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THE END OF THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC
THE MANHATTAN PROJECT
- In the late 1930s, in response to Nazi Germany’s development projects, the United
States began looking into the construction of a __________________________________
- In order to further the research effort the U.S. helped Jewish Austrian scientist
____________________________________________ escape from Nazi Germany
- In December of 1941 _________________________________________________ of
the University of California was put in charge of finding a way to create a nuclear
weapon
- By the summer of 1942 _________________________ and his team understood,
theoretically, how to make a nuclear weapon
- Oppenheimer became known as “__________________________________________”
- Most of the work on the first atomic bombs was done at ________________________
______________________________________ in New Mexico
- On July 16, 1945 the first nuclear bomb was tested in New Mexico. That test is known
as “____________________.” It clearly showed the awesome power of the new weapon.
- Meanwhile, new U.S. President ____________________________________________
had just recently been informed that the _________________________________ existed
- Truman was now faced with a difficult decision: should he use the bomb on Japan?
ARGUMENTS AGAINST DROPPING THE BOMB
- Japan was ready to call it quits anyway. More than 60 of its cities had been destroyed by
conventional and fire bombing, the home islands were being blockaded by the American
Navy, and the Soviet Union entered the war by attacking Japanese troops in Manchuria.
- A ________________________________________ over Tokyo harbor could convince
Japan's leaders to quit without killing many people.
- Thousands of _____________________________________________, would likely die.
- Conventional ________________________ would cause as much significant damage.
ARGUMENTS IN FAVOR DROPPING THE BOMB
- The Japanese had demonstrated near-fanatical resistance, fighting to almost the last man
on Pacific islands, committing mass suicide on Saipan and unleashing kamikaze attacks
at Okinawa.
- Firebombing had killed 200,000 in Tokyo alone with no discernible political effect.
_____________________________________________________________ to surrender.
- With only two bombs ready (and a third on the way by late August 1945) it would be
__________________________________________________ over an unpopulated area.
- An invasion of Japan would have caused _____________________________________
- Japanese cities were being firebombed anyway.
A DECISION IS MADE
- November, 1944 – August, 1945: Firebombing of Tokyo did not cause the Japanese to
surrender
- July 26, 1945: U.S. issued the _______________________________ calling for Japan’s
unconditional surrender and threatened “prompt and utter destruction” if it was not given;
Japanese diplomats ignored the Declaration and attempted to hide it from the public; U.S.
radio broadcasted the Declaration and U.S. aircraft dropped paper copies into Japan
- __________________ decided it was in fact necessary to use the atomic bomb on Japan
- On August 6th, 1945 the __________________________ took off for Japan carrying
_____________________________.
- “Little Boy” was dropped on _______________________________.
- The Japanese refused Allied demands for _____________________________________
- On August 9th, 1945 _____________________ was dropped on ___________________
- 210,000 people died within the first month of the bombing and the _________________
________________________________________________________________________
V-J DAY
- On August 15th, 1945 the Japanese agreed to an ________________________________
to the Allies
- V-J Day marked the true end of _________________________________________
- September 2, 1945: Japan officially surrenders aboard the USS Missouri