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Interim 2nd semester
Meiosis Review
______________________- process in which sex cells or ________________ are formed
Meiosis in humans
Female parent (46 chromosomes)
Male parent (46 chromosomes)
____________ cell (2N)
______________ cell (2N)
Chromosome number is cut in ___________
______________ (23 chromosomes)
_____________ (23 chromosomes)
____________ cell (N)
_____________ cell (N)
___________________-ovum and sperm unite
Forms a __________________ (46 chromosomes)
Diploid cell (2N)
Comparison of mitosis and meiosis
Characteristic
Type of Cells produced
Chromosome number
Number of divisions
Number of cells produced
Mitosis
Meiosis
For the diagram below, draw in the chromosomes for meiosis.
During meiosis I, the ______________________ chromsomes separate.
What does this do to the chromosome number? _________________________________________
During meiosis II, the sister ____________________ separate.
In males, the end result of meiosis is __________ sperm cells.
In females, the end result of meiosis is _____________ ovum and __________ polar bodies.
If three cells undergo meiosis in males, how many sperm cells will be produced? _____________
If four cells undergo meiosis in females, how many ova (eggs) will be produced? _____________
How many polar bodies would be produced for the same 4 cells? __________________
If the 2N number of an organism is 32;
how many chromosomes are found in a sperm cell? _______
how many chromosomes are found in a diploid cell? _______
how many chromosomes are found in an ovum? _______
how many chromosomes are found in a haploid cell? _______
how many chromosomes are found in a skin cell? ________
Sexual reproduction is important to the survival of the species because it adds genetic _________________________ to
the population.
_______________________- exchange of genetic information by non- sister chromatids during meiosis.
________________________- failure of chromosomes to separate
properly
Genetics Review
Vocabulary
____________________- the passing of traits from parents to offspring
____________________- the study of heredity
____________________- rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that transmits genetic information
____________________- units of hereditary information found on the chromosomes
____________________- a gene that masks the expression of another gene in a pair ( Symbol- capital letter)
____________________- a gene in a pair that is hidden by the dominant gene (Symbol- lower case letter)
____________________- two genes in a pair that are identical. (RR or rr)
____________________ -individual with one dominant and one recessive gene in a pair. (Rr)
____________________ -either member of a pair of genes that determines a single trait.
____________________- the pair of alleles represented by the capital and lower case letters.
____________________- the trait that is actually expressed in an organism
Punnette squares
Immunity to poison ivy is a dominant trait while those people who get poison ivy show the recessive trait. Diagram a
Punnett Square for a man who is heterozygous and a woman who get poison ivy.
1. What is the man’s genotype? ___________
2. What is the woman’s genotype? ____________
3. What is the probability of producing a child who gets poison ivy? __________
4. What is the genotypic ratio?___________
Feather color in birds is an incomplete dominant trait. Genes for blue feathers and genes for white feathers combine to
form birds with silver feathers. Diagram a cross for two silver feathered birds.
1. What is the parents’ genotype? _____________
2. What is the phenotypic ratio? ________________
3. What is the probability of producing a bird with blue feathers? ___________
4. What is the probability of producing a bird with silver feathers? ___________
Blood type is a codominant trait. A man with blood type AO marries a female with blood type AB.
1. What are the genotypes produced in the offspring? ______________________
2. What is the genotypic ratio?_________
3. What is the phenotypic ratio?__________
4. What is the probability of producing a child with blood type A?__________
5. What is the probability of producing a child with blood type O?__________
Eye color in canaries is a sex-linked trait. Black eyes are dominant and red eyes are recessive. A red-eyed female is
crossed with a black-eyed male.
1. What is the the male’s genotype?__________
2. What is the female’s genotype?__________
3. What is the probability of producing a black-eyed female?__________
4. What is the probability of producing a black-eyed male?__________
5. What is the probability of producing a red-eyed female?__________
6. What is the probability of producing a red- eyed male?__________
DNA Review
Label the three parts of a nucleotide in the diagram below.
A. ___________________________
B. ___________________________
C. ___________________________
In DNA, how do the bases bond?
______________________________ bonds with ____________________________
and
______________________________ bonds with ____________________________
What is the name of the process in which DNA makes an exact copy of itself? __________________________
Put the steps of DNA replication below in order.
1. Free floating nucleotides attach to complementary bases on both sides
2. Sugars and phosphates join together on the new strands
3. DNA molecule unzips
4. Two DNA molecules are produced each made of one new strand and one template
__________→ __________→ __________→ __________
Comparison of DNA and RNA
DNA
RNA
Strands
Sugar
Base Pairs
Location
Protein Synthesis is divided into two processes.
Process 1- _____________________________-mRNA is made by copying the code from a DNA molecule.
This process occurs in the ___________________________.
Process 2-_____________________________- a protein is assembled from amino acids.
This process occurs in the ____________________ at a _____________________.
Genetic information usually follows in one specific direction (Central dogma of biology). Which of the following BEST
represents this flow?
A.) DNA-->Protein-->RNA
B.) Protein-->RNA-->DNA
C.) RNA-->Protein-->DNA
D.) DNA-->RNA-->Protein
Three bases on the mRNA molecule that code for one amino acid is a(n)
A.) anti-codon.
B.) codon.
C.) tRNA.
D.) protein.
Transcribe the section of DNA below.
G A C T T A C A G
l l l l l l l l l
Name the parts labeled in the diagram.
1. ____________________________
4. _____________________________
2. ___________________________
5. _____________________________
3. __________________________
What is the name of the process in the diagram? _____________________________________
A mistake in the genetic code is called a ____________________.
Name the type of mutation in the DNA sequences below.
Original strand – CTGACT
New strand
CTAGACT ____________________
New strand
CTGCT
New strand
CTGAGT _____________________
____________________
The process of making changes in DNA of living things is called ___________________ ____________________.
DNA produced by combining DNA from other sources is called ___________________ DNA.
An organism with DNA from other sources is called a ______________________ organism.
___________ ____________________ is a method used to separate and analyze DNA fragments.
__________ ____________________ is the analysis of DNA fragments to identify an individual.
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