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Grammar Notes for 빈처
나는 그녀가 일기를 쓴다는 걸 몰랐다.
Pattern: -ㄴ다는 걸 몰랐다 ⟵ -ㄴ다는 것을 몰랐다 had no idea that
somebody was ...-ing. Of course, the -ㄴ다는 bit is, in origin, a
⟵ -ㄴ다[고 하]는.
Here: I had no idea she was writing a diary.
뭘 쓴다는 것이
Pattern: -는다는 것, -(으)ㄴ다는 것, -다는 것, -(이)라는 것 from the
indirect quotation pattern in -는다[고 하]는 것, etc., meaning the
or alleged fact that . . . setting up a comment about the
(often
noteworthy) topic marked by -는 것.
Here: the idea of her writing something [didn't suit her at all]
quotation
putative
unusual
or
그렇다고 학생 때 무슨 글을 써봤다는 소리도 듣지 못했다.
Pattern: -는다는 소리(를) 듣다, -(으)ㄴ다는 소리(를) 듣다, -다는 소리(를)
듣다, -(이)라는 소리(를) 듣다 lit. hear sounds to the effect that ... ,
i.e., hear that ... ; hear something to the effect that ... .
Here: having said that, I had never heard anything about her trying
her hand at writing when she was a student, either.
그저 그런 여자스러운 감상을 담고 있을 뿐
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 뿐 ( + -이다) 1) nothing but, only, constantly; 2) all
it/one does/is is . . . Note also NOUN-스럽다 (ㅂ~w) is, is
like, gives the impression of, seems, suggests, is suggestive
Here: [The few love letters she had written me] simply/only
contained only the usual emotions typical of women
새벽에 들어와서 열두 시가 넘도록 늘어지게 잤던 것이다.
Pattern: projective -도록 to the point where, until (a result); so that.
Here: had come home in the wee hours of the morning and slept like a
past noon.
자고 일어나 보니 집에는 아무도 없었다.
Pattern: sequential -(으)니(까) since it is or does; when (in the past)
finds].
Here: I woke up from my sleep to find nobody at home
그녀는 아이들을 데리고 시장에라도 간 모양이었다.
Pattern: 에라도. Particle 에 + pseudo-particle -(이)라도 (1) even if (it
of.
log until
well
then [one
be)
(2)
just, (or the) like ( = 이나 ); or even any, some. Note
also -(으)ㄴ/ -는 모양
the looks of having done/doing; appears
to have done/be doing.
Here: she appeared to have taken the children to the market or
something
물을 마시려고 자리에서 몸을 일으키던 나는
Pattern: retrospective modifier -던 ... that has been observed to (be or
that has been doing, ... that used to do; ... that was, ... that
used to be.
Here: Just as I was about to get up to get a drink of water, I ...
do);
화장대 위에 웬 노트가 놓여 있는 걸 보았다.
Pattern: -는 걸 봤다 saw how something was happening. Also: 웬
some (sort of) NOUN; some NOUN (or other).
Here: I saw some sort of notebook lying on top of the dressing table
NOUN
당연히 가계부인 줄 알았다. 그런데 일기장이었다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ/는 줄(로) 알았다 - thought that, was under the
impression that.
Here: I assumed it must be her household accounts book. But it was a
대체 이게 무슨 소리야.
Pattern: 대체 plus Question word -- variant of 도대체 plus question
+...-기에/-길래 WH- on earth is/does it (such that...).
Here: what on earth is this all about?
...
diary.
word
집에서 애 둘을 키우는 여자가 직장이라니?
Pattern: -(이)라니(요) used in a rejoinder to raise doubt about or
query/question the interlocutor? statement. In the Polite 해요 Style
sometimes spelled -(이)라뇨.
Here: 'Work' for a woman raising two kids at home?
다른 사람 노트인가?
Pattern: question in -(으)ㄴ가(요) for descriptive verbs. Processive
verbs,
있다 & 없다, as well as past and future bases, take -는
가(요) (-었는가(요), 겠는가(요)). Note that this particular
question ending is often used
for musings to oneself.
Here: is it perhaps somebody else's notebook?
다른 사람 일기장이 그녀의 화장대 위에 놓여 있을 리가 없다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 리(가) 없- there is no reasonable expectation that ...;
there
is
no reason to ...
Here: there was no reason for somebody else's diary to be lying on her
글씨를 봐도 그녀가 틀림없다.
Pattern: -어도 even if; even though. Also: NOUN이 틀림없다 there is
that (it is); there is no questioning that fact that it
is ... .
Here: from the handwriting, it was clearly that it was hers
dressing table
no doubt
1주일에 서너 번 정도다.
Pattern: 정도(는) degree, grade, extent, limit, measure, standard,
functioning almost like postnoun 따위 the (piddlin', measly,
insignificant) likes of.
Here: It's around three or four times a week.
1주일 내내 한 번도 못 만나는 적도 있다.
Pattern: DURATION 내내 for as long as DURATION; for the
DURATION of ... ; for the whole DURATION ... .
Here: There are times when we can't meet for an entire week.
20대에도 애인 없던 시절이 있었는데 뭘.
Pattern: -는데(요) 뭘. This is -(으)ㄴ/는데(요) for Imminent
Elaboration, rounded off with 뭘 meaning something like ...
or Jeez, give me a break already!
Here: after all, there was a time when I didn't have a boyfriend in my
too
after all
twenties,
그러면 쓸쓸함이 조금 줄어드는 것도 같다.
Pattern: substantive in -(으)ㅁ the act (or fact) of doing or being.
Here: in such cases, it also seems that my loneliness lessens slightly
처음엔 웬 애인인가 싶어 의아했다.
Pattern: 웬 NOUN some (sort of) NOUN; some NOUN (or other).
Also: -(으)ㄴ가 싶다 think, feel or wonder whether ... , where
the
question in -(으)ㄴ가 functions as an indifferent quoted
thought. Also: naked
infinitive abbreviated from -어(서): 싶어서.
Here: at first I was dubious as to who the boyfriend was
... 나는 알아챘다. 그녀가 애인이라고 표현한 것이 바로 나라는 걸.
Pattern: NOUN(이)라는 걸 ← NOUN(이)라는 것을 the putative or
alleged fact that ... (here as object). In origin, from the
quotation pattern in -(이)라[고 하]는 것,
indirect
Here: I figured it out -- that what she meant by the expression
none other than me.
'boyfriend'
was
잘 만날 수 없다는 뜻에서 그렇게 표현한 것이다.
Pattern: -다는 뜻에서 from the [quoted, and hence 'purported']
purpose
of ...-ing; in the meaning/sense of ...-ing, built on
-다는 from the indirect
quotation pattern in -다[고 하]는 (cf.
also -는다는, -(으)ㄴ다는, -(이)라는)
adnominalized to 뜻
meaning; sense.
Here: she had expressed it that way meaning that we can't meet often
남편이긴 하지만
Pattern: -기는 하다 does all right (it is true) but; is indeed (I must
Here: [she's right --] I'm her husband, all right, but ...
admit) but.
그녀 자신이 거칠게 표현한대로
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ 대로 just as it is/did; according to the original state.
Here: just as she herself had expressed rather roughly
'스테디한' 관계라고는 할 수 없을지 모른다.
Pattern: particle 는 anticipating a negative verb. In other words, this
is just an
indirect quotation in NOUN-(이)라고 한다 calls it a
NOUN, but with (이)라고 followed by 는 because of the
following 할 수 없- can't really
call it a ... . Also: -(으)ㄹ지(도)
모른다 lit.: doesn't know whether it might
perhaps do/be,
hence, just perhaps might do/be.
Here: perhaps it can't be called a 'steady' relationship
하지만 그녀는 그럭저럭 참아 왔다.
Pattern: -어 온다 gradually (comes in doing); comes up (along); starts
started) becoming/doing; has/had been doing.
Here: but she had put up with it all this time somehow
(has
내가 가정적이지 못한 것이 불만이긴 하겠지만
Pattern: normally speaking, it is difficult to find examples of the long
negation
pattern in -지 못하다 on the copula -이다, but those
cases that do appear
tend to be with -적(的), as in this
example. As with other examples of
descriptive verbs in the
-지 못하다 pattern, this example is tinged with a
sense of
let-down or disappointment on the part of the speaker. Also:
-기는 하다 does all right (it is true) but; is indeed (I must
admit) but.
Here: that I wasn't much of a family man was a source of
dissatisfaction, true enough
결정적으로 심각한 그늘을 드리운다고는 생각해 본 적이 없다.
Pattern: topic particle 는 anticipating a negative verb. In other words,
just an indirect quotation in -ㄴ다고 한다 says that ... ,
but
followed by 는 because of the following 없-.
Here: I have never thought that it casts any decisively severe shadow
life]
with
this
is
-ㄴ다고
[over her
이혼을 합네 마네 투닥거리기도 했다.
Pattern: 'blah-blah-blah' 합네 마네 한다 grouses/blabs, saying 'I'm going
to
do
this' and 'I'm going to do that' (implying a kind of mindless and endless nagging or
harping). Also: Mimetic + -거리다 does
repeatedly/continuously; does and
does; keeps doing, does on and
on, does(keeps doing) it away; does again and again,
does over
and over again. Also: -기도 하also does/is also.
Here: she even groused about divorcing me
그러나 요즘은 살림하고 아이들 키우기 바빠서
Pattern: -기(가) 바쁘다 1) it is difficult/hard to ... ; 2) one is busy
Here: but lately she was so busy keeping house and raising the kids,
...-ing.
that ...
나한테 매달릴 여유가 없다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 여유 없- have no room/leeway/space/time to ... .
Here: she had no spare time to bug me
작년인가부터는
Pattern: NOUN-(이)ㄴ가 NOUN or the like; was it NOUN?; NOUN or
Here: from, I think, last year or so
so.
난 당신 포기했어, 라고 스스로 공언하기까지 했다.
Pattern: Verbatim or direct quotation in -(이)라고. Also: -기까지 하even ...-ing, even ...-es.
Here: she herself even went so far as to pronounce once, 'I've given up
does
on you'
자기를 과부나 독신으로 여기고 사는 거?
Pattern: NOUN1(이)나 NOUN2 meaning NOUN1 or NOUN2.
Here: that she lives her life thinking of herself as a widow or an unmarried woman?
나의 직장 일이란 아이 둘을 돌보고 한 집안의 살림을 꾸려 가는 일이다.
Pattern: generic topic in -(이)란 for (이)라고 하는 것은 that is
(called),
as for (the one that is called) ... . Used to make
topics, especially in
generic pronouncements or universalizing/
generalizing statements. Also: -어
간다 gradually (goes on
doing); keeps growing (getting to be,
becoming), goes on,
progressively; continues to do (from now on), keeps
(on)
doing.
Here: My job consists of taking care of two children and managing the
household.
아빠 없는 어린애는 생겨날 수 없으므로 그 아이들은 물론 아빠가 있다.
Pattern: -(으)므로. Although the Korean spelling somewhat obscures
the
origin, this is a substantive in -(으)ㅁ + instrumental (으)로
(서), and means with
(as, etc.)
the doing or being; since
(because of) the doing or being.
Here: insofar as it is impossible for kids to come into this world without a father, the
children, of course, have a dad
사정이 있어 아빠와는 같이 살지 못하는 아이들이다.
Pattern: particle 는 anticipating a negative verb.
Here: they are children who, circumstances being what they are, are
unable to
live with their daddy [though, by contrast, they are
of course living with somebody
else -- such is the implication
of the 는]
결혼도 안 했으면서 마치 내 아이 같은 느낌이다.
Pattern: -(으)면서 functioning as concessive -(으)면서도 while ... yet;
although
... also; at the very same time that. Note also adverb
마치 just as if signalling that a
듯이, 같다/같이 or 처럼 is
coming up.
Here: it feels just as if they were my children without my ever having
gotten
married
그 아이들을 사랑한 나머지,
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ 나머지 as a result of, from an excess of, driven by.
Here: because I love the children so incredibly much, ...
아빠와 함께하는 즐거움을 알게 해주고 싶어서
Pattern: substantive in -(으)ㅁ the act (or fact) of doing or being.
Here: because I want to let them know the joy of being together with their dad
"아빠는 너희와 함께 계시지 못한단다"는 말이 불행스러운 느낌을 줄까 봐
Pattern: abbreviated plain style quotations in -단다 ← -다[고 하-]ㄴ다
are used
(typically by children) as impudent, insistent or proud
boasts (also -ㄴ단다, (이)란다). Also: -(으)ㄹ까 봐(서) for fear
lest.
Here: for fear that saying "I'm afraid your daddy can't be with you"
might
make them feel unhappy
세상살이에 이런 어려움은 얼마든지 있으니
Pattern: substantive in -(으)ㅁ the act (or fact) of doing or being.
Also: -든지 used with an interrogative-indefinite word any at all,
regardless of which, . . . -(so)ever; (whatever) one may do; (how,
it (has been observed to) be.
Here: since there are always any number of difficulties like this in life
(내게뿐 아니라 아이들에게도)
Pattern: 뿐(만) 아니라 not only ... but (also); moreover; furthermore; as
besides, in addition, on top of that.
Here: [such difficulties exist] not only for me but also for the children
etc.)-ever
well as;
이런 직업적 고층을 오래 생각할 필요는 없다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 필요(가) 있-/없- it is necessary/unnecessary to ... .
Here: there is no need to dwell on occupational predicaments like these
애인이 오지 않는 날 난 애타게 기다리기도 한다.
Pattern: -기도 하- also does/is also.
Here: on the days when my boyfriend doesn't come, I even wait for
desperately
하지만 오지 않은들 그게 무슨 큰일이랴.
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ들 granted that, even though it is or does (often
by or accompanying a rhetorical question). Also:
-(으)랴 1) will it do or be (usually rhetorical); 2) shall (should) I?
Here: but even if he shouldn't come, what is the big deal in that?
남편이라면 내게 오지 않는 것이 상처를 주겠지만
Pattern: -(이)라면 ← -(이)라[고 하]면 if it (be said to be) be ... , if it
case that) ... More putative/hypothetical than -이면.
Here: if he were my husband, not coming to me would leave a wound,
him,
followed
were (the
but
애인이니 조금의 쓸쓸함만을 남길 따름이다.
Pattern: sequential -(으)니(까) since it is or does; when (in the past)
then [one
finds]. Also: substantive in -(으)ㅁ the act (or fact)
of doing or being. Also: 만을 =
particle 만 plus particle 을
only/just (etc.) (as object). Also: -(으)ㄹ
따름이다 it is just/only
that ... ; all/the only thing one does is ... .
Here: since he's my boyfriend, it only leaves a bit of sadness
신통하게도 아주 변심하여 영원히 안 와버릴 애인은 아니니
Pattern: -게도 even (indeed) so that; also/either so that; ...-ingly
enough.
Cf.
other adverbs in -게도: 유감스럽게도 unfortunately,
regrettably,
불행하게도 sad to say, unfortunately. Also: -어 버린
다 does completely,
gets it (all) done, disposes of (the job:
(does it) all/up/down/away/off; does to
one's disappointment or
regret; does it to one's relief. Also: sequential (으)니(까) since
it is or does; when (in the past) then [one finds].
Here: since, amazingly enough, he is not the sort of boyfriend to suffer
a
complete
change of heart and never come at all,
그나마 다행 아닌가.
Pattern: Extended adversative particle -(이)나마 although it is (only
the likes of) ... ;
at least,
anyway; even; NOUN though it may be; despite (the value-detracting fact
that ... ). Also: NOUN
아닌가? Is it not NOUN (I wonder?) -- the negative copula
아니- plus question ending -(으)ㄴ가.
Here: that in itself is fortunate, is it not?
다음 페이지를 넘기려는데 밖에서 문 따는 소리가 들려 왔다.
Pattern: -(으)려는데 just as one is getting ready to do something ...
or on the verge of . . .-ing, just at the juncture when one is
intending
to ... , contracted from purposive -(으)려(고) 하- plus
the
Imminent
Elaboration pattern in -는데, and close in
meaning and function to (으)려는 참에 and -(으)려던 참에.
Also: -어 온다 gradually (comes in
doing); comes up (along);
starts (has started) becoming/doing; has/had been
doing.
Here: just as I was about to turn to the next page, I heard the sound of
somebody
unlocking the door outside
손에는 검은 비닐이 여러 개 들려 있다.
Pattern: resultant state in -어 있다.
Here: several black vinyl bags 'are held' in her hands
나에게 주려고 샀을 주스병
Pattern: -었을 (prospective modifier -(으)ㄹ on a past base) which
likely was ... ; which probably had done ... .
Here: a bottle of juice that she had probably bought to give to me
검은 비닐 봉투 밖으로 비죽이 나와 있다.
Pattern: resultant state in -어 있다.
Here: [the spout of the juice bottle] is sticking out sideways from the
vinyl bag
나는 그녀의 손에서 엉거주춤 비닐 봉투를 받아 든다.
back
Pattern: naked infinitive abbreviated from -아(서): 받아서.
Here: I awkwardly take the vinyl bags from her hands
익숙하지 않은 동작임을 스스로도 깨달으며
Pattern: -(으)ㅁ을 깨닫다, 깨달아 realizes that ... (based on the
substantive in -(으)ㅁ the act (or fact) of doing or being).
Here: even I realize that it is an unaccustomed gesture
결혼하기 전 내 친구들은 생일이다 뭐다 하면서 애인을 데리고
Pattern: NOUN(이)다 뭐다 한다 says NOUN and whatnot, etc.; says
NOUN', 'it's whatever', etc.; claims first this, then claims
that, etc.
Here: before I got married, my friends would bring their girlfriends
whether the occasion was a birthday or whatever, and
배밭에도 가고 북한사의 두부집에도 곧잘 다니곤 했다.
Pattern: -곤 한다
makes a habit/practice of doing it; does it from
time; habitually does; sometimes does.
Here: we would always go to the pear orchards, to the tofu place at
Temple
'it's
a
over,
time
to
Pukhan
그때 나는 화계사 바로 앞에 살았는데 그녀의 집이 잠실이었던 것이다.
Pattern: -었던 것이다 it is a case/the case that something used to
be/do in the past
(but no longer is/does now in the present).
Here: at the time I lived right in front of Hwagye Temple and her place
was in Chamsil.
그들이 놀리는 대로 과연
Pattern: -는 대로 1) just as, as, just as it is/was; 2) in accordance
one does/is.
Here: just as they teased me, sure enough,
with
the
way
그녀를 데려다 주고 집까지 되돌아오는 데에
Pattern: -는 데에 in the course of ...-ing. Here, the “circumstantial
데” occurs as a
quasi-free noun (that is, a noun that cannot
begin a sentence but must always be
modified by something in
front of it) with the meaning course (of doing
something);
circumstance, occasion. The locative particle 에 spells out the
sense of in the course or circumstance of ...-ing, and the
following clause usually has expressions like 도움을 준다 helps,
좋은
참조가 된다 serves as a good reference, 쓴다/사용한다 one
uses
it,
필요하다 is necessary, 중요하다 is important, etc.
Here: just taking her home and coming back
차 타는 시간만 세 시간 가까이 걸렸으니
Pattern: NOUN만 for NOUN 만 해도 lit.: even just saying, i.e. to
mention
only. Note also sequential -(으)니(까) since it is or
does; when (in the past) then
[one finds]
Here: just the time in the car amounted to nearly three hours
동구 씨는 결혼했대요? 민석 씨네는 이제 아기 있겠네?"
Pattern: -대(요), the colloquial abbreviation of -다고 해(요) for
hearsay
reporting -- they say that QUOTE or I hear that
QUOTE. Cf. also ㄴ대(요), -는대(요), -(이)래(요). Also: NAME네 meaning 1) NAME and
his/her family; 2) the mother in
NAME's family. Note also: -겠네
which is the future- presumptive
-겠- followed by Mild Surprise -네, hence: Well,
then, I
suppose it must be the case that ... !
Here: "Did they say Tonggu got married? Minseok and his wife must
have a
baby by now, yes?"
내 친구들의 안부를 물으며 그녀는 목소리가 밝다.
Pattern: -(으)며 as an abbreviation for -(으)면서 while, at the same
Here: She asks after my friends and her voice is bright.
time.
자기의 처녀적 생각이 나는 거겠지.
Pattern: -는 거겠지 ← -는 것이겠지 must certainly be a case of
right?
Here: she must be thinking of the times before she was married
...-ing,
나는 결혼한 뒤로는
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ 뒤(로) after ...-ing; ever since ..-ing; subsequent to
...-ed.
Here: ever since/after getting married, I ...
having
우리끼리 마시는 게 훨씬 편했다.
Pattern: Postnoun 끼리 the separate group of (like people/like
things); among (or between/by/to)
themselves.
Here: it was far more convenient to drink just among ourselves
(moving)
ourselves/yourselves/
집에서 듣는 것만도 지겨운데 밖에서까지 그만 마시라는 잔소리 들어 가며
Pattern: NOUN만 for NOUN 만 해도 lit.: even just saying, i.e. to
mention
only. Also: PLACE에서까지 even happening in PLACE;
even at PLACE. Also:
그만 + VERB stops VERBing; gives up
VERBing. Also: -(으)라는 소리 ← (으)라[고 하]는 소리 lit.:
sounds telling/ordering one to ... Also: -어
간다 gradually (goes
on doing); keeps growing (getting to be, becoming), goes on,
progressively; continues to do (from now on), keeps (on)
doing.
Here: it was bad enough hearing it at home, but listening to nagging
about
stopping drinking even when we were out, too,
아가씨와 몇 마디 주고받는 게 아무 일도 아니련만
Pattern: -(으)련만 I had hoped that ... but; it should have ... , but; I
but.
Here: it ought to be no big deal to share a few words with a girl, but
그녀가 보면 신경이 쓰일 게 뻔하다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 게 뻔하다 = -(으)ㄹ 게 뻔하다 it is clear or obvious
something will likely happen or be the case.
Here: it was obvious that if she witnessed it, she would get annoyed
wish that ... ,
that
내 속을 떠보려고 귀찮은 시비를 걸어 올지도 모른다.
Pattern: -어 온다 gradually (comes in doing); comes up (along); starts
(has
started) becoming/doing; has/had been doing. Also: -(으)ㄹ
지(도) 모른다 lit.:
doesn't know whether it might perhaps do/be,
hence, just perhaps might
do/be.
Here: who knows, she might pick an annoying fight just to peer into my inner thoughts
자꾸 이렇게 변명 비슷한 말을 늘어놓다 보니
Pattern: -다(가) 보니(까) if/when one tries doing it over a period of
then (one discovers).
Here: after trotting forth these lame excuses all the time
time,
오늘따라 왜 이리 마음에 걸리는 게 많은지
Pattern: NOUN따라 NOUN of all NOUNs (but this seems to be
restricted to just a few time words like 오늘, 그날, etc.). Also:
Oblique
question in -(으)ㄴ지 the uncertain fact of being;
whether it is, wonder
whether (how, what, . . . .) (here paired
with a question word).
Here: I wonder why today, of all today, there should be so many things
on my mind
망할 놈의 일기장.
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 놈의 NOUN for a 욕-type cuss epithet in -(으)ㄹ, but
further
fortified by adnominalizing this to 놈, which in turn is
adnominalized to the
NOUN via particle 의 -- friggin' SOB of a
NOUN that ought to be ...-ed!
Here: wretched, friggin' diary!
언제부터인지 고등학교 동창을 만나도 불알 친구라는 다정함이 없다.
Pattern: 언제부터인지 Oblique question in -(으)ㄴ지 the uncertain fact
of being;
whether it is, wonder whether (how, what, . . . .)
(here paired with a question
word). Here we can imagine a
dropped 모르지만 I have no idea since when,
but ... Note also
the substantive in -(으)ㅁ the act (or fact) of doing or being.
Here: I don't know since when it started, but now even when my meet
my high
school classmates, the chumminess of old bosom buddies is gone
학교 다니던 때 등교길이며 선생님이며 철봉이며에 대해 다퉈가며
Pattern: NOUN1이며 NOUN2 for NOUN1 and NOUN2. Also: -어 간다
gradually
(goes on doing); keeps growing (getting to be,
becoming), goes on,
progressively; continues to do (from now
on), keeps (on) doing.
Here: arguing about the path we took on the way to school, the
teachers,
the
exercise bars
어제만 해도 그렇다.
Pattern: NOUN 만 해도 lit.: even just saying, i.e. to mention only.
Here: it was like that only yesterday
아버지가 물려준 못나 빠진 야산이 돌산이라 떼부자가 되었다.
Pattern: -어 빠지- gets / becomes, through and through; utterly,
quite,
thoroughly, to the core, all the way. Also: -(이)라. The
infinitive of the copula
(-이어) can take the irregular shape -이
라 before 서, 도, 야 and quotative -고.
The shape -이라 also
functions sometimes as a literary equivalent of -이다.
Here: because the scraggly piece of shit hill his dad left him turned out
to be a quarry,
he had become rich overnight.
또 하나는 세무사 사무실에서 요령만 는 친구인데
Pattern: 는 here is the past modifier form of 늘다 become more
proficient in.
Here: yet another of them is a guy who had done nothing but become
the ins and outs of the tax office
adept at
친구들은 애써 웃으며 들으려 한다.
Pattern: -(으)며 as an abbreviation for -(으)면서 while, at the same
time.
Also: intentive in -(으)려(고) 한다 [shape is -려 after
vowels and the ㄹ of
ㄹ-dropping bases] with the thought in
mind to do, with the intention of doing,
with the desire to do;
ready (prepared, wiling) to do. In colloquial Korean, this is
often rendered -(으)ㄹ라고 하다.
Here: friends [like me] forced themselves to wear a smile as we
listened
사촌이 논을 사서가 아니라 거들먹거리는 품이 아니꼬워서다.
Pattern: -어서(가) 아니라, i.e., A(가) 아니라 B it is not the case that A,
(but
rather B); not A (but B), here stacked on -어서. Also:
Mimetic + 거리다 does repeatedly/continuously; does and
does; keeps doing, does
on and on, does(keeps doing) it away;
does again and again, does over and
over again. Also: -어서다
← 어서 + copula -(이)다 is because ... .
Here: it wasn't because the proverbial cousin had bought a paddy, but
because
the way they swaggered made me want to puke
대학 물이나 먹은 우리 앞에서
Pattern: NOUN(이)나 with quasi-particle (이)나 meaning or the like; or
something, often with a gently chiding or deprecatory nuance.
Here: in front of those of us who had set foot on university
campuses
내가 한 달 내내 스트레스 받아 가며 버는 돈
Pattern: DURATION 내내 for as long as ... ; for the duration of ... ;
for the
whole time ... . Also: -어 간다 gradually (goes on
doing); keeps growing
(getting to be, becoming), goes on,
progressively; continues to do (from
now on), keeps (on)
doing. Also: -(으)며 as an abbreviation for -(으)면서
while, at
the same time.
Here: the salary I earn as I stress out for the entire month
학교 다닐 때 공부를 잘하고 모범생이었다는 게 무슨 내세울 일이나 되는가.
Pattern: -었다는 게 ← -었다는 것이 with -다는 것 (cf. also -는다는 것,
(으)ㄴ다는 것, -(이)라는 것) from the indirect quotation pattern in
-다[고
하]는 것, etc., meaning the putative or alleged fact that . . .
setting up a
comment about the (often unusual or noteworthy)
topic marked by -는 것. Also:
NOUN(이)나 with quasi-particle (이)
나 meaning or the like; or something,
often with a gently chiding
or deprecatory nuance. Note also -는가, question
form for
processive verbs, 있다 & 없다, as well as past and future
bases (-었는가, -겠는가). Descriptive verbs take -(으)ㄴ가. That
this particular question ending is often used for musings to
oneself.
Here: since when is the fact that you studied hard and were a model
student
in school something to brag about?
선생들의 평가 기준이 꼭 공정했던 것만도 아닐 것이다.
Pattern: NOUN만도 아니다 and it is not just a matter of NOUN; and it
a case of NOUN.
Here: nor was it likely the case that the teachers' marking standards
exactly fair
isn't just
were
그러니까 그때 영어나 수학 따위를 좀 잘했다고 해서
Pattern: NOUN1(이)나 NOUN2 NOUN1 or NOUN2. Also: Postnoun 따위
(and) the like, (of) the sort, (and) such, etcetera (etc.) (usually
somewhat belittling or derogatory). Also: -다고 해서 lit. on
account of saying QUOTE, hence, just because [of the alleged
reason in
the QUOTE] ... .
Here: I mean, just because you did well in English or Math or whatever at the time
또 하나의 불공정함일 뿐이다.
Pattern: substantive in -(으)ㅁ the act (or fact) of doing or being.
Note also -(으)ㄹ 뿐 ( + -이다) 1) nothing but, only, constantly; 2)
does/is is . . .
Here: is probably just another inequity
야, 미국은 좀 그렇고 캐나다가 좋다더라.
Pattern: -다더라 contracted from -다[고 하]더라 I recall that
somebody said that ... ; apparently, ... ; apparently, they say
Here: say, I heard the USA's not that great, and that Canada's nice
all it/one
that ... .
더 늙기 전에 이민을 가든지 그것도 안 되면 시골 가서 농사나 짓든지
Pattern: VERB1-든지 ...VERB2-든지 (간에) whether one does VERB1 or
VERB2-; do either VERB1 or VERB2- (implying no particular
preference between the different options). Also: NOUN(이)나
with
quasi-particle (이)나 meaning or the like; or something, often
with a gently
chiding or deprecatory nuance.
Here: before I get any older, I should either emigrate or, if that doesn't
work, go to the
countryside and farm or something
무슨 수를 내야지 매일 아침 회사 들어가기가 죽기만큼 싫다.
Pattern: -어야지 ← -어야 [하]지: has to/must do [of course/don't ya
know].
In other words, the have to/must pattern in -어야 한다
combined with
the pattern in -지(요) yields -어야 하지요 has
to/must [of course, don't
you know, etc.]. This pattern, in turn,
can undergo contraction by deleting
the 하- of 하지(요), yielding
the highly colloquial pattern in -어야지요, sometimes
spelled -어야
죠. A similar contraction is also widespread for the pattern in -어
야 하겠다 shall have to, probably ought to, which contracts to -어
야겠다,
-어야겠지(요), etc. In our example here, this pattern
overlaps
with
Gentle Rebuke pattern in -지(요) (그래요) Why
don't you . . . ? or
Shouldn't you . . . ? This latter pattern has
one of two intonations:
a) In mid-sentence, it has the suspensive, I'm-not-finished-yet
intonation of the Imminent Elaboration pattern in -(으)ㄴ데/
-는데.
b) Sentence-finally or rounded off with 그러- (그래요, 그러세요,
그러시지요, etc.) the intonation is not much different from the
-지(요) pattern
in which it originates, but here the intonation
can sound rather reproachful.
Note also: nominalizer -기 used to convert a verb or verb
phrase
into a noun -- VERB-ing. Also: -기만큼 싫다, with the
same nominalizer -기
followed by particle 만큼 as much as ... ;
to the same extent as.
Here: I've got to come up with something -- I hate going to the office
every
morning like death itself
우리 이야기는 그 친구를 둘러싸고 한참이나 이어졌다.
Pattern: DURATION(이)나 as much as, long as (implies that the
thinks the duration is substantial or more than
expected).
Here: our conversation continued for some time, centered on them
speaker
"여보, 태원이 있잖아."
Pattern: NOUN 있잖아(요). You know how in English we sometimes
start
a
conversation or jump-start an exchange by introducing
a topic of conversation
with You know [how] . . . ? This is
accomplished in Korean with "TOPIC +
있잖아(요)?" and a
rising intonation. Another related meaning of
있잖아(요)? (often
preceded by an interjection like 왜 or 저~) is You know what
I
mean, right? (when you yourself can't remember!)
Here: "Honey, you know T'aewŏn?"
"걔 이민 간대."
Pattern: -ㄴ대(요), the colloquial abbreviation of -ㄴ다고 해(요) for
hearsay
reporting -- they say that QUOTE or I hear that
QUOTE. Cf. also 대(요), -는대(요), -(이)래(요).
Here: "He says he's emigrating."
"왜요? 좋은 직업 놔두고?"
Pattern: afterthought clause/fragment in -고. In other words, this
sentence
picks up on the previous line of dialogue, and if it
had been spelled out and
spoken 100% pedantically, the
speaker would have said: 걔 좋은
직업 놔두고, 이민을 왜 가?
Here: "Why? And leave a good job behind?"
사람답게 살고 싶대.
Pattern: -답게, the adverbative in -게 of the pattern in NOUN +
-답다 (ㅂ~w) meaning is like, is worth being, is worthy of the
name, is to, is every bit a . . . . Thus, -답게 means in a way
becoming of a NOUN, in a quite NOUN-like way, whereas -답지
않게
means in a way unbecoming of a NOUN, in a quite
un-NOUN-like
way.
Also: -대(요), the colloquial abbreviation of
-다고 해(요) for hearsay reporting -they say that QUOTE or
I hear that QUOTE. Cf. also -ㄴ대(요), -는대(요), (이)래(요).
Here: he says he wants to live like a real person
"걔 딸이 학교 안 간다고 울고 난리래."
Pattern: quotative -다고 saying that QUOTE, etc., for reasons. Also:
VERB고 난리다 is VERB-ing and generally making a great
fuss/causing a scene.
Also: -(이)래(요), the colloquial
abbreviation of -(이)라고 해(요) for
hearsay reporting -- they
say that QUOTE or I hear that QUOTE. Cf. also ㄴ대(요), -는
대(요), -대(요).
Here: "apparently his daughter is making a big fuss and refusing to go
to
school"
"이 나라에 남은 마지막 미련까지 사라지더라고 그러드만."
Pattern: -더라고 그런다 says (그러-) that one recalls or otherwise has
good but
not great evidence that ... . Also: -드만/-드먼 = -더만/
-더먼 or = -드구먼, a
retrospective 'First Realization' (Martin's
'apperceptive') form. The meaning is
something like Now that I
think back on it, gosh!
Here: "I think what he said was something like even his last remaining
affections for this country had disappeared."
"싫다고 그렇게 쉽게 떠나 버리면 ... "
Pattern: quotative -다고 saying that QUOTE, etc., for reasons. Also:
-어 버린다 does completely, gets it (all) done, disposes of (the
job):
(does it) all/up/down/away/off; does to my disappointment
or regret; does it to my
relief.
Here: "If you just up and leave like that, so easily, just because you
don't like
it ... "
"거기 가서는 뭐 주인 행세하고 살 수 있대요?"
Pattern: sequential -어서는 does and then ... . As with -고, addition
of
particle 는 strengthens and/or forces the sequential (and
then, and next) reading.
Also: -대(요), the colloquial
abbreviation of -다고 해(요) for
hearsay reporting -- they say
that QUOTE or I hear that QUOTE. Cf. also ㄴ대(요), -는대
(요), -(이)래(요).
Here: "does he say he can go over there and live life as his own boss?"
"힘들어도 내 땅에서 사는 게 낫지."
Pattern: -는 게 낫다 ...-ing would be/is better; ...-ing would be/is
Often preceded/flagged by adverb 차라리.
Here: "However difficult it may be, it's better to live in one's own land."
이건 또 무슨 소리인가.
Pattern: question ending -(으)ㄴ가(요)? (often
wondering to oneself).
Here: What's she talking about?
preferable.
used for musing or
무턱대고 "어머, 좋겠다" 하거나 아니면
Pattern: -거나 (아니면) ... whether ... or ... ; either ... or ... (shows
indifference
toward choice between two conflicting actions or
states). The 아니면 is optional
and simply makes even more
explicit the or; alternatively.
Here: should just say "Wow -- nice!" or, if they can't do that,
"외국 가서 살면 외롭지 않을까, 몇 년 갔다오는 것은 몰라도"
Pattern: NOUN은 몰라도 lit.: even though I'm not sure about NOUN,
though I might concede the possibility of NOUN.
Here: "Wouldn't it be lonely to go and live abroad? Though going for a
years might be OK."
hence,
few
여우와 신포도 우화 같은 반응을 보일 줄 알았더니
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 줄(로) 알았다 - thought that ...would/might, was under
the
impression that .. would/might. Also: retrospective
sequential -더니: as
now it has been observed that ... ; when
(now/then), since (now/then) ... ; ...
and now/then; ... but
now/then. The form in -더니 usually implies a
marked or
abrupt contrast between the first and second clauses, as if
zooming in for a startling close-up: whereupon. The startling
close-up
effect can be accentuated by adding particle 만: -더니
만.
Here: I had expected her to react like in the fable of the fox and the
sour
grapes, but
그녀답지 않게 웬 신랄함일까?
Pattern: -답지 않게 in a way unbecoming of a NOUN, in a quite
unNOUN-like way. Cf. -답다 (ㅂ~w) meaning is like, is worth
being, is worthy
of the name, is to, is every bit a ... . Also: 웬
NOUN some (sort of) NOUN;
some NOUN (or other). Also:
substantive in -(으)ㅁ the act (or fact) of doing
or being.
Here: what's with the seriousness, so unlike her?
그녀가 언제부터 이렇게 자기 생각을 갖고 산다는 걸까.
Pattern: -다는 걸까 ⟵ -다는 것일까 with -다는 것 (cf. also -ㄴ다는 것,
것, -(이)라는 것) from the indirect quotation pattern in -다
[고 하]는
meaning
the putative or alleged fact that . . .
Here: I wonder how long it's been since she's presumed to have ideas
own like this?
그녀는 아이를 키우고 집안일을 하는 데 소질이 있는 편이었다.
Pattern: -는 데 소질이 있다 is talented in ...-ing; has a talent for
VERB-는 편이다 is on the VERB-ing side; is inclined to
VERB.
Here: she's pretty talented at raising the kids and managing the house
-는다는
것, etc.,
of
her
...-ing.
잔디밭에 앉아 문학 토론도 하고
Pattern: naked infinitive abbreviated from -아(서): 앉아서.
Here: [we would] sit on the lawn and discuss literature, and
막연한 의분을 토로하기도 했지만
Pattern: -기도 하- also does/is also.
Here: she even professed a vague resentment
결혼 이후에는 그녀가 책을 들추는 것조차 본 적이 없는데.......
Pattern: particle 조차 (not) even; too, to boot, in addition, into the
Typically followed by a negative verb.
Here: after getting married, I've never seen her so much as crack open
하긴 그녀와 길게 얘기를 나눠 본 것도 꽤 오래되긴 했다.
Pattern: -긴 하- for -기는 하- does (is) all right, (it is true) but ... ;
admit) but.
Here: still, it had also been quite a long time since I had spoken with
any length
bargain.
a book
is indeed (I must
her
다음날 다시 그녀의 일기장을 훔쳐보지 않을 수 없었다.
Pattern: -지 않을 수(가) 없다 has no choice/alternative but to ... ;
help but to ... ; can't help ...-ing.
Here: I couldn't help but sneak a look at her diary the next day again
cannot
남자에게 심각한 얼굴로 헤어지자고 한 뒤 술을 마시고 싶다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ 뒤(로) after ...-ing; ever since ..-ing; subsequent to
...-ed.
Here: I want to drink with a man after telling him, with a serious face,
having
that
at
I
want to break up
같이 자자고 요구하는 남자에게 눈물만으로 사랑을 확인해 달라며
Pattern: NOUN만으로 by means of only NOUN; only with NOUN; only
by way
of just NOUN; only on the basis of just NOUN. Also:
-어 달라며 ⟵ -어 달라[고 하]며 requesting that somebody do a
one[self]
the favor of ...-ing (with -(으)며 as an abbreviation
for -(으)면서 while, at the
same time.
Here: asking a man demanding to sleep with me to confirm his love
with just
tears
누구든 애태우고 싶다.
Pattern: -든(지) (used with an interrogative-indefinite word) any at
all,
regardless of which ... ; ...-(so) ever, (whatever) one may
do, (how, etc.) -ever it
(has been observed to) be. Note that
the verb base here is copula -이다 (dropped,
as usual, after a
preceding vowel).
Here: I don't care who it is -- I want to make him miserable
누구도 내 환심을 사려 들지 않을 뿐더러 나 때문에 마음 졸이지 않는다.
Pattern: 누구도 = 아무도 no one, not one; not anybody, nobody
(usually
followed by a negative). Also: -(으)려(고) 든다 tries,
attempts,
has
an
intention to ... (equivalent to -(으)려(고) 한다).
Also: -(을)뿐더러 not only ...
but (also); moreover; furthermore;
as well as; besides, in addition, on top of that.
Here: not only does nobody attempt to curry favor with me, but nobody suffers heartache
on my account
그이는 이제 내 얼굴을 똑바로 쳐다보는 일조차 별로 없다.
Pattern: particle 조차 (not) even; too, to boot, in addition, into the
Typically followed by a negative verb.
Here: now he hardly ever even looks me straight in the eye
bargain.
안 쳐다보고 살 걸 남자들은 왜 그렇게들 예쁜 여자와 결혼하려고
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 걸 as an abbreviation of -(으)ㄹ 것을 for what Martin
calls the
'antithetical accusative' -- given a situation were
blah-blah-blah
[then
something in the following clause is a
mismatch]. Also: particle 들 (acting)
severally. 들 can follow
almost any word in a sentence to indicate that the
subject, stated or implied, is specifically plural.
Here: [I can't figure out why men are so crazy to] marry pretty women
if they live their
lives never looking at their wives
그 소박이란 말이 내 마음을 무겁게 한다.
Pattern: NOUN(이)란 말 from NOUN(이)라고 하는 → NOUN(이)라[고
하]ㄴ that is (called) ... adnominalized to 말. Hence: words to
that QUOTE.
Here: the word 'desertion' weighs heavy on my heart
the effect
난 그냥 좀 바쁠 뿐인데
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 뿐 ( + -이다) 1) nothing but, only, constantly; 2) all
it/one does/is is . . .
Here: it's just that I'm kind of busy
또 가끔씩 매운탕집에서 화투도 치고 그러는 것뿐인데.
Pattern: VERB-고 그런다 VERBs and stuff; VERBS and also does
other unspecified things. Also: NOUN뿐이다, i.e., post-noun 뿐
plus
copula meaning nothing but, only, constantly; all it/one
does/is is ... .
Here: and besides, all I do is sometimes play hwat'u at the maeunt'ang
place and
stuff
사실 영업부 일이라는 게 다 그런 거 아닌가.
Pattern: NOUN(이)라는 게 ⟵ NOUN(이)라[고 하]는 것이 a
thing/something/this thing called NOUN, here function to set up
a generic
topic (a function usually handled by its relative,
NOUN(이)란).
Also:
NOUN 아닌가(요)? Is it not NOUN (I
wonder?) -- the negative copula
아니- plus question ending
-(으)ㄴ가(요)?
Here: actually, isn't that the way it is with all business departments?
연애를 하고 싶다는 그녀 말의 속뜻은
Pattern: -다는 ⟵ -다[고 하]는.
Here: what she really means when she says she wants to have an affair
그리고 그것은 내 예상에서 그다지 빗나가지 않은 아내의 속마음이었다.
Pattern: 그다지 + negative not so ... ; not such a ... .
Here: and my prediction about my wife's inner feelings wasn't far off
그녀는 이런 말까지 하지 않았던가.
Pattern: 까지 in its meaning even, so far as (for extent, emphasis). Also:
않았던가(요)? was it not the case, I wonder (-ㄴ가), that
something
observed as having taken place in the
past?
Here: didn't she once even goes so far as to say this?
설령 아내가 진짜로 다른 남자와 새 연애를 하고 싶어한다고 치자.
the mark
-지
had been
Pattern: (설령) ...-다고 치자 even (설령) supposing (치-) that QUOTE;
let's
suppose for a moment that QUOTE -- even so, ... . The
설령 is optional, but is
useful for flagging an upcoming
concessive (even though), especially
when it is far away, as in
this example.
Here: even supposing that my wife really wants to have an affair with
another
man
그렇다고 한들 어디를 보나 살림 사는 아줌마일 뿐인 그녀
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ들 granted that, even though it is or does (often
followed
by or accompanying a rhetorical question). Also:
Question-word
+
VERB-(으)나 WH-...-ever VERBs. Also:
-(으)ㄹ 뿐 ( + -이다) 1) nothing but, only, constantly; 2) all
it/one does/is is . . .
Here: my wife, who, even supposing that is the case, is just a
housewife no matter how you look at it
그녀에게 무슨 기회가 오겠으며 그럴 능력이나 있겠는가.......
Pattern: -겠으며, i.e., future-presumptive -겠- + -(으)며, with the
latter
functionally equivalent to -고. Also: NOUN(이)나, with
quasi-particle
(이)나
meaning or the like; or something, often with
a gently chiding or deprecatory
nuance.
Here: what opportunity could she have and would she even have the
ability to
do it?
작년에 그이가 출장을 가게 돼
Pattern: naked infinitive abbreviated from -어(서): 되어서 = 돼서.
Here: last year he had to go away on business
그때 소파를 옮기다 허리가 비끗했다.
Pattern: transferentive -다(가) does/ did (is/was) and then; does/did
(is/was)
but (used when emphasizing a shift of place, purpose,
direction, benefit, etc. in
the action occurring).
Here: I threw out my back then trying to move the sofa
침을 맞아서 다 나았나 했는데
Pattern: ... -았나 했다 thought to oneself, 'is it the case that
(something happened)?', with the question in -나 functioning as
thought.
Here: I got acupuncture and thought I was all better, but
피곤하다 싶으면 영락없이 도진다.
quoted
Pattern: -다 싶다, i.e., Plain Style Quote + 싶- it feels like, as if
maybe;
think to oneself that . . . Note that, while the clause in
front of 싶- looks like
and feels like a quote, you can't put a
quotative -고 after it.
Here: whenever I feel tired, it hurts like hell
몸이 영 안 좋아, 라고 하기에
Pattern: 영 + negative isn't ... at all; definitely isn't/doesn't ... . Note
also:
verbatim quote in " ... " (이)라고 and -기에 as, because; in
accordance with [the
fact that]. This is similar in meaning to -기
때문에 and -길레, but note that -기에
meaning 'because' can be
used only in statements. (However, it is possible to
build a
question on an embedded statement in -기에 : 무엇을
잡수셨기에 배
가 아프십니까? What is you ate that gave you such a
stomach
ache?)
Here: when he says 'I'm really not feeling well',
그이가 좋아하는 음식을 만드느라 좀 부산을 떨었다.
Pattern: -느라(고) what with doing; with the idea to do, with the
of doing; because of the process involved in ... .
Here: I got busy preparing the food he likes
intention
민영이가 너무 보채고 민후도 오늘 따라 말썽만 피웠던 것이다.
Pattern: NOUN따라 NOUN of all NOUNs (but this seems to be
restricted to just a few time words like 오늘, 그날, etc.).
-었던 것이다 is a case of having used to do/be in the past; the
fact of
the matter is that (something) was or used to be the
case in the past (and is now
finished).
Here: Minyŏng was all fussy and Minhu, too, was acting out today, of all days
칭얼대고 보챌 때마다 참기름이며 달걀이 묻은 손을 씻고
Pattern: mimetic + -대다, for a more insistant and prolonged effect
than the
similar mimetic + -거리다 -- does repeatedly/
continuously; does and
does; keeps doing, does on and on,
does (keeps doing) it away; does again and
again, does over
and over again. Also: NOUN1(이)며 NOUN2 meaning
NOUN1and NOUN2.
Here: every time she fussed and whined, I washed my hands stained with sesame oil and
egg
그래서 부엌으로 데리고 나와 다시 칼질을 하다 보면 어느새
Pattern: naked infinitive abbreviated from -아(서): 나와서. Also: -다
보면 if
one does something over a period of time [and then
steps back to reflect on it] ... ;
if you do something for a
while, then ... . This pattern uses the transferentive
followed
by the verb to see in the conditional form (-(으)면).
Here: so after I brought her to the kitchen and started chopping again,
thing I know
the next
멀찌감치 데려다 놓아도 다시 기어오곤 하더니
Pattern: -곤 한다 makes a habit/practice of doing it; does it from
time to time;
habitually does; sometimes does. Also:
retrospective sequential -더니:
as now it has been observed
that ... ; when (now/then),
since (now/then) ... ; ...
and
now/then; ... but now/then. The form in -더니 usually implies a
marked or abrupt contrast between the first and second
clauses,
as if zooming in for a startling close-up: whereupon.
The startling close-up
effect can be accentuated by adding
particle 만: -더니만.
Here: even when I set him down further away, he kept crawling close,
whereupon...
끓고 있는 기름에 새우를 집어 넣으려는데
Pattern: -(으)려는데 just as one is getting ready to do something ...
or on the verge of . . .-ing, just at the juncture when one is
intending
to ... , contracted from purposive -(으)려(고) 하- plus
the
Imminent
Elaboration pattern in -는데, and close in
meaning and function to (으)려는 참에 and -(으)려던 참에.
Here: just as I was about to put the shrimps into the boiling oil
가스 불을 줄여 놓았는데도 벌써 프라이팬에서 연기가 올라오고 있다.
Pattern: -어 놓는다 meaning a. does for later, does in advance, gets it
ready
before hand; or b. does it and leaves it that way, does it for
now. Also: -(으)ㄴ/ 는데도 given the circumstance that it
is/does, even though, though.
This pattern can usually be taken
as an abbreviation of -는데도 불구하고 in
spite of the fact that.
Here: even though I had turned down the flame, there was already
smoke
rising
from the frying pan
늦는다는 걸 알리는 그이의 목소리.
Pattern: -는다는 걸 알린다 tells or informs ['of the fact'] that ... ,
where -다는 걸
⟵ -다는 것을 (cf. also -ㄴ다는 것, -는다는 것,
-(이)라는 것) from the indirect
quotation pattern in -다[고 하]는
것, etc., meaning the putative or alleged fact
that ... .
Here: his voice, informing me that he'll be late
그 목소리가 끊겨 버린 뒤에도
Pattern: -어 버린다 does completely, gets it (all) done, disposes of
(the job: (does
it) all/up/down/away/off; does to one's
disappointment or regret; does
it to one's relief. Also: -(으)ㄴ
뒤에도 even after ...-ing; even ever since ..ing; even
subsequent to having ...-ed.
Here: even after the voice has hung up
허리를 다쳤다는 말을 들었을 때
Pattern: -다는 ⟵ -다[고 하]는, and hence highlighting the putative
alleged (or even third-hand) nature of the 말 being
modified.
Here: when I heard her say that she had hurt her back
미련스럽게 그걸 혼자 했어? 라고만.
Pattern: NOUN-스럽다 (w) is, is like, gives the impression of, seems,
is suggestive of. Also: -(이)라고만, consisting of the
verbatim
quotative marker -(이)라고 + particle 만: said
only "QUOTE."
Here: all I had said was, "You did something stupid like that when you
alone?"
and
suggests,
(direct)
were
만약 그녀가, 그럼 어떡해요 당신도 없는데, 했다면
Pattern: Conditional in (만약) ...-는/(으)ㄴ다면, -다면, -(이)라면 built
original
on a quotation ― -는/(으)ㄴ다[고 하]면 , -다[고 하]면,
-(이)라[고 하]면 ―
and hence more hypothetical (alleged,
putative) than plain -(으)면.
Here: if she had said, "What was I supposed to do; you weren't home?"
나는, 사람을 좀 쓰지, 했을 거고
Pattern: -었을 거고 ⟵ -었을 것이고 it is probably/likely (-을) the case
did or was (었-), and ... .
Here: I would have said, "Why don't you hire someone to help out?"
(것) that
그쯤에서 말을 돌려 버렸겠지.
Pattern: -어 버린다 does completely, gets it (all) done, disposes of
(the job: (does
it) all/up/down/away/off; does to one's
disappointment or regret; does
it to one's relief. Also: -었겠지
was (-었-) probably (-겠-) the case, I'm pretty
certain (-지).
Here: and at that point would have changed the subject
그러면 그녀는 한숨을 쉰 다음
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ 다음 after ...-ing.
Here: then, after she had heaved a sigh
입술을 한번 깨물고 또 어떻게든 꾸려 나갔을 것이다.
Pattern: -든(지) (used with an interrogative-indefinite word) any at
all,
regardless of which ... ; ...-(so) ever, (whatever) one may
do, (how, etc.) -ever it
(has been observed to) be. Note that
the verb base here is copula -이다 (dropped,
as usual, after a
preceding vowel). Also: -었을 갓이다 ⟵ -었을 것이다 it is
probably/likely (-을) the case (것) that did or was (었-).
Here: she would have bitten her lip once, and then kept on coping
somehow
내가 나쁜 놈일까.
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ까(요)? Might it be the case that ... ?
Here: Am I a jerk?
세상에 자기 아내와 자식 귀하지 않은 놈 있겠는가.
Pattern: -겠는가(요)? Would it be the case that ... ? I.e., question
ending (으)ㄴ가(요)? (often used for musing or wondering to
oneself) on futurepresumptive -겠-.
Here: What jerk is there on earth who doesn't care for his wife and
kids?
내 아내나 자식새끼가 싫어서 집에 안 들어가려고 버팅기는 게 아님은
Pattern: NOUN1(이)나 NOUN2 meaning NOUN1 or NOUN2.
Here: [any boozer knows that] my resistance to coming home at night
because I don't like my wife or kids
is
not
그런 것들로 이루어진 집이라는 일상에 갇혀 살기에는
Pattern: NOUN1-(이)라는 NOUN2 ⟵ NOUN1-(이)라[고 하]는 NOUN2
meaning a NOUN2 called NOUN1 or a NOUN2 characterized by
NOUN1.
Note also particle 에 to mark the by-phrase agent of
a passive. Also: naked
infinitive abbreviated from -어(서): 갇혀
서. Also: VERB-기에는 너무 ... be
too ... for VERB-ing; be too
... to VERB.
Here: [he is too accustomed to his freedom] to live all cooped in the
everyday
life called 'home' made up of things like these
살아갈 수 있는 한 방법이라는 것을 나는 인정해야한다.
Pattern: NOUN(이)라는 것을 인정한다 concedes/recognizes ['the
putative or alleged fact'] that ... (here as object). In origin,
from the indirect quotation pattern in -(이)라[고
하]는 것.
Here: I have to recognize that it is a means of survival
그녀는 지금 깊이 잠들어 있다.
Pattern: resultant state in -어 있다.
Here: now she is sound asleep
-(이)라는 것 is
내가 자기를 바라보고 있다는 사실이 믿기지 않는 듯
Pattern: -다는 사실, where -다는 ⟵ -다[고 하]는, and hence points up
the
alleged/purported (and third-hand) nature of the 사실 it is
modifying.
Also:
Modifier + 듯 (하다) (i.e., -(으)ㄴ 듯, -(으)ㄹ
듯, -는 듯;) is like, is as (if) is
like, is as (if). like, as, giving
the appearance of ... ; appearing (to be), looking
(like);
seeming as if; as if/though.
Here: as if she can't bring herself to believe the fact that I am gazing
at her
한동안 의아하게 쳐다보더니 다음 순간 '설마, 꿈이겠지' 하는 표정으로
Pattern: retrospective sequential -더니: as now it has been observed
that ... ;
when (now/then),
since (now/then) ... ; ... and
now/then;
...
but
now/then. The form in -더니 usually implies a
marked or abrupt contrast
between the first and second
clauses, as if zooming in for a startling closeup: whereupon.
The startling close-up effect can be accentuated by adding
particle 만: -더니만. Also: 설마 ... -겠지 surely .. it must be
that ... .
Note also: verbatim quote + 한다 -- with an
expression that said 'Surely this
must be a dream, right?'
Here: after staring at me with a dubious expression for a while, the
next
moment,
with an expression as if to say, 'Must be a dream', ...
그런데, 그런 나도 못 견딜 외로움이라니!
Pattern: substantive in -(으)ㅁ the act (or fact) of doing or being.
Note also -(이)라니(요) used in a rejoinder to raise doubt about or
query/question the interlocutor? statement. In the Polite 해요 Style
sometimes spelled -(이)라뇨.
Here: but even as I say this, the loneliness is so unbearable!
분명히 사랑해서 결혼했는데 사랑을 이루고 나니
Pattern: -고 나니(까) now that one [just / recently] finishes doing,
discovers ... .
Here: clearly I married for love, but after achieving that love,
one
realizes
/
이렇게 당연한 순서인 것처럼 외로움이 기다리고 있다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ 것처럼 as if it is a case of being ... (with descriptive
verbs;
with processives the meaning would be as if it is a
case of having done ...)
Here: loneliness awaits, as if it were the natural sequence of events
이루지 못한 사랑에는 화려한 비탄이라도 있지만
Pattern: pseudo-particle -(이)라도 even if (it be); just, (or the ) like
이나).
(=
-
Here: in love not achieved at least there is a sense of glorious grief,
but
이루어진 사랑은 이렇게 남루한 일상을 남길 뿐인가.
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 뿐 ( + -이다) 1) nothing but, only, constantly; 2) all
it/one does/is is . . . Also: question ending -(으)ㄴ가(요)? (often
musing or wondering to oneself).
Here: does love that has been realized leave nothing but such a shabby
used for
daily existence?
이루어진 사랑의 남루한 일상이라.
Pattern: NOUN-(이)라. It is tempting to see in this pattern a holdover
from the slightly earlier stage of Korean when the plain style
sentencefinal copula was -(이)라. Today, of course, only -(이)
다 counts as standard
for this form, while -(이)라 is an
alternate form of the copula infinitive 이어 (cf. -이라서, -이라
도), or else is reserved for use in indirect quotations
before
the quotative particle 고: -(이)라고. Thus, another way to look
at
our example here would be as a quotation with the 고
suppressed.
Here: 'the shabby daily existence of love achieved', she says
하기는 지금 잠들어 있는 얼굴을 보니
Pattern: resultant state in -어 있다. Also: sequential -(으)니(까) since
does; when (in the past) then [one finds]
Here: still, when I look at her sleeping face now
it is or
어젯밤 김치를 썰었었나? 손톱 밑에 고춧가루가 끼여 있다.
Pattern: 'double past' in -었었-, which tends to distance the past
event
more remotely from the time of narration than just -었-,
and which sometimes
gets translated as a 'past perfect' in, e.g,
had done, etc. Also: resultant state in 어 있다.
Here: Had she been cutting up kimch'i last night? There are bits of red
pepper powder
wedged under her fingernails
그녀가 나를 택한 것은 솔직히 나의 과감한 감투(敢鬪) 덕이다.
Pattern: NOUN 덕이다 is thanks to NOUN, is owing to NOUN. Cf. the
related NOUN + 덕택으로 and NOUN 덕분에 thanks to
NOUN.
Here: the reason she had chosen me was, frankly, because of the bold
put up
나는 한 학기 내내 그녀만 쫓아다녔다.
Pattern: DURATION 내내 for as long as ... ; for the duration of ... ;
whole time ... .
Here: I did nothing for an entire semester but chase after her
closely
fight
for
I
the
그녀의 강의실 앞에서 강의가 끝나기를 기다려
Pattern: VERB-기를 기다린다 waits for somebody to VERB.
Here: waiting outside her classroom for her class to finish
새벽같이 도서관 자리를 맡아 주는가 하면
Pattern: VERB1-는가 하면 (VERB2) meaning, literally, if you ask me
whether
VERB1 happens, actually (and contrary to or on top of
what you might expect,
VERB2 also happens.
Here: not only did I save spaces for her at the library from the carck
of dawn,
[I also rummaged through libraries at other universities
for books for her
papers]
미장원에서 잡지를 보며 그녀의 퍼머가 끝나기를 기다리기도 했다.
Pattern: -(으)며 as an abbreviation for -(으)면서 while, at the same
Also: VERB-기를 기다린다 waits for somebody to VERB.
also does/is also.
Here: and I even read magazines at the hairdressers while I waited for
to set
time.
Also: -기도 하her perm
나는 용감한 자만이 미인을 얻는다며 짐짓 비장해 했다.
Pattern: particle 만이 (만 + the subject marker) is parallel with 만을
(만 + the object marker) -- it adds emphasis to the subject or
object
marked. Also: -는다며 for -는다[고 하]며 saying/thinking
that ... . Note also:-어
한다 with sensory verbs. This pattern is
usually reserved for third-persons, but
here is used with 나 as
subject.
Here: I made a point of playing the tragi-heroic, claiming that only the
very
brave get the good-looking women
몇 달을 그렇게 하자
Pattern: -자 (마자) as soon as, when, no sooner than.
Here: no sooner had I done this for a few months, than
그러고는 내가 평생 변함없을 줄 알고 나와 결혼했다.
Pattern: substantive in -(으)ㅁ the act (or fact) of doing or being.
Also: -(으)ㄹ 줄(로) 알았다 - thought that ... would/might, was
impression that ... would/might.
Here: after that, she assumed I would remain unchanged for the rest of
married me
under the
my
life
and
식탁 불의 불빛이 눈을 찌르는지 한 쪽 소매로 눈을 가리는데
Pattern: 'perhaps because' with modifier [-(으)ㄴ, -던, -었던, -었는,
-는]
+
post-modifier 지 the uncertain fact whether. When left
hanging
in
midsentence, you can interpret the pattern as
having left out a following -도
모르지만: it may be the case
that, i.e. perhaps [it is] because ... .
Here: perhaps because the light over the dining table was blinding her
she
covers her eyes with one sleeve
그 소매 끝이 허옇게 닳아 있다.
Pattern: resultant state in -어 있다.
Here: the end of the sleeve is white and threadbare
얼굴을 가까이 대보니
Pattern: sequential -(으)니(까) since it is or does; when (in the past)
finds].
Here: when I look closely at her face
then [one
마음은 전혀 그렇지 않은데도 그녀가 들떠 하는 것이 이상하게 못마땅했다.
Pattern: Also: -(으)ㄴ/ -는데도 given the circumstance that it
is/does,
even though, though. This pattern can usually be taken
as an abbreviation of 는데도 불구하고 in spite of the fact that.
Also: -어 한다 with third-person sensory verbs.
Here: even though I wasn't feeling that way in the slightest, her
animation was
annoying
오늘따라 반찬이 없다는 둥
Pattern: NOUN따라 NOUN of all NOUNs (but this seems to be
restricted to just a few time words like 오늘, 그날, etc.).
Also: -다는 둥 ← -다[고 하-]는 둥 , with post-modifier 둥 for
what is originally 등 in its meaning (following a list or
enumeration) of et cetera, and so forth, and so, and the like, and
all that,
and such like. The implication is that the litany of quotes
is somewhat tedious and
tiresome.
Here: [she kept talking -- things like] today of all days we don't have
any
panch'an
설마 당신 진짜로 일찍 들어올 줄 몰랐다는 둥
Pattern: 설마 surely ... followed by an unanticipated (and usually
negative)
consequence. -(으)ㄹ 줄 몰랐다 had no idea that
something might be the
case/might happen. Also: -다는 둥 ←
-다[고 하-]는 둥 , with post-modifier
둥 for what is originally 등 in
its meaning (following a list or enumeration)
of et cetera, and so
forth, and so, and the like, and all that, and such like. The
implication is that the litany of quotes is somewhat tedious and
tiresome.
Here: [she kept talking -- things like] or I didn't dream that you would
really
come
home early tonight, etc.
"야 임마, 그런 날도 있지 그럼."
Pattern: 임마 ⟵ 이놈아, an abusive phrase that can also be used
affectionately.
Here: "Hey, wise guy, can't I come home early once in a while, too?"
내 쪽을 계속 흘깃거리면서 설거지를 한다.
Pattern: Mimetic + -거리다 does repeatedly/continuously; does and
does;
keeps doing, does on and on, does(keeps doing) it away;
does again and again,
does over and over again.
Here: she is doing the dishes, all the while sneaking glances in my
direction
"그래, 얼굴이라도 봐야지?" 하자
Pattern: pseudo-particle -(이)라도 (1) even if (it be) (2) just, (or the)
like (=
이나 ); or even any, some. Also: -자 (마자) as soon as,
when, no sooner than.
Here: as soon as I say, "Sure, I should at least see your face, shouldn't
I?"
전화를 끊고 나서 나는 일부러 괜한 한숨을 한번 쉬고는
Pattern: -고 나서 after ...-ing. Also: -고는. Placing the 는 after -고
forces
the "and [then]..." reading of -고, as opposed to the
"and [also]" reading. In other
words, it means "when..., ...then;
upon
doing,"
but
emphasizing
the
consequence.
Here: after hanging up, I make a point of heaving a big, empty sigh, and then
할 수 없다는 듯이, 나가 봐야겠는데, 라고 작게 말한다.
Pattern: -다는 듯이, where -다는 ⟵ -다[고 하]는, and hence meaning
as
if
saying QUOTE. Also: -는 듯(이) like, as, giving the
appearance of
...; appearing (to be), looking (like); seeming as
if; as if/though. Note also:
verbatim quote + -(이)라고.
Here: as if to say I have no choice in the matter, I say in a small
voice,
"Looks
like I have to go out."
금방 갔다 올게, 하고는 밖으로 나갔다.
Pattern: -고는. Placing the 는 after -고 forces the "and [then]..."
reading
of -고, as opposed to the "and [also]" reading. In
other words, it means
"when..., ...then; upon doing," but
emphasizing the consequence.
Here: "I'll be back right away," I said, then went out.
나는 취해 들어와서 잤다.
Pattern: naked infinitive abbreviated from -어(서): 취해서.
Here: I came home drunk and went to bed.
생맥주집에서 무슨 얘기를 그렇게 떠들어대고 그걸로 모자라
Pattern: -어 댄다 (does) terribly, awfully, a lot, like mad / anything
(gives
iterative and/or emphatic force to a preceding verb
infinitive). Also: naked
infinitive abbreviated from -아(서): 모자
라서.
Here: I don’t know why we had so much to yak about, but whatever we had at the beer
parlor wasn’t enough, so
너는 지방에 내려가 사니
Pattern: naked infinitive abbreviated from -아(서): 가서. Also:
sequential -(으)니(까) since it is or does; when (in the past)
finds].
Here: since you live down in the country
then [one
이놈의 서울 생활보다 여유가 있지 않냐고 부러워했고
Pattern: -지 않냐고 ⟵ -지 않으냐고 asking whether it isn't the case
that ... .
Note that in colloquial, spoken Korean, Plain Style
questions in -으냐 and -느냐
tend to lose their -으- and -느-.
Here: I envied him; didn't he have more freedom than this wretched life here in Seoul?
나만 촌놈 다된 것 같아 마음이 초조해진다
Pattern: naked infinitive abbreviated from -아(서): 같아서.
Here: it seems like I'm the only one who's the country bumpkin and I
nervous
대충 그런 식의 얘기를 네댓 시간 떠들어대니
Pattern: -어 댄다 (does) terribly, awfully, a lot, like mad / anything
iterative and/or emphatic force to a preceding verb
infinitive).
Here: after carrying on with this sort of conversation for three or four
get
all
(gives
hours
목이 타서라도 술을 안 마실 수가 없었다.
Pattern: -어서라도 even if it means ... ; even if/when given a
circumstance where ... (nonetheless). Built on sequential -어서
by way
of doing plus -(이)라도 just (or the) like (= -(이)나 );
or even any, some even
if it be [just/only]. Here are a couple
more examples:
기어서라도 (타인의 방)
Even if it meant having to crawl. . .
몸을 팔아서라도 수술비를 댈 수 있을 것이었다. (나무꾼과 선녀)
she would be able to provide the operating fees, even if
it
meant
selling herself
Also: 안 ..-(으)ㄹ 수(가) 없다 has no choice or alternative but
to ... ;
cannot help but to ... ; can't help ...-ing. Same as -지
않을 수(가) 없다.
Here: there was no way not to drink, even if it meant our throats
burned up
새벽에 나는 목이 말라 잠이 깼다.
Pattern: naked infinitive abbreviated from -아(서): 말라서.
Here: I woke up early in the morning with a parched throat
냉장고에서 물을 꺼내 마시고 있는데
Pattern: naked infinitive abbreviated from -어(서): 꺼내서. Also: -고
just at the juncture when one is in the middle of ...-ing,
... .
Here: just as I had taken out the water from the fridge to drink,
나는 왜 이렇게 쉬운 여자인가.
Pattern: question ending -(으)ㄴ가(요)? (often
wondering to oneself).
Here: why am I such a pushover?
있는데
used for musing or
눈물이 핑 돌면서 사는 게 다 안쓰럽기만 하였다.
Pattern: -기만 하- do/be only ... .
Here: life just seemed so pitiful as tears welled in my eyes
당신이 얼마든지 주무르고 어를 수 있는 여자예요, 하듯이
Pattern: -든(지) (used with an interrogative-indefinite word) any at
all,
regardless of which ... ; ...-(so) ever, (whatever) one may
do, (how, etc.) -ever it
(has been observed to) be. Note that
the verb base here is copula -이다 (dropped,
as usual, after a
preceding vowel). Also: BASE + -듯(이) is like, is as (if).
Martin treats this as an abbreviation of the pattern where 듯 is
used as a post-modifier, i.e.,-(으)ㄴ 듯, -(으)ㄹ 듯, -는 듯, but
in
any
case you should keep them distinct.
Here: as if to say, "I am a woman that you can fondle and caress as
much as
you like."
다소곳해져 갖고 그이를 맞았다.
Pattern: -어 갖고 ⟵ -어 가지고, roughly equivalent to -어서 in both
(sequential; reason).
Here: I got all lovey-dovey and sent him off with a kiss.
그이에게 나는 왜 이렇게 하찮은가.
Pattern: question ending -(으)ㄴ가(요)? (often
wondering to oneself).
Here: why am I so worthless to him?
its senses
used for musing or
열한 시가 넘도록 들어오지 않는데
Pattern: projective -도록 to the point where, until (a result); so that.
Here: it's past 11 and he still hasn't come home
화가 난다기보다 모욕감 같은 것이 들었다.
Pattern: VERB1-ㄴ다기보다 (VERB2) (also -다기보다, -는다기보다,
(이)라기보다) it’s not so much that VERB1, rather (VERB2).
Here: it's not so much that I'm angry as that I feel somehow insulted
이것은 아내에 대한 사랑이 있고 없고를 떠나서
Pattern: VERB1-고 VERB2-고를 떠나서 getting away from/abstracting
from the question of VERB1 and/or VERB2 ... .
Here: getting away from the question of whether this is about a man's
his wife or lack thereof,
나의 분한 마음을 알 리 없는 민영이는 등에 업히자
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 리(가) 없- there is no reasonable expectation that ...;
no reason to ... Also: -자 (마자) as soon as, when, no
sooner than.
Here: once I get little Minyŏng, who has no way of comprehending my
onto my back
-
away
love for
there
is
anger, up
발을 대롱거리며 좋아한다.
Pattern: Mimetic + -거리다 does repeatedly/continuously; does and
does;
keeps doing, does on and on, does(keeps doing) it away;
does again and again,
does over and over again. Note also
-(으)며 as an abbreviation for -(으)면서
while, at the same
time.
Here: he likes it there, dangling his feet
주인인 듯한 아저씨가
Pattern: Modifier + 듯 (하다) (i.e., -(으)ㄴ 듯, -(으)ㄹ 듯, -는 듯;) is
like, is as
(if) is like, is as (if). like, as, giving the appearance
of ... ; appearing (to be),
looking (like); seeming as if; as
if/though.
Here: the ajŏssi who looks to be the owner
부인인 듯한 아줌마가 남편을 쿡 찌르며 "누구 찾아왔어"라고 했다.
Pattern: Modifier + 듯 (하다) (i.e., -(으)ㄴ 듯, -(으)ㄹ 듯, -는 듯;) is
like, is as
(if) is like, is as (if). like, as, giving the appearance
of ... ; appearing (to be),
looking (like); seeming as if; as
if/though. Also: -(으)며 as an
abbreviation for -(으)면서 while,
at the same time. Note also: verbatim quote + (이)라고
Here: the ajumma who looked to be his wife jabbed her husband in the
ribs and
said, "She's looking for someone."
등 뒤에서 민영이는 잠이 들었는지
Pattern: 'perhaps because' with modifier [-(으)ㄴ, -던, -었던, -었는,
-는]
+
post-modifier 지 the uncertain fact whether. When left
hanging
in
midsentence, you can interpret the pattern as
having left out a following -도
모르지만: it may be the case
that, i.e. perhaps [it is] because ... .
Here: perhaps because Minyŏng had fallen asleep on my back
몇 번이나 포대기를 풀어 아이를 단단히 업어야 했다.
Pattern: 몇 번이나. Normally, a Question-word + ...-(이)나 means
WH- ...-ever; any-WH and every-WH. Cf. 누구나 anybody and
everybody; 언제나 any time and all the time; always. But here
the
meaning is: time and time again; so many times, as if the
-(이)나
here
were
actually the one meaning as much as
(implying that the speaker finds the
amount excessive). Also:
naked infinitive abbreviated from -어(서): 풀어서.
Here: I had to untie and the p'odaegi several times and secure him tight
on my back
단지까지 갔다 오고도 나는 피로한 줄도 몰랐다.
Pattern: -고도 more or less equivalent to -어도, but with the nuance of
even after doing, even after having done; and yet, but, while,
though. Also: -(으)ㄴ 줄도 모른다 doesn't even realize that one
certain way.
Here: even after going all the way to the apartment complex and back I
술 덕분이었을 것이다.
Pattern: NOUN 덕분이다 is thanks to NOUN, is owing to NOUN. Cf.
closely related NOUN + 덕택으로 and NOUN 덕분에 thanks to
NOUN 덕이다 is thanks to NOUN.
Here: It must have been because of ['thanks to'] the alcohol
feels
a
don't feel tired
the
NOUN,
and
그 따위 술기운이 내 꼴을 내가 보는 자괴감을 마비시켜 줄 리는 없었다.
Pattern: Postnoun 따위 (and) the like, (of) the sort, (and) such,
etcetera
(etc.) (usually somewhat belittling or derogatory).
Also: -(으)ㄹ 리(가)
없- there is no reasonable expectation that
... ; there is no reason to ...
Here: there was no way such an insignificant amount of alcohol could
paralyze
my sense of shame or me in my wretched state
나는 어떤 집인지 모를 불 켜진 창을 올려다보며
Pattern: Q-word ...-(으)ㄴ지 모를 NOUN a NOUN for which one has
no idea
WH- ... . Also: -(으)며 as an abbreviation for -(으)면서
while, at the same time.
Here: looking up at the lit window of some unknown person's home
갑자기 명치께가 아팠다.
Pattern: Post-noun 께 around, in the vicinity/neighborhood of, near (a
(here followed by 가 as subject).
Here: suddenly I felt a pain around my solar plexus
place)
가슴을 무엇인가 둔중한 것으로 얻어맞은 듯이
Pattern: 무엇인가 something or other; a certain "je ne sais quoi."
Also:
Modifier + 듯 (하다) (i.e., -(으)ㄴ 듯, -(으)ㄹ
듯, -는
듯;) is like, is as
(if) is like, is as (if). like, as, giving the
appearance of ... ; appearing (to
be), looking (like); seeming
as if; as if/though.
Here: as if I had been hit in the chest with something blunt and heavy
한동안 숨쉬기가 거북했다.
Pattern: -기(가) 거북하다 feel awkward or cumbersome to do.
Here: it was difficult to breathe for a while
이윽고 긴 한숨을 내쉼으로써 호흡은 조절했지만
Pattern: -(으)ㅁ으로써, i.e., particle 으로(써) on a substantive in
-(으)ㅁ,
here meaning through or on account of/by . . . ing. By
itself, (으)로써 is an
emphatic synonym of -(으)로 in certain of
its meanings: (means) with, by, by
means of, through, using;
etc., and is not to be confused with -(으)므로(서), the
substantive in -(으)ㅁ + instrumental (으)로(서), meaning with
(as, etc.) the doing or being; since (because of) the doing or
being.
Here: after a little while I was able to control my breathing by letting
out a big
sigh, but
연애 시절 소주집으로만 끌고 다니는 내게 불만을 말한 적은 없다.
Pattern: (으)로만 = directional (으)로 + 만 only in the direction of; only
to
...
.
Note also: 내게 ⟵ 나에게.
Here: she had never voiced any discontent to me when we were dating
to drag her around to soju bars
and I had used
그녀가 혼자 술을 마시고 있을 줄은 몰랐다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 줄 몰랐다 had no idea that something would be the
Here: I had no idea that she would be drinking by herself
case.
나는 일기장을 거슬러 넘겨 가며
Pattern: naked infinitive abbreviated from -어(서): 거슬러서. Also: -어
gradually (goes on doing); keeps growing (getting to be,
becoming),
progressively; continues to do (from now
on), keeps (on) doing.
Here: as I search back through her diary
또 술 이야기가 없나 찾아보았다.
Pattern: -나 as an internal/thought quote -- thinking to myself, 'I
... ?'
Here: I looked to see if perhaps there was anything else about drinking
간다
goes on,
wonder whether
가슴이 아픈 것 같기도 하고 화가 난 것 같기도 하고
Pattern: VERB1-기도 하고 VERB2-기도 한다 meaning does both VERB1
and VERB2.
Here: my chest seemed to hurt and I also seemed to be angry
첫 모금을 혀에 대니 좀 세다.
Pattern: sequential -(으)니(까) since it is or does; when (in the past)
finds].
Here: the first taste on my tongue is a bit strong
then [one
술을 마신다는 것이 즐겁다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ다는 것 (cf. also -다는 것, -는다는 것, -(이)라는 것) from
the indirect quotation pattern in -ㄴ다[고 하]는 것, etc., meaning
the
putative or alleged fact that . . . setting up a comment about
the (often unusual or
noteworthy) topic marked by -는 것.
Here: drinking is fun
이것도 손쉬운 방법이나마 일상의 탈피니까.
Pattern: Extended adversative -(으)나마: (is/does) but anyway
despite (the value-detracting fact that ... ).
Here: this is an easy method, true enough, but it is an escape from
however
everyday life
술이 나더러 여편네 아니라고 한다.
Pattern: particle 더러 (orders, tells, shows) to (an inferior).
Optionally allows a preceding pronoun to take the object
Here: the alcohol tells me I'm not a wife
marker.
며칠 만인지 모른다.
Pattern: DURATION or Time word + 만에 or 만이다 to mark a passage of
time.
Here: I have no idea how many days it's been [since taking a bath]
피곤해서 내 몸을 돌볼 여유가 없다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 여유 없- have no room/leeway/space/time to ... .
Here: I'm so tired I have no time to take care of my own body
꼭 해야만 하는 가족의 시중에 밀려
Pattern: -어야만 한다 absolutely has to, absolutely must. This is the
have
to/must pattern in -어야 한다 strengthened with 만. Note
also 에 marking the byphrase agent of a passive
Here: caught up in all the family matters that absolutely have to be
looked after
거울에 바싹 붙어 서 있으려니 젖꼭지가 세면대에 닿는다.
Pattern: naked infinitive abbreviated from -어(서): 붙어서. Also:
(으)려니(까) when or just as one attempts to ... one then
that ... .
Here: as I try to stand up close to the mirror, my nipple touches the
finds/discovers
sink
이런 섬세한 느낌을 가질 수 있다는 게 여자 된 즐거움인 듯도 하다.
Pattern: -다는 게 ⟵ -다는 것이, where -다는 것 (cf. also -는다는 것,
-ㄴ다는
것, -(이)라는 것) is from the indirect quotation pattern in
-다[고 하]는 것, etc.,
meaning the putative or alleged fact that ... .
Note also substantive in -(으)ㅁ the act (or fact) of doing or
being.
Also: -(으)ㄴ 듯도 하다, I.e., Modifier + 듯 (하다) (i.e.,
-(으)ㄴ 듯, -(으)ㄹ
듯, -는 듯;) is like, is as (if) is like, is as
(if). like, as, giving the
appearance of ... ; appearing (to be),
looking (like); seeming as if; as if/though, but
with particle 도
also.
Here: that I am able to feel such sensations seems to be one of the
joys of being a
woman
조금 전까지 이 몸이 어떻게 여자의 몸으로 의식되었던가?
Pattern: -었던가(요)? was it the case, I wonder (-ㄴ가), that
something had been observed as having taken place in the
past?
Here: how was it that this body was taken to be a woman's body until
ago?
not long
지금 다시 거울에 비친 나는 머리가 헝클어진 채
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ 채(로) : just as it is or did, (in) the original state of.
Here: the 'me' reflected in the mirror now, hair all disheveled, ...
고개를 욕조에 깊이 처박고는 엉덩이를 들썩대며
Pattern: -고는. Placing the 는 after -고 forces the "and [then]..."
reading
of -고, as opposed to the "and [also]" reading. In
other words, it means
"when ... , ... then; upon doing," but
emphasizing the consequence. Also:
mimetic + -대다, for a
more insistent and prolonged effect than the similar
mimetic +
-거리다 -- does repeatedly/continuously; does and does; keeps
doing, does on and on, does (keeps doing) it away; does again
and
again, does over and over again.
Here: as I stick my head deep in the bathtub and lift my hips up and
down
대충 누르다 갈 줄 알았는데 끈질기다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 줄(로) 알았다 - thought that ... would/might, was
impression that ... would/might.
Here: I thought he would ring the bell a couple of times and then go,
persistent
under the
but
he's
이러다가는 아이들이 깰 것만 같다.
Pattern: warning in -다가는: if one keeps on doing then (unfortunately
... ; of
some bad consequence will happen). Also: -(으)ㄹ 것만
같다. Adding particle
만 to the seem patterns in 것 같다 adds a
note of certainty or conviction, as if to
say the one and only thing
that seems [likely] is ... .
Here: if he carries on like that the kids are bound to wake up
서둘러 옷을 꿰고 문을 여니 역시 외판원.
Pattern: naked infinitive abbreviated from -어(서): 서둘러서.
sequential -(으)니(까) since it is or does; when (in the past)
finds]
Here: I rush to throw on some clothes and open the door, and sure
salesman
우리 나라 문화 수준이 낮다고 좀 높여 보자고요."
Pattern: quotative -다고 saying that QUOTE, etc., for reasons.
Here: "so as the raise the level of our national culture which is so low."
then [one
enough, it is a
아줌마들을 주눅들여 책을 팔려는 얄팍한 상술이다.
Pattern: naked infinitive abbreviated from -어(서): 주눅들여서. Note also:
(으)려는 ⟵ -(으)려[고 하]는 with/having the intention to ... .
Here: it's a shallow strategy to browbeat housewives in order to sell
books
안성기를 보고서 갑자기 가슴이 찌르르해지던 그때 기분 같기도 하다.
Pattern: -고서 does and then; doing and then. The 서 after -고 makes
explicit
the 'and then' meaning of -고, which can carry the
meanings
of
simple
concatenative 'and' and 'and then'. One also
encounters -고서는 with the slight
difference of more emphasis
on the consequence: does and THEN. Also: -기도 하also
does/is also.
Here: it is also like the feeling I had the time I saw An Sŏnggi and
suddenly
got
butterflies in my stomach
그가 돌아간 뒤
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ 뒤(로) after ...-ing; ever since ..-ing; subsequent to
...-ed.
Here: after he had gone away
having
욕조와 벽 사이의 실리콘에 곰팡이가 잘 닦이지 않는다.
Pattern: passive in the sense of middle. In other words, we might
expect
nowadays to encounter 잘 닦여지지 않는닫 here rather
than just 잘 닦이지
않는다 just won't (let itself) get wiped off.
Here: the mold on the silicon between the bathtub and the wall just
won't rub
off
그것을 지우는 방법을 본 것 같아 가계부를 들춰보는데
Pattern: naked infinitive abbreviated from -아(서): 같아서.
Here: it seemed I had seem a method for removing it, so I'm looking
my household ledger, when
through
아이들이 깨면 데리고 은행에 갈 생각을 하며 나는 서둘러 쌀을 씻었다.
Pattern: -(으)며 as an abbreviation for -(으)면서 while, at the same
time.
Also: naked infinitive abbreviated from -어(서): 서둘러서.
Here: figuring I'll take the kids to the bank when they wake up I hasten
to wash the rice
일기장을 제자리에 두고 방으로 돌아오니
Pattern: sequential -(으)니(까) since it is or does; when (in the past)
finds]
Here: after putting the diary back in its place and returning to the
then [one
bedroom,
그녀는 밥을 지으러 나가려는지 스웨터를 걸치는데
Pattern: -(으)려는지 ⟵ -(으)려[고 하]는지. A combination of the
intentive pattern in -(으)려(고) 한다 and the 'perhaps because'
pattern
with modifier [-(으)ㄴ, -던, -었던, -었는, -는] +
post-modifier 지 the
uncertain fact whether. When left hanging
in mid-sentence, you can interpret the
pattern as having left
out a following -도 모르지만: it may be the case that, i.e.
perhaps [it is] because ... .
Here: she is putting on a sweater, as if perhaps to go out to [the
veranda?] make
rice
가슴께에 눌린 밥풀 몇 개가 허옇게 말라붙어 있다.
Pattern: Post-noun 께 around, in the vicinity/neighborhood of, near (a
(here followed by locative 에). Also: resultant state in
-어 있다.
Here: there are a few grains of dried white rice stuck around the chest
area
place)
칠칠맞기는.
Pattern: VERB-기는, i.e., nominalizer -기 followed by topic particle 는 to
set up a
topic -- speaking of VERB-ing ... ; when it comes to
VERB-ing ... ; as for
VERB-ing ... .
Here: Talk about sloppy.
고급 아파트들 인기가 떨어진다고 하대?
Pattern: -대(요), the colloquial abbreviation of -다고 해(요) for
hearsay
reporting -- they say that QUOTE or I hear that
QUOTE. Cf. also ㄴ대(요), -는대(요), -(이)래(요).
Here: do they say that expensive apartments are losing their popularity?
아줌마들이 강을 내려다보고 있노라면
Pattern: -노라면 what with the process of . . . -ing; because of the
long process of . . . -ing. Same as -느라면, but with a tinge of
implication that the subject of the verb is somewhat
and/or unjustified to see the process as such a big
deal.
Here: whenever the ajummas are looking down at the river
pretentious
삶을 비관하고 자살 충동까지 생겨서 그렇다며?
Pattern: 까지 in its meaning even, so far as (for extent, emphasis). Note
also
다며? (-는다며?, -(이)라며?, -ㄴ다며?) in its meaning of is
it true that I hear
that ... ? In meaning and function, it is
equivalent to -다면서(요)? (는면서(요)?, -(이)라면서요?, -ㄴ면서
(요)?), and like this latter set of
endings, has its origin in a
contracted indirect quotation: -다[고 하]며?, etc.
Here: is it true that they become pessimistic about life and even
impulses to commit suicide?
develop
"그래서 집을 복덕방에 내놔 버린다고 말야."
Pattern: -어 버린다 does completely, gets it (all) done, disposes of
(the job: (does
it) all/up/down/away/off; does to one's
disappointment or regret; does
it to one's relief. Note also 말야
(⟵ 말이야), which, like its cousins
말입니다, 말이에요, etc. is an
interjection that can be tossed in at any pause
point to mean I
mean, you know, you see, uh, that is, etc.
Here: "And so, I mean they apparently (-다고) put their places up for
sale
through realtors."
"남편들은 이 눈치 저 눈치 봐가며 뼈빠지게 벌어다 주면
Pattern: -어 간다 gradually (goes on doing); keeps growing (getting to
be,
becoming), goes on, progressively; continues to do (from
now on), keeps (on)
doing. Also: -(으)며 as an abbreviation for
-(으)면서 while, at the same time.
Note also -어다 준다, where
-어다(가) is the infinitive form (해-form) followed by
transferentive -다(가) indicating a shift of location, purpose,
direction, benefit, etc. in the action occurring.
Here: while the husbands are working themselves to the bones, forever
having to
watch their backs, to bring home the bacon
마누라들은 한가하게 인생 타령이나 하고, 수준들 높다니까.
Pattern: NOUN(이)나 with quasi-particle (이)나 meaning or the like; or
something, often with a gently chiding or deprecatory nuance.
다니까 (-(으)라니까, -자니까, -(으)냐니까/-느냐니까, -는다니
reproachful reiterations -- I'm tellin' ya -- ...!
Here: the wives kick back and complain about their lot in life -- a
bunch, I'm tellin' ya!
Also: 까) for insistent,
pretty high-class
우리 마누라가 뭐라는 줄 알아?
Pattern: 줄 = 지. I.e., 뭐라는 줄 알아? ⟵ 무엇이라고 하는 줄 아나? with
colloquial 줄 functioning like oblique question 지.
Here: do you know what my wife says?
자기도 자유가 필요하다나?
Pattern: -다나? ⟵ -다[고 하]나? meaning does she say that/is what
saying that ... I wonder (half to myself, half for the
benefit
listening)?
Here: now let me see -- doesn't she claim she needs her freedom, too?
of
she's
anybody
집안일이 지겹고 힘들다는 거야 나도 알지.
Pattern: -다는 거, where -다는 ⟵ -다[고 하]는, and hence the phrase
means
the alleged/purported (and third-hand) fact that QUOTE.
Also:
NOUN(이)야
only if it be, if it is just (no more than), if it is
nothing other/more than..., if (it
be), when it comes to; even,
indeed; of course ...; taking ... for granted
(marks a reinforced
contingency or prerequisite for a main clause, one or the
other of
which is unlikely, unexpected, or anticipated to be difficult or
unpleasant).
Here: Of course I know that she finds household chores tiresome and
difficult
더러운 꼴 참아 가며
Pattern: -어 간다 gradually (goes on doing); keeps growing (getting to
be,
becoming), goes on, progressively; continues to do (from
now on), keeps (on)
doing.
Here: putting up with this disgusting lot in life
죽으나 사나 이 놈의 회사에 모가지 붙들려 있는 것에 비하면
Pattern: VERB1-(으)나 VERB2-(으)나 [간에] [no matter] whether
VERB1 or VERB2 (or the like, or whatever). Also: 이놈의 NOUN
this wretched NOUN. Also: resultant state in -어 있다. Also:
NOUN에 비하면 compared to/with NOUN.
Here: compared to hanging by the neck for dear life at this wretched
company
자기야 근무 여건이 좋은 편이지, 안 그래?"
Pattern: NOUN(이)야 only if it be, if it is just (no more than), if it is
nothing other/more than..., if (it be), when it comes to; even,
indeed; of course ...; taking ... for granted (marks a reinforced
contingency or prerequisite for a main clause, one or the other of
which is
unlikely, unexpected, or anticipated to be difficult or
unpleasant).
Also: -(으)ㄴ 편이다 is on the ... side; is inclined to
be ... .
Here: "her own working conditions are pretty decent, don't you think?"
"그렇게 말했어?" "맞아 죽게?"
Pattern: adverbial -게 (in a way) so that, so that it is or does; so
that one can; in
a manner such that; -ly. But here the function
is somewhat special: you
wanna .. or something? Are you fixin'
to ... ?
Here: "Did you say that to her?" "What, and get killed?"
지글지글 익어 가는 돼지갈비를 뒤집으며 소주 맛 좋다.
Pattern: -어 간다 gradually (goes on doing); keeps growing (getting to
be,
becoming), goes on, progressively; continues to do (from
now on), keeps (on)
doing. Also: -(으)며 as an abbreviation for
-(으)면서 while, at the same time.
Here: as we flip over the sizzling pork ribs the soju is going down
nicely.
나는 어쩐지 기분이 끝내 유쾌해지지가 않았다.
Pattern: -어지지(가) 않 - (just) can't/won't, despite or contrary to
one's
wishes.
The -어지here pattern implies that the action
comes about naturally, and in
such a way that the agent or
subject has little or no control over the process of
becoming.
Here: for my part, somehow my mood just couldn't loosen up all
evening
집에 들어가니 그녀도 그날따라 기분이 안 좋다.
Pattern: sequential -(으)니(까) since it is or does; when (in the past)
finds]. Also: NOUN따라 NOUN of all NOUNs (but
this
restricted to just a few time words like 오늘,
그날, etc.).
Here: when I get home, for some reason that day she's not in the best
moods, either
then [one
seems to be
of
문을 따주고는 등 뒤에 가만히 서 있는 폼이
Pattern: -고는. Placing the 는 after -고 forces the "and [then]..."
reading
of -고, as opposed to the "and [also]" reading. In
other words, it means
"when..., ...then; upon doing," but
emphasizing the consequence. Also:
resultant state in -어 있다.
Here: the way stands there quietly behind me after unlocking the door
for me
발언권을 얻겠다고 단단히 작정한 눈치다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ 눈치 a subtle, unspoken indication or sign that ... .
Here: makes it clear that she has resolved to have her say
내 목소리는 그지없이 당당한 나머지
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ 나머지 as a result of, from an excess of, driven by.
Here: my voice, full as it was with boundless righteousness
짜증까지 섞여 있었다.
Pattern: 까지 in its meaning even, so far as (for extent, emphasis).
Also: resultant state in -어 있다.
Here: was even tinged with annoyedness
그렇게 매일 같이 마셔야만 해요?
Pattern: -어야만 한다 absolutely has to, absolutely must. This is the
to/must pattern in -어야 한다 strengthened with 만.
have
Here: Do you really have to drink like this every day?
술 안 마시고는 사회 생활이 안 돼요?
Pattern: 안 ...-고는 equivalent to -지 않고서는. Placing 는 after -고
forces
the "and [then]..." reading of -고, as opposed to the
"and [also]..." reading. In other
words, it means "when ... , ...
then," but emphasizing the consequence. On a
negative, the
consequence implied or stated is usually dire -- if one doesn't
do something, look out, because something unpleasant
will/might happen, in which case "unless" is a good translation.
Here: You can't have a social life without drinking?
간암 환자 빼고 그런 놈 있으면 나와 보라고 그래.
Pattern: NOUN(을) 빼고 with the exception of NOUN; excepting
NOUN.
Also: -(으)라고 그런다 tells/order somebody to do
something.
Here: liver cancer patients aside, if there's any asshole that fits that
description, let
him step forward
내 마음을 붙들어매놓기 위해서라도
Pattern: VERB-기 위해서라도 even if it should be for the sake of
VERBing. I.e., a combination of -기 위해서 for the sake of
...-ing + pseudo-particle -(이)라도 (1) even if (it be) (2) just,
like ( = 이나 ); or even any, some.
Here: if only to reign in this sentiment of mine, I ...
내 표정은 더욱 유들유들해질 수밖에 없다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 수밖에 없다 have no choice or alternative but to ... .
Here: there was nothing for it but for my expression to grow even
그녀는 한참을 그냥 그대로 서 있다.
Pattern: accusative particle 을/를 to mark duration. Also: resultant
있다.
Here: she just stands there for a long time
나를 똑바로 쏘아보며.
Pattern: -(으)며 as an abbreviation for -(으)면서 while, at the same
Here: glaring right at me
이게 무슨 소린가.
Pattern: question ending -(으)ㄴ가(요)? (often
wondering to oneself).
Here: what are you saying?
used for musing or
(or
the)
more impudent
state
in
time.
-어
그제서야 그 동안 그녀가 내게 꽤 살가웠구나 싶어진다.
Pattern: -구나 싶다, i.e., Plain Style (Internal) Quote + 싶- think to
oneself that ... Note that, while the clause in front of 싶- looks
feels like a quote, you can't put a quotative -고 after it.
Here: only then did I come to think to myself, 'aha,
like and
하지만 그렇다고 내 일상이 불편해지거나 지장을 받는 것은 아니다.
Pattern: VERB1-거나 VERB2 -거나 (... whether) ... or ... (shows
indifference toward a choice between two conflicting actions or
Here: but, having said that, it's not like my day-to-day existence gets
inconvenient or encounters more obstacles
states).
any more
회사에서나 집에서나
Pattern: A(이)나 B(이)나 whether it be A or be (here on phrases in에
Here: whether at the office or at home
서).
내 일과는 다를 바가 없다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 바(가) 없다, with somewhat fancy and literary/bookish
바
for
것. On its own, the pattern in -(으)ㄹ 바(가) 없다 means
something like is a
matter or occasion (바 = ‘place') in which
one might or can ... . For example, a
polite but firm way to
render English It's none of your business is 당신이 상관할
바가
아닙니다.
Here: there is no change in my daily routine
얘기를 나눌 시간도 별로 없는 나로서는
Pattern: NOUN(으)로서는 as, for, in the capacity of NOUN; being
NOUN.
Here: for me, who doesn't have all that much time to chit-chat with her
설령 그녀에게 무언가 강한 의사 표현을 해야 할 때가 오더라도
Pattern: (설령) ...-더라도 even though (it has been observed that);
granted/supposing that. Note also 무언가 ⟵ 무엇인가
other.
Here: even if the time should come when I have to express some
forcefully
even
something
or
opinion to her
단식이나 침묵 시위 같은 것은 애초에 성립될 수조차 없는 일인 것이다.
Pattern: NOUN1(이)나 NOUN2 meaning NOUN1 or NOUN2. Also:
particle 조차 (not) even; too, to boot, in addition, into the bargain.
Typically followed by a negative verb. Also: NOUN인 것이다. It
is a case
of being NOUN (rather more distancing and
objective-sounding than just
NOUN이다.)
Here: the fact of the matter is that refusing to eat her food or giving
her the
silent treatment just aren't options from the get-go
차장이 지시를 내렸기 때문이기도 했다.
Pattern: -기도 하- also does/is also.
Here: another reason is because the section chief has ordered it
"남편이여, 아내를 사랑하라"라는 캐치프레이즈
Pattern: NOUN이여. Martin treats -(이)여 as the heavy alternate of
vocative
아/야. Another, more likely interpretation is to take 여
as abbreviated from the
poetic/archaic/elegant -(이)여
(honorific -이시여).
Here: the catch-phrase "Dear Husband, love thy wife!"
차라리 꽃꽂이나 서예 강좌가 낫다는 생각이 들었다.
Pattern: (차라리) NOUN이 낫다 NOUN would be better; NOUN is
preferable. The adverb 차라리 flags an upcoming comparison or
statement of druthers. Also: -다는 생각이 든다 meaning the
thought
that QUOTE occurs to one, and where -다는 ⟵ -다[고
하]는, and hence points
up the alleged/purported nature of the
생각 it is modifying.
Here: [instead of lectures of this nature] it occurs to me that flower
arranging
or
calligraphy lessons would be better
트집잡을 배짱은 없었다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 배짱은 없다 doesn't have the guts/bravado/kahunas to
Here: I didn't have the courage to speak up against it
... .
전에도 몇 번인가 열린 적이 있지만
Pattern: 몇 번인가 a few times or so. Cf. 무엇인가 something or other,
누구인가 somebody or other, etc., where 인가 functions like a
quasiparticle meaning or the like, or whatever, or something
or other, or something
like that ...
Here: had been offered a few times before previously, too, but
지나가는 말로라도
Pattern: (으)로라도 even if it be by way of/by means of. I.e., a
combination of instrumental (으)로 + pseudo-particle -(이)라도
(1) even
if (it be) (2) just, (or the) like ( = 이나 ); or even
Here: even just in passing
any, some.
그녀에게 강좌가 있다는 것을 말해 줄 마음이 들었다.
Pattern: -다는 것을 말해 준다 tells (somebody) that ... ; lets
(somebody) know that ... , with -다는 것 (cf. also -는다는 것, -ㄴ
다는 것,
-(이)라는 것) from the indirect quotation pattern in -ㄴ다
[고 하]는 것, etc.,
meaning the putative or alleged fact that ... .
Also: -(으)ㄹ 마음이 든다 feel like ...ing; have/develop a mind
to ... .
Here: I felt like letting her know that there were lectures
그녀에게 '바람이라도 쐬라'는 말
Pattern: pseudo-particle -(이)라도 (1) even if (it be) (2) just, (or the)
이나 ); or even any, some.
Here: [or maybe I had even hoped that] it would sound to her like
some fresh air or something'
들려 주기를 기대한 건지도 모른다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ지(도) 모른다 lit.: doesn't know whether it might
be (with descriptive verbs), hence, just perhaps might
be.
Here: or maybe I had even hoped that it would sound to her [like 'go
get some fresh air or something']
like ( =
'go out and get
perhaps
out
and
도로 살가운 모습이 되어 주기를 바라는 마음
Pattern: VERB-기를 바란다 hopes/wishes that (somebody) will VERB.
Here: my wish for her to go back to being her amiable old self
없다고는 할 수 없으니까.
Pattern: particle 는 anticipating a negative verb.
Here: because I can't say I didn't have [the inclination for her to ...]
나는 그날 아침에야 출근하면서 넌지시 운을 떼었다.
Pattern: TIME에야 only when ... . Based on locative 에 + particle (이)
야 only
if it be, if it is just (no more than), if it is nothing
other/more than ... , if
(it be), when it comes to; even, indeed.
Here: that morning, finally, as I was leaving for work, I piped up
"참, 오늘 회사 강당에서 사우 아내들한테 교양 강좌를 한다더라."
Pattern: -ㄴ다더라 contracted from -ㄴ다[고 하]더라 I recall that
somebody said that ... ; apparently, ... ; apparently, they say
that ... .
Here: "Oh, by the way, apparently they're putting on a training seminar
company wives today in the auditorium."
for
"'남편 기 살리기' 라나 봐."
Pattern: -기. I.e., nominalizer/summative -기 the act of, the fact
of/that;
...-ing (as Korean immediate subject or object). Also:
-(이)라나 보다 ⟵ (이)라[고 하]나 보다 seems somebody says it
is ... .
Here: "I think it was something like 'Reviving your Husband' Morale'."
그녀가 얼굴을 천천히 들더니 나를 빤히 쳐다본다.
Pattern: retrospective sequential -더니: as now it has been observed
that ... ;
when (now/then),
since (now/then) ... ; ... and
now/then;
...
but
now/then. The form in -더니 usually implies a
marked or abrupt contrast
between the first and second
clauses, as if zooming in for a startling closeup: whereupon.
The startling close-up effect can be accentuated by adding
particle 만: -더니만.
Here: she raises her face slowly and stares at me
눈 속이 투명하여 아무 생각도 없는 듯한 표정이다.
Pattern: naked infinitive abbreviated from -어(서): 투명하여서. Also:
Modifier
+ 듯 (하다) (i.e., -(으)ㄴ 듯, -(으)ㄹ
듯, -는 듯;) is
like, is as (if) is like, is
as (if). like, as, giving the appearance
of ... ; appearing (to be), looking (like);
seeming as if; as
if/though.
Here: the look in her eyes is transparent, and her expression is
seemingly vacant
그렇게 나를 뚫어져라 쳐다보니
Pattern: imperative -어라 grammaticalized as an adverb. Cf. “죽어라
[고]!”
“Die!” grammaticalized as an emphatic adverb meaning
with all one's might, as
in this example:
죽어라고 닦아 논 차 (빙하기 28)
The car which I cleaned with all my might . . . (lit.: saying
...
"DIE!")
Also: sequential -(으)니(까) since it is or does; when (in the
past)
then [one finds].
Here: after staring at me like this as if she might bore a hole through
me
죄 없이 내 얼굴만 붉어질 참이다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄹ 참이다 is a juncture/crucial moment when, wouldn't
know it, something unanticipated happens.
Here: all I could do was go innocently red in the face
you
역시 안 말하는 게 나을 뻔했다고,
Pattern: -는 게 나을 뻔했다 it would have ['almost'] been
better/preferable if one had ... ; should have just ... .
Here: sure enough, I should have kept my mouth shut
나는 속으로 떨떠름해 한다.
Pattern: -어 한다 with sensory verbs. Usually reserved for
third-persons,
but here the subject is "I", as if observing
himself from a distance.
Here: I think to myself, resignedly
"좀 힘들긴 한데 ... "
Pattern: -긴 하- for -기는 하- does (is) all right, (it is true) but ... ;
admit) but.
Here: "It's a bit of a stretch ... "
is indeed (I must
"누가 꼭 가야 한댔어?"
Pattern: -ㄴ댔어? ⟵ -ㄴ다고 했어? Did somebody say that ...
Here: "Did anybody say you have to go?"
그날 밤도 나는 자정이 다 되어서야 집에 왔다.
Pattern: -어서야 only after ... ; only after having done.
Here: That night, too, I didn't come home until after midnight.
그런데 아무리 벨을 눌러도
Pattern: 아무리 ...-어도 however/no matter how (much one might) ... .
Here: no matter how long I pushed the buzzer
과연 그녀는 일기장을 펼쳐 놓은 채 그대로 엎드려 잠들어 있다.
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ 채(로) : just as it is or did, (in) the original state of.
Also: naked infinitive abbreviated from -어(서): 엎드려서.
Also: resultant state in -어 있다.
Here: sure enough, she was slumped over her opened diary, asleep
워낙 고단했는지 오늘은 날짜만 써놓고 빈칸이었다.
Pattern: 'perhaps because' with modifier [-(으)ㄴ, -던, -었던, -었는,
-는]
+
post-modifier 지 the uncertain fact whether. When left
hanging
in
midsentence, you can interpret the pattern as
having left out a following -도
모르지만: it may be the case
that, i.e. perhaps [it is] because ... .
Here: she must have been quite exhausted, as today's entry is empty
except
for the date
아들 녀석이 칭얼거린다.
Pattern: Mimetic + -거리다 does repeatedly/continuously; does and
does; doing, does on and on, does (keeps doing) it away; does
and again, does over and over again.
Here: our son is whining
again
아까 5분 넘게 벨을 눌러도 끄떡 않던 그녀의 잠은
Pattern: DURATION + 넘게 for more than DURATION. (Based on
넘exceed plus adverbial -게 (in a way) so that, so that it is
or does; so that one can;
in a manner such that; -ly. Note
also optional dropping of 하지 in long
negatives: 끄떡 않던 for 끄
떡 [하지] 않던.
Here: my wife's slumber, even though she hadn't budged just now as I
rang the
buzzer for five minutes,
그녀는 황급히 아이 곁으로 다가가더니 이마 위의 물수건을 내려놓고
Pattern: retrospective sequential -더니: as now it has been observed
that ... ;
when (now/then),
since (now/then) ... ; ... and
now/then;
...
but
now/then. The form in -더니 usually implies a
marked or abrupt contrast
between the first and second
clauses, as if zooming in for a startling closeup: whereupon.
The startling close-up effect can be accentuated by adding
particle 만: -더니만.
Here: she hurried over to the child's side, took the wet towel from his
forehead,
and
그러고는 눈을 감은 채 아이의 뺨에 자기 뺨을 대고
Pattern: -고는. Placing the 는 after -고 forces the "and [then]..."
reading
of -고, as opposed to the "and [also]" reading. In
other words, it means
"when ..., ... then; upon doing," but
emphasizing the consequence. Also: (으)ㄴ 채(로) : just as it is
or did, (in) the original state of.
Here: and then, eyes still closed, pressed her cheek up against his
앞뒤로 몸을 흔들며 등을 토닥거린다.
Pattern: -(으)며 as an abbreviation for -(으)면서 while, at the same
time.
Also: Mimetic + -거리다 does repeatedly/continuously;
does and does;
doing, does on and on, does (keeps doing) it away;
does again and again, does over
and over again.
Here: rocking back and forth, pats his back gently
그러나 잠이 덜 깬 탓에
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ 탓에 = -(으)ㄴ 탓으로 on account of, because of, due to
(usually
for some less-than-positive reason), where 탓 is a
Here: but because she is still only half-awake
grounds, reason or fault.
그녀의 앉은 엉덩이께에는
Pattern: Post-noun 께 around, in the vicinity/neighborhood of, near (a
(here followed by locative 에).
Here: the area near her seat
place)
약봉지며 체온계며 대야, 수건 같은 것이
Pattern: NOUN1(이)며 NOUN2, etc. meaning NOUN1 and NOUN2, etc.,
for long lists and litanies.
Here: things like a medicine packet, a thermometer, and a towel
어지럽게 널려 있어 지금 아이를 안는 그녀의 동작이
Pattern: resultant state in -어 있다. Also: naked infinitive abbreviated
어(서): 널려 있어서.
Here: are strewn around, and so her movements as she holds the child
from
-
몇 시간 동안이나 반복된 것임을 말해 준다.
Pattern: DURATION(이)나 as much as, long as (implies that the
speaker
thinks the duration is substantial or more than
expected). Note also: (으)ㅁ 을 말해 준다 tells that/reveals
that/gives away the fact that (based on
the substantive in -(으)
ㅁ the act (or fact) of doing or being).
Here: suggest that this has been repeating itself over the course of
several hours
아이를 안은 채 눈을 꼭 감고 있는 그녀의 얼굴은
Pattern: -(으)ㄴ 채(로) : just as it is or did, (in) the original state of.
Here: her face, eyes closed tight as she holds the child in her arms
피곤에 절어 있다.
Pattern: resultant state in -어 있다.
Here: is suffused with fatigue
비록 모양틀 안에서 똑같은 얼음으로 얼려진다 해도
Pattern: (비록) -(으)ㄴ다 해도 ⟵ -(으)ㄴ다[고] 해도 even supposing
one says
that ... hence even granted that ... ; even supposing
... . Adverb 비록 flags an
upcoming concessive (even though).
Here: Even if it [life] one concedes that it gets frozen into one set
frame like so
many ice-cubes,
Related documents
verb noun sort
verb noun sort
alliteration grammar
alliteration grammar
Conventions - 9thlitcompstinson
Conventions - 9thlitcompstinson