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Chapter 7 (Lessons 1-3)
Study Guide
Model T
1. Henry Ford built the Model T car in 1908.
2. Model Ts were exactly alike because they were built on an assembly line.
3. Each car could be built in an hour and a half (instead of 12 hours).
A Nation of Drivers
By 1929 there were about 26 MILLION cars in the U.S.
How did cars change the nation?
1.
Demand for better roads.
2.
Government raised money through taxes and traffic tickets.
3.
New jobs created in car factories, road construction, and auto repair.
4.
Hotels, gas stations, and restaurants opened to serve travelers.
5.
People could live farther from their jobs and many moved out of the cities.
The Age of the Radio
How did the growth of the radio change the nation’s culture?
1.
Advertising (commercials)
2.
Families sat down together to listen to favorite shows
3.
Songs became popular
4.
Mass media began to shape a common American culture
Going to the Movies
Movies were another form of mass communication that swept the nation in the early 1900’s and had a deep
impact on the shape of American culture.
Example: Moviegoers often copied the hairstyles and clothes of movie stars.
Prohibition
Reformers, concerned that people abused alcohol, called for Prohibition.
Prohibition – a legal ban on the sale of alcohol.
The 18th Amendment (1919) – a law added to the Constitution outlawing the manufacture, sale, and transport
of alcohol.
Why was Prohibition ended?
1.
The police were unable to enforce the law
2.
Criminals had taken over the alcohol business
3.
Bootleggers and speakeasies
4.
Many people opposed Prohibition
The 21st Amendment (1933) – a law added to the Constitution that ended Prohibition.
The Jazz Age
Jazz music was the most popular form of music in the 1920’s.
Leading Artists
1. Duke Ellington - famous jazz composer and bandleader
2. Louis Armstrong - important jazz trumpet player, songwriter, and singer
Dances
1.
The Charleston
2.
The Lindy Hop
How did jazz influence modern culture?
It caused many changes in theater, dance, and literature. Examples include: Writer – F. Scott Fitzgerald and
Dancer – Isadora Duncan
The Harlem Renaissance – a period of achievement in music, art, and writing by African-Americans living in
Harlem.
Beneath the Surface
In many ways, the 1920’s seemed like a prosperous time. However, the good times of the 1920’s hid some
weaknesses in the U.S. economy.
What were some weaknesses in the economy during the 1920’s?
1.
Farmers had borrowed money from banks to produce food for WW I = DEBT!
2.
Manufacturing industries had produced more than they could sell and were laying off workers.
3.
Unemployment began to rise.
The Stock Market Crash
Companies sell shares called stocks, to investors on the stock market. Stock prices rose steadily in the
1920’s.
In October 1929, the market CRASHED!
By November, investors had lost $26 billion. Many people lost ALL of their money.
The Great Depression – the time period of the worst economic hardship in U.S. history.
Fast Facts
1.
Many people lost all of their savings.
2.
Banks were hurt. Almost ½ had to close!
3.
Congress placed a tax on imported crops to encourage people to buy American farm goods.
4.
High tariffs made it hard for U.S. companies to see goods abroad.
Hard Times
TOP TEN Reasons the Great Depression was NOT SO GREAT!
1.
People cut back on spending.
2.
Factories cut production or closed.
3.
Many people lost jobs, homes, and faced poverty.
4.
Teachers paid less and schools even closed.
5.
Crop prices continued to fall.
6.
High school and college graduates couldn’t find jobs.
7.
Many people delayed getting married.
8.
Families STRUGGLED.
9.
Women and children worked.
10.
Breadlines for hungry. Houses built out of cardboard boxes for homeless (called shantytowns).
Election of 1932
President Hoover’s approach to the Great Depression did not appeal to the voters, who instead elected
Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932.
KNOW ALL VOCABULARY TERMS FOR CHAPTER 7
(LESSONS 1- 3) ~ Matching section on Test
Short answer, fill in the blank & discussion questions
*Amelia Earheart = 1st women to fly across Atlantic Ocean.
*Georgia O’Keeffe = Famous female artist (painter)