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APGAP US Review 1
Federalist 51
Shay’s Rebellion
3/5 Compromise (or Connecticut
Elite theory
Bill of Rights
Pluralist theory
The Great Compromise
Articles of Confederation
(1) The government has become
much more bureaucratic, which
divides power among people and
fragments the existing power
structure. The original system of
checks and balances was intended
for three groups – Congress, the
President, and the Judicial Branch.
As parties have gained prevalence
and power, their presence is
disbursed among the three branches,
so there may be more or less
incentive (depending on the partisan
makeup of Congress and the
President) to check the power of
each branch. Bureaucratic agencies
have become middlemen with their
own shares of power and unelected
positions, so there is less incentive
for them to check the power of any
branch unless it suits them. The
President is more powerful and
visible than ever before, so his/her
power to check and be checked
depends on the partisan makeup of
the sitting Congress. Primary
elections (which have only existed
since the early 20th century), have
made all elections more competitive
and more direct – the people choose
who runs as well as who wins.
(2) Separation of Powers gives
Congress, the President, and the
Judicial Branch their own spheres of
influence. Partisan politics, however,
leads to divided government when
different parties win control of
different branches. This results in
gridlock, which stymies the policymaking process. No individual
branch can accomplish anything
when the other branches strive to
stop them at every turn.
APGAP US Review 2
Free enterprise
Alexis de Tocqueville
Conflicting political culture
Political tolerance
Rule of law
Consenting political culture
Core American values
Political culture
Political efficacy
Rugged individualism
Second Bill of Rights
(1) Participation includes: running
for office, working for a
candidate/party, writing to a political
official, discussing political issues,
donating to a PAC, registering people
to vote, etc.
(2) Voter registration is important
because it has to be self-initiated. The
percentage of registered voters who
turn out to vote is high, so it follows
to reason that if more people were
registered, more people would turn
out to vote, too.
(3) Political culture and political
participation are tied together. In a
political climate that is open (i.e. one
with an active civil society), people
have more incentive to be active,
speak up, vote, etc.
APGAP US Review 3
Grassroots politics
Political competence
McGovern-Fraser Commission
Universal Manhood Suffrage
Linkage institutions
Divided government
New Deal Coalition
(1) Lobbyists provide critical
information to members of Congress,
which is aimed at influencing them to
pass favorable legislation.
Furthermore, they provide campaign
support for members of Congress in
exchange for favorable policy.
APGAP US Review 4
Single-member district
Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of
2002 (McCain-Feingold)
Soft money
Buckley v. Valeo
Open primary
Coattail effect
Iowa Caucus
(2) The media affects public opinion
by serving as gatekeeper and
watchdog of the political world. They
decide which issues to pay attention
to and promote, which shapes the
public agenda (i.e. the issues we seem
to collectively care about). They also
report on political developments and
events, which influences public
perception. The media affects the
public’s opinion of political
candidates by reporting on certain
people more favorably than others,
helping candidates to craft ads and
press events, etc. The public image of
a political candidate is at least
partially shaped by their media
(FRQ is combined with Review 5 –
see that table for responses)
APGAP US Review 5
Advice and Consent
Line-item veto
White House staff
US v. Nixon
Twenty Second Amendment
Executive privilege
Executive order
Pyramid structure
Congressional Budget and Impoundment Act
of 1974
(1) White House staff are appointed
by the President (but unconfirmed
by the Senate) and help the President
with his daily schedule and routine.
They help him draft speeches, make
policy stances and initiatives, craft
his message to the public, set up
press events, travel, meet with
foreign leaders, etc. They exercise a
tremendous degree of influence and
are among the closest
friends/colleagues of the President.
The leaders of the Executive Office of
the President (i.e. the OMB, NSC,
NEC, etc.) are appointed by the
President and confirmed by the
Senate. They help the President
devise the most important policies
(i.e. budgetary and national security
matters). They work closely with the
President on some of his most
important and confidential tasks. The
Cabinet consists of the chairs of the
fifteen departments of the federal
bureaucracy that report directly to
the President. Each cabinet
department deals with a defined (but
sometimes wide-ranging) policy area
(i.e. Defense, Education, Labor, etc.)
and they lobby the President for the
resources and attention they need.
(2) Incumbents generally have a
much better chance of winning
because they have the benefit of
voter familiarity. They are already in
power, so many voters stick with
candidates whom they know. For this
reason, incumbents have an easier
time raising campaign funds and
getting media access, which are
critical to winning elections. Also,
some incumbents are in “safe”
(rather than “marginal”) districts,
which are historical strongholds for
electing candidates from a certain
APGAP US Review 6
Authorization bill
Joint committee
Marking up
Conference committee
“Power of the Purse”
Revenue bill
(1) Congressional oversight extends
to each branch of government.
Congress oversees the spending of
all funds from the federal
bureaucracy (which is part of the
executive branch), passes the
federal budget (which the President
drafts), confirms Presidential
appointments and interviews all
federal judges/justices. Congress
also checks its own power by using
its committee structure to keep its
members in line.
(2) The House and Senate are
organized differently. The House
contains 435 members who are
apportioned by population and reelected every two years. The Senate
contains 100 members who are
equally distributed by state and reelected every six years. Because the
House is much larger, it is heavily
structured. There are several
committees, rigid rules, and a
Speaker role, which governs the
members’ behavior on the floor. The
House initiates all revenue bills (i.e.
taxes and expenditures) because
they are the most direct
representatives of their constituents
(elected by small districts rather
than the states as a whole). The
Senate is a more elite body (as each
Senator is elected by the entire state
and therefore represents the entire
state population). The Senate
debates more openly as there are
fewer members and deals more
directly with Presidential issues,
such as ratifying treaties and
confirming appointed positions. The
House and Senate both make policy
by passing laws, but they can check
each other’s power by not passing a
bill that’s being exchanged from one
to the other (i.e. both the House and
Senate must pass bills before the
President signs/vetoes them).
APGAP US Review 7
Right to counsel (Amendment VI)
Civil law
Criminal law
Marbury v. Madison
Common law
Class action lawsuit
Dual court system
Diversity case
Constitutional case
(1) The justices of the Supreme Court
are relatively insulated from public
opinion because they are appointed
rather than elected. They are free to
make rulings on the basis of their
constitutional interpretation,
irrespective of public opinion. At the
same time, however, Supreme Court
justices are members of society and
are not completely closed off from
the pressing issues of the day or their
social significance. They are not
supposed to make decisions on this
basis, but by virtue of human nature,
public opinion and current events
undoubtedly affect their worldview.
(2) Justices who believe in judicial
restraint are considered to be “strict
constructionists” who take a more
literal interpretation of the
Constitution and do not believe that
the document should be “read into”
or that it should be subject to
modern principles and mores.
Justices who believe in judicial
activism are considered to be “loose
constructionists” who take a more
broad interpretation of the
Constitution and believe that the
document should be used to shape
policy rather than to merely enforce