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Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
Course Description
This course is an in-depth study of the early years of our country, covering the time periods
of colonization through reconstruction. This study incorporates each of the seven
standards into the chronology. While students are studying a particular historical event in
the United States, they also look at its geographic settings, economic implications,
developments in government and the role of citizens. Students will use multiple sources to
apply learning to real world settings while encouraging civic participation.
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
TOPIC: Historical Thinking and Skills (ongoing)

Historical thinking begins with a clear sense of time - past, present and future - and
becomes more precise as students progress. Historical thinking includes skills such as
locating, researching, analyzing and interpreting primary and secondary sources so that
students can begin to understand the relationships among events and draw conclusions.
CONTENT STATEMENT

Primary and secondary sources are used to examine events from multiple perspectives and
to present and defend a position.
CONCEPTS

This topic will be integrated throughout
the course.
VOCABULARY




Primary source
Secondary source
Narrative
Bias
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
▪
▪
Identify characteristics and examples of primary and secondary sources.
Write a historical narrative using both kinds of sources.
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
TOPIC: Colonization to Independence (1 week)

European countries established colonies in North America as a means of increasing wealth
and power. As the English colonies developed their own governments and economies, they
resisted domination by the monarchy, rebelled and fought for independence.
CONTENT STATEMENT (History 2d,e,f)

North America, originally inhabited by American Indians, was explored and colonized by
Europeans for economic and religious reasons.
CONCEPTS

Reasons for colonization
VOCABULARY


Colonization
▪ Push/Pull Factors
 Religious Differences
 Land Opportunity
 Attainment of Wealth
 Economic/Trade
 Power in Global Community
 Political Freedom
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
▪
▪
Explain the purpose of colonization.
Identify/analyze the reasons for colonization including religion, quest for land, wealth,
economics and trade, power in global community, and political freedom.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: Colonization to Independence (1 week)

European countries established colonies in North America as a means of increasing wealth
and power. As the English colonies developed their own governments and economies, they
resisted domination by the monarchy, rebelled and fought for independence.
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
CONTENT STATEMENT (History 2d,e,f; 3a,b)

Competition for control of territory and resources in North America led to conflicts among
colonizing powers.
CONCEPTS
▪
Makeup of early colonies.
 English (Jamestown, Plymouth)
 French
 Spanish
▪
Native American’s concept of
“land ownership.”
▪
Agricultural exchange – what/how
to grow.
▪
Alliance formation.
▪
Cultural exchange.
▪
Conflicts.
▪
Colonial powers in North America.
▪
Reasons for conflict.
▪
Territorial control.
VOCABULARY








John Rolfe
Farming Techniques
Cash crops
Subsistence farming
Pilgrim/Puritans
French/Indian War
Pontiac’s Rebellion
Treaty of Paris
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
▪
Describe the unique differences in the makeup of the English colonies, French, and
Spanish.
Compare Native American concept of land ownership to European concept.
Identify agricultural and cultural exchanges that occurred between Native American and
European settlers including growing of crops, introduction of new foods, survival techniques,
customs.
Evaluate the reasons alliances were formed between Native Americans and Europeans and
determine the impact of these alliances on relationships with Europeans and other tribe.
Identify the major colonial powers in North America including England, France, and Spain.
Scrutinize the underlying causes for conflict among these nations that carried over into the
colonies.
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: Colonization to Independence (1 week)

European countries established colonies in North America as a means of increasing wealth
and power. As the English colonies developed their own governments and economies, they
resisted domination by the monarchy, rebelled and fought for independence.
CONTENT STATEMENT (History 2d,e,f)

The practice of race-based slavery led to the forced migration of millions of Africans to the
American colonies. Their knowledge and traditions contributed to the development of those
colonies and the United States.
CONCEPTS

Differences between indentured
servants/slaves.

Economic factors leading to
institutionalization of slavery.

Geographic factors affecting use of
slavery.

Racism.

Institutionalization.
VOCABULARY







Indentured Servant
Slave
Cash Crops
Racism
Slave Codes
Triangular trade
Middle Passage
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
▪
▪
▪
Define indentured servant/slave.
Explain differences between the state of indentured servitude and slavery.
Discuss economic factors that led to slavery as an institution including: climate, physical
features, growing season, cash crops.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: Colonization to Independence (3 weeks)

European countries established colonies in North America as a means of increasing wealth
and power. As the English colonies developed their own governments and economies, they
resisted domination by the monarchy, rebelled and fought for independence.
CONTENT STATEMENT (History 2d,e,f)

The ideas of the Enlightenment and dissatisfaction with colonial rule led English colonists to
write the Declaration of Independence and launch the American Revolution.
CONCEPTS
▪
Declaration of Independence.
 Three (3) parts.
o Rights of people
o Wrongs of king
o Intent to separate
 Enlightenment philosophies.
 Consequences of signing the
documents.
 Lack of minority rights.
 Right of rebellion.
VOCABULARY






Natural Rights
Thomas Jefferson
Tyranny
Enlightenment
John Locke
Self-government
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
Discuss three (3) parts of the Declaration of Independence including the rights of the people,
wrongs of the king, intent to establish the U.S.A.
Distinguish which enlightenment philosophy ideas were incorporated into the Declaration of
Independence.
Interpret what the founding fathers really meant by “all men are created equal” in
relationship to minority rights.
Recognize the consequences of signing the Declaration of Independence in relationship to
life/liberty of signers.
Analyze the Enlightenment ideas that were incorporated into the Declaration of
Independence.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES:

Interact Unit: “Independence” (8th Advanced)
TOPIC: A New Nation (3 weeks)

The United States shifted in governing philosophy from a loosely organized system
characterized by strong states’ rights to a federal system.
CONTENT STATEMENT

The outcome of the American Revolution was national independence and new political,
social and economic relationships for the American people.
CONCEPTS
VOCABULARY

Effect of state government on postrevolution American government.




Roles of women.

African-American involvement.

Native American involvement.
Democratic Processes
State Constitutions
Suffrage
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
▪
▪
▪
▪
Discuss reasons individual colonies were encouraged to create state constitutions.
Examine democratic processes found in state constitutions and what impact they had on
democratic ideals of the American Revolution and the creation of a new government.
Investigate the effects the “state of war” had on women’s roles.
Examine the roles of African Americans and Native Americans in the war and the effect
various military policies had on these roles.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: A New Nation (2 weeks)

The United States shifted in governing philosophy from a loosely organized system
characterized by strong states’ rights to a federal system.
CONTENT STATEMENT

Problems arising under the Articles of Confederation led to debate over the adoption of the
U.S. Constitution.
CONCEPTS
VOCABULARY

















Major problems:
 Maintaining national security.
 Creating a stable economic system.
 Dealing with war debts.
 Collecting revenue.
 Defining authority of central
government.
Constitution.

Compromise

Representation.

Varying points of view concerning
purpose and role of government.
Articles of Confederation
Federalists
Anti-Federalists
Republic
Ratification
Three-Fifths Compromise
Virginia Plan
New Jersey Plan
Great Compromise
Constitutional Convention
Civil Rights
Limited Government
Federalist Papers
Bill of Rights
Federalism
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:









Examine the problems faced by the government under the Articles of Confederation by
debating views of Federalists and Anti-Federalists.
Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
Examine shortcomings of Articles of Confederation and predict how the Constitution will
address those shortcomings.
Distinguish the various plans/proposals of representation including Virginia and New
Jersey Plans.
Examine how the Great Compromise incorporated and balanced the New Jersey and
Virginia Plans.
Explain why some people opposed the new Constitution.
Construct an argument of a Federalist/Anti-Federalist including civil rights, limited
government, Bill of Rights.
Explain civic participation in the ratification of the Constitution.
Identify how Three-Fifths Compromise highlighted regional differences which existed at
the time.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: A New Nation (2 weeks)

The United States shifted in governing philosophy from a loosely organized system
characterized by strong states’ rights to a federal system.
CONTENT STATEMENT

Actions of early presidential administrations established a strong federal government,
provided peaceful transitions of power and repelled a foreign invasion.
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
CONCEPTS

Significance of Washington’s first term
in setting precedents for future
presidents.

Economic role of our new government.

Creation of expanded and more
organized judicial system.
VOCABULARY










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
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




Precedent
Cabinet
Presidency
Electoral College
Roles of the Federal Government
Loose and Strict Construction
Elastic Clause
National Debt
State Debts
Protective Tariffs
National Bank
Inflation
Bonds
Speculators
Thomas Jefferson
Federal Court System/Levels
Judiciary Act
Supreme Court
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
Analyze the precedents of George Washington and their effect on the establishment of the
government and future presidents.
Examine the purpose and function of the electoral college.
Students will examine the role of the federal government in paying off the national debt and
its impact in creating a financially strong country.
Discuss arguments for and against the creation of a national bank and interpretation of the
Constitution.
Identify levels of courts of judicial system.
Understand significance of the Judiciary Act and how it gave power to the judicial branch.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES:



We The People (Center of Civic Education)
History Alive: “The Constitution”
Constitutional Handbook (PBS)
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
TOPIC: Expansion (2 weeks)

The addition of new territories and economic and industrial development contributed to the
growth of sectionalism in the United States.
CONTENT STATEMENT

The United States added to its territory through treaties, purchases and conquests.
CONCEPTS


Dealing with an expanding county.
 Guidelines for establishing new
states.
 Outlawing of slavery.
 Establish public education.
 Exploration.
Expansion.

Relationship with North Americans.

Manifest Destiny.

Westward movement.

Expansion.
VOCABULARY







Northwest Ordinance
Westward Expansion
Lewis and Clark
Louisiana Purchase
Sacajawea
Pioneers
Gold Rush
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
Identify the important principles of the Northwest Ordinance.
Understand the importance of the Louisiana Purchase in opening the west to expansion.
Explain how the Lewis and Clark expedition was a key development in establishing relations
with Native Americans and opening the territory for settlement.
Judge the effect of Manifest Destiny on native peoples and settlement of the west.
Examine the challenges and hardships faced by pioneers.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: Expansion (2 weeks)

The addition of new territories and economic and industrial development contributed to the
growth of sectionalism in the United States.
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
CONTENT STATEMENT

Westward expansion contributed to economic and industrial development, debates over
sectional issues, war with Mexico and the displacement of American Indians.
CONCEPTS

Westward expansion.

Land acquisition.
VOCABULARY









Republic
Annexation
Empresarios
Alamo
Mexican Laws Vs. Texan Abuse
Slavery
Immigration
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Stephen Austin
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
▪
▪
▪
▪
Describe conditions that existed between Texans and Mexicans that led to the fight for Texan
independence.
Identify events including the Alamo that led to Texan independence.
Explain the republic of Texas’ policy towards new immigrants and people already living
there.
Analyze reasons for immigration from the United States to Texas.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: Civil War & Reconstruction (3 weeks)

Sectional differences divided the North and South prior to the American Civil War. Both the
American Civil War and resulting period of Reconstruction had significant consequences for
the nation.
CONTENT STATEMENT (History 10 a,b,c)

Disputes over the nature of federalism, complicated by economic developments in the United
States, resulted in sectional issues, including slavery, which led to the American Civil War.
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
CONCEPTS
VOCABULARY

Different economies of the north and
south contributed to major regional
differences.

Inability to form an effective
compromise.



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
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
States’ Rights
Slavery
Compromise of 1850
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Secession
Abolition
Popular Sovereignty
Sectionalism
Dred Scott Decision
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Confederate States of America
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Political Parties
Abraham Lincoln
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
Explain the major provisions of the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Act and
views expressed for and against.
Analyze the impact of Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
Explain how various sections of the country responded to the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the
ways people tried to settle the conflict over slavery.
Analyze the effect of the Kansas-Nebraska Act on U.S. political parties, the rise of Abraham
Lincoln, popular sovereignty, and sectionalism.
Examine the impact of the Supreme Court’s decision in the Dred Scott case.
Compare and contrast views of Lincoln/Douglas on slavery.
Distinguish between the roles of Frederick Douglass and John Brown in the abolitionist
movement.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: Civil War & Reconstruction (1 week)

Sectional differences divided the North and South prior to the American Civil War. Both the
American Civil War and resulting period of Reconstruction had significant consequences for
the nation.
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
CONTENT STATEMENT (History 10 a,b,c)

The Reconstruction period resulted in changes to the U.S. Constitution, an affirmation of
federal authority and lingering social and political differences
CONCEPTS
VOCABULARY

Consequences of Reconstruction.

Racism.









Assassination
Black Codes
Ku Klux Klan
Reconstruction
Impeachment
Andrew Johnson
Amendments 13, 14, and 15
Freedmen’s Bureau
Radical Republicans
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
Analyze effect of end of Civil War on southern life.
Compare and contrast the views of Lincoln, Congress, and Andrew Johnson about
Reconstruction.
Evaluate impact of Freedmen’s Bureau on former slaves lives along with Amendments 13,
14, and 15.
Explain how Black Codes restricted freedoms of African-Americans.
Analyze reasons Radical Republicans wanted to impeach President Johnson.
Determine the impact of President Lincoln’s assassination on the Reconstruction process.
Explain how the Ku Klux Klan attempted to disrupt the Reconstruction process.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: Spatial Thinking and Skills (ongoing)

Spatial thinking examines the relationships among people, places and environments by
mapping and graphing geographic data. Geographic data are compiled, organized, stored and
made visible using traditional and geospatial technologies. Students need to be able to access,
read, interpret and create maps and other geographic representations as tools of analysis.
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
CONTENT STATEMENT

Modern and historical maps and other geographic tools are used to analyze how historic
events are shaped by geography.
CONCEPTS

Geography has changed prior to 1877
to the present in terms of population,
political, social, and economic
characteristics.
VOCABULARY


▪ Regions
Industrialization
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:


Analyze and explain reasons that land use has changed in various political and economic
regions of the country.
Analyze the importance of geography and how it affects historical events.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: Human Systems (1 week)

Human systems represent the settlement and structures created by people on Earth’s surface.
The growth, distribution and movements of people are driving forces behind human and
physical events. Geographers study patterns in culture and the changes that result from
human processes, migrations and the diffusion of new cultural traits.
CONTENT STATEMENTS

The availability of natural resources contributed to the geographic and economic expansion
of the United States, sometimes resulting in unintended environmental consequences.

The movement of people, products and ideas resulted in new patterns of settlement and land
use that influenced the political and economic development of the United States.
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
CONCEPTS
VOCABULARY

Physical characteristics of
environment influencing
population, settlement, and
economic activities in 18th and 19th
centuries.






Expansion changed geography
through advances in communication
and transportation.





Uneven distribution of productive
resources influenced historic events
Physical Characteristics of Regions
Population Distribution
Westward Expansion
Immigration
Advances in Transportation/
Communication
Colonization
Productive Resources
Distribution of Resources
Scarcity
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
▪
▪
▪
▪
Identify the physical characteristics which would encourage or discourage people from
settling in a region.
Analyze how settlement patterns influenced economic activities during the 18th and 19th
centuries.
Examine the effects of colonization, westward expansion, and immigration on the geography
and physical environment of the regions of the United States.
Identify the advances in communication and transportation that further affected geography.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: Human Systems (1 week)

Human systems represent the settlement and structures created by people on Earth’s surface.
The growth, distribution and movements of people are driving forces behind human and
physical events. Geographers study patterns in culture and the changes that result from
human processes, migrations and the diffusion of new cultural traits.
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
CONTENT STATEMENTS

Cultural biases, stereotypes and prejudices had social, political and economic consequences
for minority groups and the population as a whole.
CONCEPTS

Evolving of stereotyping and prejudice
into institutionalized racism and
discrimination.

Limitations on women in effort to gain
equal rights.
VOCABULARY

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Stereotype
Racism
Discrimination
Prejudice
Institutionalized
Racism/Discrimination
Women’s Rights
Seneca Falls Convention
Declaration of Sentiments
Equality
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Susan B. Anthony
Grimke Sisters
William Lloyd Garrison
Franchise
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
▪
▪
▪
▪
Explain how minorities are affected socially, economically, and politically by stereotyping,
racism, and discrimination both legally and culturally.
Explain the effect the abolition movement had on the women’s rights movement.
Describe the goals and important people of the women’s rights movement.
Analyze the purpose and significance of the Seneca Falls Convention and Declaration of
Sentiments.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: Human Systems (2 weeks)

Human systems represent the settlement and structures created by people on Earth’s surface.
The growth, distribution and movements of people are driving forces behind human and
physical events. Geographers study patterns in culture and the changes that result from
human processes, migrations and the diffusion of new cultural traits.
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
CONTENT STATEMENTS

Americans began to develop a common national identity among its diverse regional and
cultural populations based on democratic ideals.
CONCEPTS

Diverse people in the United States in
the development of a common
national identity.
VOCABULARY




Melting Pot Vs. Salad Bowl
Cultural Diversity
Immigration
Nationalism
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
▪
Describe events that led immigrants to give up their cultural diversity to form a melting pot
and a national identity.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: Civic Participation and Skills (1 week)

Civic participation embraces the ideal that an individual actively engages in his or her
community, state or nation for the common good. Students need to practice effective
communication skills including negotiation, compromise and collaboration. Skills in
accessing and analyzing information are essential for citizens in a democracy.
CONTENT STATEMENTS (Government 2 a,b,c,d)

Participation in social and civic groups can lead to the attainment of individual and public
goals.

Informed citizens understand how media and communication technology influence public
opinion.
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
CONCEPTS

Ways to participate in civic/political
life to attain individual and public
goals.

Expanding civic participation in the
19th century.

Rights and responsibilities of citizens.

Comparing resources.

Credibility.
VOCABULARY

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
Sons of Liberty
Committees of Correspondence
Boycotts
Underground Railroad
Abolitionists
Nominating Convention
Franchise
Campaigning
Amendment 15
Citizenship Rights
Responsibilities
Taxes
Jury Duty
Duties
Fiction
Non-Fiction
Point of View
Era
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
▪
Show a connection between civic and political actions taken by the Sons of Liberty and the
Committees of Correspondence and the attainment of independence.
Demonstrate how the Underground Railroad and the abolitionist movement drew attention to
the slavery issue.
Explain the purpose of a nominating convention.
Show how the vote was extended through Amendment 15 of the Constitution.
Explain how citizens took a more active role in civic participation through conventions and
campaigning.
Identify rights of citizens and the responsibilities under the Constitution.
Show understanding of rights and respecting rights of others.
Compare accuracy and point of view using both fiction and non-fiction resources about an
era or event.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
TOPIC: Roles and Systems of Government (3 weeks)

The purpose of government in the United States is to establish order, protect the rights of
individuals and to promote the common good. Governments may be organized in different
ways and have limited or unlimited powers.
CONTENT STATEMENT

The U.S. Constitution established a federal system of government, a representative
democracy and a framework with separation of powers and checks and balances.

The U.S. Constitution protects citizens’ rights by limiting the powers of government.
CONCEPTS





Political concepts expressed in the
Constitution.
Separation of powers is a response
to a desire for a limited
government.
Prevention of allowing one (1)
branch from becoming too
powerful.
U.S. Constitution protects the rights
of the citizen while maintaining the
security of our nation.
Provisions of the Constitution that
limits the powers of the government
in order to protect the rights of
individuals (i.e., Bill of Rights).
VOCABULARY

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
Representative Democracy
Federalism
Bicameralism
Separation of Powers
Reserved
Delegated
Concurrent
Elastic Clause
Checks and Balances
Three Branches
Veto
Override
Appointments
Impeach
Judicial Review
Unconstitutional
Cabinet
Pardon
Commutation
Ambassador
Citizens’ Rights
Amendments
Order and Security
Preamble
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
CONCEPTS
VOCABULARY(cont’d)
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Bill of Rights
Due Process
Equality
Assembly
Petition
Search and Seizure
Jury
Double Jeopardy
Eminent Domain
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
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Define the concepts of representative democracy, federalism, and bicameralism.
Analyze the division of powers among the three branches of government.
List and describe the 3 branches of government.
Examine how the branches restrict each other’s power through the system of checks and
balances under the Constitution.
Analyze and explain the Preamble to the Constitution in relationship to protecting rights of
citizens and the general welfare.
Discuss freedoms listed in the First Amendment and the Bill of Rights.
Explain how provisions of the Constitution limit the government with relation to trial by jury,
right to counsel, and due process.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: Economic Decision Making and Skills (ongoing)
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Effective economic decision making requires students to be able to reason logically about
key economic issues that affect their lives as consumers, producers, savers, investors and
citizens. Economic decision making and skills engages students in the practice of analyzing
costs and benefits, collecting and organizing economic evidence and proposing alternatives
to economic problems.
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
CONTENT STATEMENT
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Choices made by individuals, businesses and governments have both present and future
consequences.
CONCEPTS
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Economic choices affect a country’s
present and future.
VOCABULARY
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Resources
Scarcity
Profit
Tariffs
Taxes
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
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Examine the economic problems that arose under the Articles of Confederation as a result of
war debt and fears of powerful central government.
Describe the impact of closed markets on the American economy.
Analyze how choices made by individuals, businesses and governments have both present
and future consequences.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: Markets (2 ½ weeks)
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Markets exist when buyers and sellers interact. This interaction determines market prices and
thereby allocates scarce resources, goods and services.
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
CONTENT STATEMENT
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Governments can impact markets by means of spending, regulations, taxes and trade barriers.
CONCEPTS
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Increased global trading as a result of
mercantilism and establishment of
colonies.
The purpose and effects of trade
barriers prior to the Civil War.
Governmental protection of
international and interstate trade.
VOCABULARY
 Mercantilism
 Global Trade
 Exports
 Imports
 Balance of Trade
 Tariffs
 Duties
 Tariff of Abominations
 Nullification Crisis
 Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
 Trade (International/State)
 Property Rights
 Government Regulation
 Weights/Measures
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
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Identify reasons for colonization for economic profit.
Define mercantilism.
Explain policies employed by colonial powers to control global trade.
Explain the purpose of tariffs and duties in creating trade barriers prior to 1860.
Explain how the Articles of Confederation to regulate economy and property rights led to the
development of the Constitution.
Discuss how federal government regulations on international and interstate trade affect the
U.S. economies.
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES
TOPIC: Production and Assumption (1 week)
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Production is the act of combining natural resources, human resources, capital goods and
entrepreneurship to make goods and services. Consumption is the use of goods and services.
Pacing Guide
Grade 8: US History
2011-2012
Social Studies Course of Study
CONTENT STATEMENT
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The Industrial Revolution fundamentally changed the means of production as a result of
improvements in technology, use of new power resources, the advent of interchangeable
parts and the shift from craftwork to factory work.
CONCEPTS
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The effects of the Industrial Revolution
created new technology, new sources of
powers, and the creation of the factory
system.
VOCABULARY
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Factory system
Interchangeable parts
Cotton gin
Steam power
Eli Whitney
Robert Fulton
Industrial Revolution
Lowell Mills
Samuel Morse
Telegraph
PERFORMANCE SKILLS:
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Explain the development of factories as a result of new technology from the Industrial
Revolution.
Analyze the effects of new power sources and technology on the economic systems of the
U.S. (i.e. trade opportunities, urbanization)
INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES