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Transcript
Biology, 7e (Campbell)
Chapter 35: Plant Structure, Growth, and Development
Chapter Questions
1) You are studying a plant from the arid southwestern United States. Which of the following adaptations is least
likely to have evolved in response to water shortages?
A) closing the stomata during the hottest time of the day
B) development of large leaf surfaces to absorb water
C) formation of a fibrous root system spread over a large area
D) mycorrhizae associated with the root system
E) a thick waxy cuticle on the epidermis
Answer: B
Topic: Overview
Skill: Application
2) Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?
A) taproots
B) root hairs
C) the thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem
D) storage roots
E) sections of the root that have secondary xylem
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 35.1 (6)
Skill: Knowledge
3) An evolutionary adaptation that increases exposure of a plant to light in a dense forest is
A) closing of the stomata.
B) lateral buds.
C) apical dominance.
D) absence of petioles.
E) intercalary meristems.
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Knowledge
4) A person working with plants may remove apical dominance by doing which of the following?
A) pruning
B) deep watering of the roots
C) fertilizing
D) transplanting
E) feeding the plants nutrients
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Comprehension
5) What effect does "pinching back" have on a houseplant?
A) increases apical dominance
B) inhibits the growth of lateral buds
C) produces a plant that will grow taller
D) produces a plant that will grow fuller
E) increases the flow of auxin down the shoot
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Comprehension
6) Land plants are composed of all the following tissue types except
A) mesodermal.
B) epidermal.
C) meristematic.
D) vascular.
E) ground tissue.
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Knowledge
7) Vascular plant tissue includes all of the following cell types except
A) vessel elements.
B) sieve cells.
C) tracheids.
D) companion cells.
E) cambium cells.
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Knowledge
8) Which functional plant cells lack a nucleus?
A) xylem only
B) sieve cells only
C) companion cells only
D) both companion and parenchyma cells
E) both xylem and sieve-tube cells
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Knowledge
The questions below use the following answers. Each answer may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
parenchyma
collenchyma
sclerenchyma
tracheids
sieve cells
9) long, thin tapered cells with lignified cell walls that function in support and permit water to flow through pits
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Knowledge
10) living cells that lack nuclei and ribosomes; they transport sugars and other organic nutrients
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Knowledge
11) the least specialized plant cells, which serve general metabolic, synthetic, and storage functions
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Knowledge
12) cells with unevenly thickened primary walls that support still-elongating parts of the plant
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Knowledge
13) mature cells without protoplasts with thick, lignified secondary walls that may or may not function in transport
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Knowledge
14) Which of the following is not a characteristic of parenchyma cells?
A) thin primary walls
B) flexible primary walls
C) lack of specialization
D) lack of secondary walls
E) little metabolism and synthesis
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Knowledge
15) Which of the following tissues is incorrectly matched with its characteristics?
A) collenchyma-uniformly thick-walled supportive tissue
B) epidermis-protective outer covering of plant body
C) sclerenchyma-heavily lignified secondary walls
D) meristematic tissue-undifferentiated tissue capable of cell division
E) parenchyma-thin-walled, loosely packed, unspecialized cells
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Knowledge
16) The fiber cells of plants are a type of
A) parenchyma.
B) sclerenchyma.
C) collenchyma.
D) meristematic cell.
E) phloem
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Knowledge
17) The vascular bundle in the shape of a single central cylinder in a root is called the
A) cortex.
B) stele.
C) endodermis.
D) periderm.
E) pith.
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Knowledge
18) One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that
A) only leaves have phloem and only roots have xylem.
B) the cells of roots have cell walls and leaf cells do not.
C) a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent in roots.
D) vascular tissue is found in roots but is absent from leaves.
E) leaves have epidermal tissue but roots do not.
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Comprehension
19) The photosynthetic cells in the interior of a leaf are what kind of cells?
A) parenchyma
B) collenchyma
C) sclerenchyma
D) phloem
E) endodermis
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Knowledge
20) A student examining leaf cross sections under a microscope finds many loosely packed cells with relatively thin
cell walls. The cells have numerous chloroplasts. What type of cells are these?
A) parenchyma
B) xylem
C) endodermis
D) collenchyma
E) sclerenchyma
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 35.1
Skill: Application
21) The best word to describe the growth of plants in general is
A) perennial.
B) weedy.
C) indeterminate.
D) derivative.
E) primary.
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 35.2
Skill: Comprehension
22) Which of the following is true about secondary growth in plants?
A) Flowers may have secondary growth.
B) Secondary growth is a common feature of eudicot leaves.
C) Secondary growth is produced by both the vascular cambium and the cork cambium.
D) Primary growth and secondary growth alternate in the life cycle of a plant.
E) Plants with secondary growth are typically the smallest ones in an ecosystem.
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 35.2
Skill: Knowledge
23) A friend has discovered a new plant and brings it to you to classify. The plant has the following characteristics:
a taproot system with growth rings evident in cross section and a layer of bark around the outside. Which of the
following best describes the new plant?
A) herbaceous eudicot
B) woody eudicot
C) woody monocot
D) herbaceous monocot
E) woody annual
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Application
24) The driving force that pushes the root tip through the soil is due primarily to
A) continuous cell division in the root cap at the tip of the root.
B) continuous cell division just behind the root cap in the center of the apical meristem.
C) elongation of cells behind the root apical meristem.
D) A and B only.
E) A, B, and C.
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Comprehension
25) Shoot elongation in a growing bud is due primarily to
A) cell division at the shoot apical meristem.
B) cell elongation directly behind the shoot apical meristem.
C) cell division localized in each internode.
D) cell elongation localized in each internode.
E) A and B only.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Knowledge
26) Axillary buds
A) are initiated by the cork cambium.
B) develop from meristematic cells left by the apical meristem.
C) are composed of a series of internodes lacking nodes.
D) grow immediately into shoot branches.
E) do not form a vascular connection with the primary shoot.
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Knowledge
27) Gas exchange, necessary for photosynthesis, can occur most easily in which leaf tissue?
A) epidermis
B) palisade mesophyll
C) spongy mesophyll
D) vascular tissue
E) bundle sheath
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Knowledge
The following question is based on parts of a growing primary root.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
root cap
zone of elongation
zone of cell division
zone of cell maturation
apical meristem
28) Which of the following is the correct sequence from the growing tips of the root upward?
A) I, II, V, III, IV
B) III, V, I, II, IV
C) II, IV, I, V, III
D) IV, II, III, I, V
E) I, V, III, II, IV
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Knowledge
29) Which of the following is incorrectly paired with its structure and function?
A) sclerenchyma-supporting cells with thick secondary walls
B) periderm-protective coat of woody stems and roots
C) pericycle-waterproof ring of cells surrounding the central stele in roots
D) mesophyll-parenchyma cells functioning in photosynthesis in leaves
E) ground meristem-primary meristem that produces the ground tissue system
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Knowledge
30) Which of the following illustrates the idea that the fate of a cell is a direct result of its position?
A) Some root epidermal cells form hairs; others do not.
B) Floating leaves of Cabomba have a different shape than submerged leaves.
C) Some shoot epidermal cells form stomata; others do not.
D) A and C only
E) A, B, and C
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Knowledge
31) Which of the following root tissues gives rise to lateral roots?
A) endodermis
B) phloem
C) cortex
D) epidermis
E) pericycle
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Knowledge
The following questions are based on the drawing of root or stem cross sections shown in Figure 35.1.
Figure 35.1
32) A woody eudicot is represented by
A) I only.
B) II only.
C) III only.
D) IV only.
E) both I and III.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 35.4
Skill: Comprehension
33) A monocot stem is represented by
A) I only.
B) II only.
C) III only.
D) IV only.
E) both I and III.
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Comprehension
34) A plant that is at least three years old is represented by
A) I only.
B) II only.
C) III only.
D) IV only.
E) both I and III.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Comprehension
35) A leaf primordium is initiated as a small mound of tissue on the flank of a dome-shaped shoot apical meristem.
The earliest physical evidence of the site of a newly forming leaf primordium would be
A) development of chloroplasts in a surface cell of the shoot apical meristem.
B) cell division in the shoot apical meristem with the newly forming walls perpendicular to the surface of the
meristem.
C) pre-prophase bands parallel to the surface of the meristem in subsurface cells of the shoot apical meristem.
D) elongation of epidermal cells perpendicular to the surface of the shoot apical meristem.
E) formation of stomata in the epidermal layer of the shoot apical meristem.
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Comprehension
36) Pores on the leaf surface that function in gas exchange are called
A) hairs.
B) xylem cells.
C) phloem cells.
D) stomata.
E) sclereids.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Knowledge
37) Which of the following is a true statement about growth in plants?
A) Only primary growth is localized at meristems.
B) Some plants lack secondary growth.
C) Only stems have secondary growth.
D) Only secondary growth produces reproductive structures.
E) Monocots have only primary growth, and eudicots have only secondary growth.
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Comprehension
38) All of the following cell types are correctly matched with their functions except
A) mesophyll-photosynthesis
B) guard cell-regulation of transpiration
C) sieve-tube member-translocation
D) vessel element-water transport
E) companion cell-formation of secondary xylem and phloem
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Comprehension
39) As a youngster, you drive a nail in the trunk of a young tree that is 3 meters tall. The nail is about 1.5 meters
from the ground. Fifteen years later, you return and discover the tree has grown to a height of 30 meters. The nail is
now ________ meters above the ground.
A) 0.5
B) 1.5
C) 3.0
D) 15.0
E) 28.5
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Application
40) A short branch was cut into three segments as shown in Figure 35.2 to root some cuttings. Roots will form at
which position(s)?
Figure 35.2
A) A only
B) A and B
C) A, B, and C
D) A, C, and E
E) A, B, C, D, and E
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 35.3
Skill: Application
41) What tissue makes up most of the wood of a tree?
A) primary xylem
B) secondary xylem
C) secondary phloem
D) mesophyll cells
E) vascular cambium
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 35.4
Skill: Knowledge
42) The vascular system of a three-year-old eudicot stem consists of
A) 3 rings of xylem and 3 of phloem.
B) 2 rings of xylem and 2 of phloem.
C) 2 rings of xylem and 1 of phloem.
D) 2 rings of xylem and 3 of phloem.
E) 3 rings of xylem and 1 of phloem.
Answer: E
Topic: Concept 35.4
Skill: Comprehension
43) If you were able to walk into an opening cut into the center of a large redwood tree, when you exit from the
middle of the trunk (stem) outward, you would cross, in order,
A) the annual rings, phloem, and bark.
B) the newest xylem, oldest phloem, and periderm.
C) the vascular cambium, oldest xylem, and newest xylem.
D) the secondary xylem, secondary phloem, and vascular cambium.
E) the summer wood, bark, and phloem.
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 35.4
Skill: Application
44) Which of the following is true of bark?
A) It is composed of phloem plus periderm.
B) It is associated with annuals but not perennials.
C) It is formed by the apical meristems.
D) It has no identifiable function in trees.
E) It forms annual rings in deciduous trees.
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 35.4
Skill: Knowledge
45) Bark becomes scaly because
A) the cork cambium stops dividing in certain places.
B) some cork cells die and slough off while others remain alive.
C) ray parenchyma supplies only the "ridges" of bark.
D) cork cambium divides only parallel to the surface, and thus does not increase in circumference.
E) cork cambium has both ray and fusiform initials.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 35.4
Skill: Comprehension
46) Suppose George Washington completely removed the bark from around the base of a cherry tree but was
stopped by his father before cutting the tree down. The leaves retained their normal appearance for several weeks,
but the tree eventually died. The tissue(s) that George left functional was (were) the
A) phloem.
B) xylem.
C) cork cambium.
D) cortex.
E) companion and sieve-tube members.
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 35.4
Skill: Application
47) Additional vascular tissue produced as secondary growth in a root originates from which cells?
A) vascular cambium
B) apical meristem
C) endodermis
D) phloem
E) xylem
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 35.4
Skill: Comprehension
48) While studying the plant Arabidopsis, a botanist finds that an RNA probe produces colored spots in the sepals
of the plant. From this information, what information can be inferred?
A) The differently colored plants will attract different pollinating insects.
B) The RNA probe is transported only to certain tissues.
C) The colored regions were caused by mutations that occurred in the sepals.
D) The RNA probe is specific to a gene active in sepals.
E) More research needs to be done on the sepals of Arabidopsis.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 35.5
Skill: Application
49) Before differentiation can begin during the processes of plant cell and tissue culture, parenchyma cells from the
source tissue must
A) differentiate into procambium.
B) undergo dedifferentiation.
C) increase the number of chromosomes in their nuclei.
D) enzymatically digest their primary cell walls.
E) establish a new polarity in their cytoplasm.
Answer: B
Topic: Concept 35.5
Skill: Comprehension
50) The polarity of a plant is established when
A) the zygote divides.
B) cotyledons form at the shoot end of the embryo.
C) the shoot-root axis is established in the embryo.
D) the primary root breaks through the seed coat.
E) the shoot first breaks through the soil into the light as the seed germinates.
Answer: A
Topic: Concept 35.5
Skill: Comprehension
Figure 35.3
Sectors of corn plants
51) Each of the patterns indicated in Figure 35.3 above occurred as a sector during clonal analysis of several corn
plants. Based on this data, a growth module in corn must consist of
A) a leaf only.
B) a leaf and its associated node.
C) a leaf, its associated node, and the internode below.
D) a leaf, its associated node, the internode below, and the bud below the leaf.
E) a leaf and its associated node and axillary bud, and the internode below the leaf.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 35.5
Skill: Comprehension
52) "Totipotency" is a term used to describe the ability of a cell to give rise to a complete new organism. In plants,
this means that
A) plant development is not under genetic control.
B) the cells of shoots and the cells of roots have different genes.
C) cell differentiation depends largely on the control of gene expression.
D) a cell's environment has no effect on its differentiation.
E) sexual reproduction is not necessary in plants.
Answer: C
Topic: Concept 35.5
Skill: Application
53) According to the ABC model of floral development, a showy ornamental flower with multiple sepals and petals
but no stamens or carpels would express
A) A genes only.
B) B genes only.
C) C genes only.
D) A and B genes only.
E) A and C genes only.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 35.5
Skill: Knowledge
54) Suppose a feeding insect destroys only the very central portion of a developing flower bud. Which of the
following statements is most likely to be true?
A) None of the A, B, or C floral organ identifying genes will "turn on" as floral development proceeds.
B) Petals formed subsequent to the insect attack will be disfigured.
C) Stamens formed subsequent to the insect attack will be sterile.
D) Carpels will not form in the developing flower.
E) Only the A floral organ identifying gene will be affected.
Answer: D
Topic: Concept 35.5
Skill: Comprehension
Media Activity Questions
55) In leaves, chloroplasts are found in
A) xylem.
B) cuticle.
C) phloem
D) guard cells.
E) palisade mesophyll.
Answer: E
Topic: Activity: Roots, Stems, and Leaves
56) ________ provides cells for secondary growth.
A) Apical meristem
B) Secondary xylem
C) Vascular cambium
D) Secondary phloem
E) The root
Answer: C
Topic: Web/CD Activity: Growth
57) Secondary growth never occurs in
A) stems.
B) roots.
C) leaves.
D) stems and leaves.
E) roots and leaves.
Answer: C
Topic: Web/CD Activity: Growth
58) How is the supply of vascular cambium maintained?
A) by the differentiation of the secondary xylem
B) by the differentiation of the secondary phloem
C) by the differentiation of cork
D) by the division of cells
E) by the differentiation of apical meristem
Answer: D
Topic: Web/CD Activity: Growth
59) ________ provides cells for primary growth.
A) Lateral meristems
B) Apical meristems
C) Vascular cambium
D) Cork cambium
E) Xylem
Answer: B
Topic: Web/CD Activity: Growth
Self-Quiz Questions
60) Which structure is incorrectly paired with its tissue system?
A) root hair-dermal tissue
B) palisade parenchyma-ground tissue
C) guard cell-dermal tissue
D) companion cell-ground tissue
E) tracheid-vascular tissue
Answer: D
61) A vessel cell would likely lose its protoplast in which zone of growth in a root?
A) zone of cell division
B) zone of elongation
C) zone of maturation
D) root cap
E) apical meristem
Answer: C
62) Wood consists of
A) bark.
B) periderm.
C) secondary xylem.
D) secondary phloem.
E) cork.
Answer: C
63) Which of the following is not part of an older tree's bark?
A) cork
B) cork cambium
C) lenticels
D) secondary xylem
E) secondary phloem
Answer: D
64) The phase change of an apical meristem from the juvenile to mature vegetative phase is often signaled by
A) a change in the morphology of the leaves that are produced.
B) the initiation of secondary growth.
C) the formation of lateral roots.
D) a change in the orientation of the preprophase bands and cytoplasmic microtubules in lateral meristems.
E) the activation of floral meristem identity genes.
Answer: A
65) Which of the following arise from meristematic activity?
A) secondary xylem
B) leaves
C) trichomes
D) tubers
E) all of the above
Answer: E
66) "Pinching off" the tops of snapdragons causes the plants to make many more flowers than they would if left
alone. Why does removal of the snapdragon's top cause more flowers to form?
A) Removal of an apical meristem causes a phase transition from vegetative to floral development.
B) Removal of an apical meristem causes cell division to become disorganized, much like in the fass mutant of
Arabidopsis.
C) Removal of an apical meristem allows more nutrients to be delivered to floral meristems.
D) Removal of an apical meristem causes outgrowth of lateral buds that produce extra branches, which ultimately
produce flowers.
E) Removal of an apical meristem allows the periderm to produce new lateral branches.
Answer: D
67) ________ is to xylem as ________ is to phloem.
A) Sclerenchyma cell; parenchyma cell
B) Apical meristem; vascular cambium
C) Vessel element; sieve-tube member
D) Cortex; pith
E) Vascular cambium; cork cambium
Answer: C
68) The type of mature cell that a particular embryonic plant cell will become appears to be determined mainly by
A) the selective loss of genes.
B) the cell's final position in a developing organ.
C) the cell's pattern of migration.
D) the cell's age.
E) the cell's particular meristematic lineage.
Answer: B
69) Based on the hypothesis presented in Figure 35.31 in your textbook, predict floral morphology of a mutant
lacking activity of B genes.
A) carpel-petal-petal-carpel
B) petal-petal-petal-petal
C) sepal-sepal-carpel-carpel
D) sepal-carpel-carpel-sepal
E) carpel-carpel-carpel-carpel
Answer: C