (anticline, syncline, limbs), faults (dip-slip, strike-slip, oblique)
- Elastic rebound model for earthquake generation
- Fault creep vs. stick slip
- plate boundaries, type of stress, fault types (diagram)
Earthquakes:
- Causes of earthquakes
- Types of waves (P, S, Surface(love, Rayleigh))
- Wave properties and relative velocities
- Strong and weak motion seismographs
- Locating an epicenter from P and S waves
- Moment tensor solutions: beach balls and fault type
Earthquake size:
o Magnitude (Richter, Moment) (differences between)
o Intensity (Modified Mercalli Scale)
o Magnitude vs. Intensity (benefits, drawbacks)
o Factors that affect intensity of shaking
(distance, magnitude, material, fault geometry (directivity))
Seismic hazards (risk areas, seismic gaps, paleoseismology, recurrence interval, probability)
- Hazards and examples (shaking, collapse, liquefaction, landslides, fires, tsunamis)
- Northwest and Seattle seismic hazards
- 3 ways earthquakes are generated in region:
o megathrusts, shallow crustal, deep slab
o evidence, recurrence intervals, EQ generation (stress and strain)
Tectonic setting of western U.S
Relationship of plate boundaries to: stress, fault type, beach balls
Maps and cross sections
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