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Questions to examination (summer 2012):
1-pathological anatomy - of a problem, objects, methods and research levels. Mors - definition,
early and serotinal authentic signs. Algorithm of actions in events of mors of patients and at job
with it operational and biopsy materials
2. Dystrophias, definition, kinds. Signs, morphology of the basic parenchymatous dystrophias, value
and outcomes.
3. Stromal dystrophias, gross and microscopical changes at a fibrinoid swelling and a hyalinosis,
morphology, value and outcomes, adiposity stages, signs of unfavorable adiposity
4. Admixed dystrophias, classification of pigmentations and their clinician impotency
5. Mineral dystrophias, main forms of calcifications, morphology and value. Kinds urinary,
gallstones, denticles, clinical impotency.
6. Necrosis - definition, signs, kinds, gross-microscopical signs, clinical-morphological forms:
features of variants of gangrenes and infarcts, complications.
7. Plethoras - of the cause, kinds, morphological characters. Morphology of acute and chronic venous
stagnation in system of small and big circles of a circulation.
8. Bleedings, the causes, kinds. Hemorrhages kinds, pathology of an acute and chronic
posthemorrhagic anemias. - kinds, clinical impotency.
9. A clottage, trombogenesis - the causes, differences of a thrombus from posthumous parcels of
blood (postmortem cottages), feature of thrombuses, thrombogenesis Stages, favorable and
failures of a clottage, a clottage consequence.
10. Embolism: as emboluses, kinds of emboluses, clinical impotency. A thromboembolism of a
pulmonary artery, an acute pulmonary heart.
11. Atrophy: definition, kinds, the clinical-morphological characteristic.
12. Hypertrophy: definition, the causes, mechanisms, kinds, the clinical-morphological
characteristic. Signs of a decompensation of a hypertrophy of heart.
13. Regeneration: morphogenesis phases, kinds, outcomes. Features of full, incomplete and
pathological regeneration. Morphology of healing of wounds primary and a second intention.
14. Inflammation - definition, classification, aboriginal and system signs - Clinical
morphological features fibrinous (croupous, diphterias), purulent (a phlegmon, an abscess, an
empyema) and a hemorrhagic inflammation.
15. Productive inflammation of the cause, forms. Kinds of granulomas. Morphology of specific
granulomas (at a tuberculosis and a syphilis); Features of an intersticial inflammation, outcomes
(differences: a fibrosis-sclerosis-cirrhosis).
16. Four types of a pathology of immune system. Clinico-morphological features of
hypersensitivity immediate and delayed types in the locuses of action of antigens and on
excision (in lymphatic nodes).
17. Autoimmune illnesses. Definition, the basic signs. An amyloidosis - definition, the
morphological characteristic, outcomes
18. Tumours: definition, a role in a pathology of the human. Seven hystogenetical groups
of tumours. (On rates of augmentation of nodes, the relative to environing tissues, allocation of
properties from the centre to node periphery, appearance of the secondary nodes, properties of
cells, influence on an organism).
19. Clinico-morphological features of the most widespread tumours (papillomas, adenomas,
carcinomas, pigmental neoplasms, myomas and sarcomas)
1-leukoses, pathological anatomy of the basic acute and chronic leukoses, implications in an oral
cavity. Complications and causes of death.
2-tumoral diseases of lymph nodes. A general characteristic, the basic implications. Illness of
Hodzhkin (lymphogranulomatosis): the morphological characteristic, the forecast and histological
3 Arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis. The morphological characteristic and atherosclerosis
stages, a construction of an atherosclerotic plaque. Clinical-morphological forms of illness,
4. Arterial hypertonia, definition. An idiopathic hypertensia: stages, forms and flow variants (the
morphological characteristic).
5. Ischemic heart disease definition and classification. Morphology of an acute, relapsing
(recurrencive), repeated myocardial infarction, outcomes, complications.
6. Rheumatic illnesses, the general properties. Rheumatic disease, definition, forms,
morphological implications, heart changes at rheumatic faults, outcomes of the disease.
7. Pneumonia, classification. Lobar (lung fever). Clinical-morphological features, stages of
development, complication.
8. Bleedings, the causes, kinds. Hemorrhages kinds, pathology acute and chronic
posthemorrhagic anemias. - types, clinical impotency.
9. Focal pneumonia (bronchopneumonia), classification, morphology. Tumours of lungs.
Epidemiology, classification, gross and microscopical variants, complications.
10. Gastritis, definition, types on course of a disease and an aetiology, morphological criteria of
determination of activity of gastritises, features A and B gastritises.
11. Peptic ulcers of a stomach, development stages, their morphology. The morphological
characteristic of a chronic ulcer in an exacerbation and remission. Three types of complications.
12. Epithelial tumours of a stomach. Features of adenomas, the carcinoma of the stomach: grossand microscopical forms, features of an spreading metastasis, complication.
13. Appendicitis. Classification, epidemiology , an aetiology, a pathogenesis. The morphological
characteristic and clinical implications acute and an chronical appendicitis. Complications.
14. Illness of the Cron, the morphological characteristic, complications, the forecast (prognosis). A
colon cancer gross- and the microscopical morphological characteristic "right" and "left sided"
cancers, complication, the forecast
15. Hepatitises, definition, classification by an aetiology, clinical course of a disease. Virus and
alcoholic hepatitises, the morphological characteristic, markers, the forecast,
16. Liver cirrhosises, definition, kinds on an aetiology, morphogenesis, features of morphology
postnecrotic, portal and biliar cirrhosises.
17. Glomerulopaty, definition, kinds on scale, lesion volume; glomerulonephritis , definition,
signs, kinds on flow, the Clinico-morphological characteristic acute, subacute
18. Acute necrosis of canaliculuses of nephroses, implications, changes on stages, the
pyelonephritis, morphology acute and chronic pyelonephritis
19. Pregnancy pathology: Gedatiform mole. Morphology of variants. Toxicoses of pregnant
women (hestosis). Clinical implications and the morphological characteristic
20. A diabetes, types, the morphological characteristic, complications
21. Cerebrovascular illnesses definition.: the morphological characteristic of infarcts and
hematencephalons, complications.
22. Tuberculosis, morphology of a primary and secondary tuberculosis.
23. Sepsis as the special form of development of an infection contamination. Differences from other
infection contaminations, the morphological characteristic of main types.
24. Syphilis, classification, morphology of the different periods, features of a congenital syphilis,
triad signs of syphilis (Getzhinsons’s triad).
25. Concept about especially-dangerous infection contaminations, algorithm of actions of the
doctor. A plague, the clinico-morphological characteristic of main forms.
Additional questions to examination.
1-ability to define what of 5 sample pathological processes
(1-dystrophia and a necrosis, 2 - circulation disturbance, 3-inflammation,
4-adaptive and compensative, 5-tumours) prevails in examination gross and microscopical
2. Knowledge of formal signs of tumoral growth (appearance and growth of nodes of an
unusual tissue), ability to distinguish "good" and "malignant" tumours (on lifetime after tumour
appearance, to rates of growth of nodes, presence of primary and secondary node-metastasises, a
difference in allocation of properties of tissues from the centre to periphery of tumoral nodes,
expansive or infiltrative growth, presence only histic or both histic, and cellular atipia).
3. Ability on morphology to distinguish appendicitis forms (acute, chronic) and changes
on stages of an acute appendicitis (1 - "simple”, 2 – “superficial”, 3 -"destructive") to distinguish
variants of the destructive appendicitis.
4. Ability to choronomic signs (on the dimensions, a status of edges and degree of
differentiation) to distinguish wounds healing on type 1 or type 2 tensions.
5. Knowledge of the general signs on which it is possible to identify the infectious
patient: a-signs of a generalised inflammation with temperature and an intoxication, b-presence
of eruptions and an infectious complex, in - presence of similar patients (infectivity).
Knowledge of that such hazardous infection contaminations (a high mortality, at high
infectivity). Knowledge of sequence of actions in an event revealing of a hazardous infection
contamination (isolation of the patient and contacts, notice epidemical department, disinfection,
the notice of administration with recording to magazine of registration of the infectious patient)
6. Know conditions of correct fixation of an operational and biopsy material and a rule of
official registration of papers for a stuff direction on histological research.