Interim 2nd semester Meiosis Review ______________________- process in which sex cells or ________________ are formed Meiosis in humans Female parent (46 chromosomes) Male parent (46 chromosomes) ____________ cell (2N) ______________ cell (2N) Chromosome number is cut in ___________ ______________ (23 chromosomes) _____________ (23 chromosomes) ____________ cell (N) _____________ cell (N) ___________________-ovum and sperm unite Forms a __________________ (46 chromosomes) Diploid cell (2N) Comparison of mitosis and meiosis Characteristic Type of Cells produced Chromosome number Number of divisions Number of cells produced Mitosis Meiosis For the diagram below, draw in the chromosomes for meiosis. During meiosis I, the ______________________ chromsomes separate. What does this do to the chromosome number? _________________________________________ During meiosis II, the sister ____________________ separate. In males, the end result of meiosis is __________ sperm cells. In females, the end result of meiosis is _____________ ovum and __________ polar bodies. If three cells undergo meiosis in males, how many sperm cells will be produced? _____________ If four cells undergo meiosis in females, how many ova (eggs) will be produced? _____________ How many polar bodies would be produced for the same 4 cells? __________________ If the 2N number of an organism is 32; how many chromosomes are found in a sperm cell? _______ how many chromosomes are found in a diploid cell? _______ how many chromosomes are found in an ovum? _______ how many chromosomes are found in a haploid cell? _______ how many chromosomes are found in a skin cell? ________ Sexual reproduction is important to the survival of the species because it adds genetic _________________________ to the population. _______________________- exchange of genetic information by non- sister chromatids during meiosis. ________________________- failure of chromosomes to separate properly Genetics Review Vocabulary ____________________- the passing of traits from parents to offspring ____________________- the study of heredity ____________________- rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that transmits genetic information ____________________- units of hereditary information found on the chromosomes ____________________- a gene that masks the expression of another gene in a pair ( Symbol- capital letter) ____________________- a gene in a pair that is hidden by the dominant gene (Symbol- lower case letter) ____________________- two genes in a pair that are identical. (RR or rr) ____________________ -individual with one dominant and one recessive gene in a pair. (Rr) ____________________ -either member of a pair of genes that determines a single trait. ____________________- the pair of alleles represented by the capital and lower case letters. ____________________- the trait that is actually expressed in an organism Punnette squares Immunity to poison ivy is a dominant trait while those people who get poison ivy show the recessive trait. Diagram a Punnett Square for a man who is heterozygous and a woman who get poison ivy. 1. What is the man’s genotype? ___________ 2. What is the woman’s genotype? ____________ 3. What is the probability of producing a child who gets poison ivy? __________ 4. What is the genotypic ratio?___________ Feather color in birds is an incomplete dominant trait. Genes for blue feathers and genes for white feathers combine to form birds with silver feathers. Diagram a cross for two silver feathered birds. 1. What is the parents’ genotype? _____________ 2. What is the phenotypic ratio? ________________ 3. What is the probability of producing a bird with blue feathers? ___________ 4. What is the probability of producing a bird with silver feathers? ___________ Blood type is a codominant trait. A man with blood type AO marries a female with blood type AB. 1. What are the genotypes produced in the offspring? ______________________ 2. What is the genotypic ratio?_________ 3. What is the phenotypic ratio?__________ 4. What is the probability of producing a child with blood type A?__________ 5. What is the probability of producing a child with blood type O?__________ Eye color in canaries is a sex-linked trait. Black eyes are dominant and red eyes are recessive. A red-eyed female is crossed with a black-eyed male. 1. What is the the male’s genotype?__________ 2. What is the female’s genotype?__________ 3. What is the probability of producing a black-eyed female?__________ 4. What is the probability of producing a black-eyed male?__________ 5. What is the probability of producing a red-eyed female?__________ 6. What is the probability of producing a red- eyed male?__________ DNA Review Label the three parts of a nucleotide in the diagram below. A. ___________________________ B. ___________________________ C. ___________________________ In DNA, how do the bases bond? ______________________________ bonds with ____________________________ and ______________________________ bonds with ____________________________ What is the name of the process in which DNA makes an exact copy of itself? __________________________ Put the steps of DNA replication below in order. 1. Free floating nucleotides attach to complementary bases on both sides 2. Sugars and phosphates join together on the new strands 3. DNA molecule unzips 4. Two DNA molecules are produced each made of one new strand and one template __________→ __________→ __________→ __________ Comparison of DNA and RNA DNA RNA Strands Sugar Base Pairs Location Protein Synthesis is divided into two processes. Process 1- _____________________________-mRNA is made by copying the code from a DNA molecule. This process occurs in the ___________________________. Process 2-_____________________________- a protein is assembled from amino acids. This process occurs in the ____________________ at a _____________________. Genetic information usually follows in one specific direction (Central dogma of biology). Which of the following BEST represents this flow? A.) DNA-->Protein-->RNA B.) Protein-->RNA-->DNA C.) RNA-->Protein-->DNA D.) DNA-->RNA-->Protein Three bases on the mRNA molecule that code for one amino acid is a(n) A.) anti-codon. B.) codon. C.) tRNA. D.) protein. Transcribe the section of DNA below. G A C T T A C A G l l l l l l l l l Name the parts labeled in the diagram. 1. ____________________________ 4. _____________________________ 2. ___________________________ 5. _____________________________ 3. __________________________ What is the name of the process in the diagram? _____________________________________ A mistake in the genetic code is called a ____________________. Name the type of mutation in the DNA sequences below. Original strand – CTGACT New strand CTAGACT ____________________ New strand CTGCT New strand CTGAGT _____________________ ____________________ The process of making changes in DNA of living things is called ___________________ ____________________. DNA produced by combining DNA from other sources is called ___________________ DNA. An organism with DNA from other sources is called a ______________________ organism. ___________ ____________________ is a method used to separate and analyze DNA fragments. __________ ____________________ is the analysis of DNA fragments to identify an individual.