APGAP US Review 1 FRQ: Federalist 51 Shay’s Rebellion 3/5 Compromise (or Connecticut Compromise) Ratification Federalists Elite theory Bill of Rights Pluralist theory The Great Compromise Articles of Confederation (1) The government has become much more bureaucratic, which divides power among people and fragments the existing power structure. The original system of checks and balances was intended for three groups – Congress, the President, and the Judicial Branch. As parties have gained prevalence and power, their presence is disbursed among the three branches, so there may be more or less incentive (depending on the partisan makeup of Congress and the President) to check the power of each branch. Bureaucratic agencies have become middlemen with their own shares of power and unelected positions, so there is less incentive for them to check the power of any branch unless it suits them. The President is more powerful and visible than ever before, so his/her power to check and be checked depends on the partisan makeup of the sitting Congress. Primary elections (which have only existed since the early 20th century), have made all elections more competitive and more direct – the people choose who runs as well as who wins. (2) Separation of Powers gives Congress, the President, and the Judicial Branch their own spheres of influence. Partisan politics, however, leads to divided government when different parties win control of different branches. This results in gridlock, which stymies the policymaking process. No individual branch can accomplish anything when the other branches strive to stop them at every turn. APGAP US Review 2 FRQ: Free enterprise Alexis de Tocqueville Conflicting political culture Political tolerance Rule of law Consenting political culture Core American values Political culture Political efficacy Rugged individualism Second Bill of Rights (1) Participation includes: running for office, working for a candidate/party, writing to a political official, discussing political issues, donating to a PAC, registering people to vote, etc. (2) Voter registration is important because it has to be self-initiated. The percentage of registered voters who turn out to vote is high, so it follows to reason that if more people were registered, more people would turn out to vote, too. (3) Political culture and political participation are tied together. In a political climate that is open (i.e. one with an active civil society), people have more incentive to be active, speak up, vote, etc. APGAP US Review 3 FRQ: Grassroots politics Political competence McGovern-Fraser Commission Universal Manhood Suffrage Democratic-Republicans Gridlock Linkage institutions Winner-take-all Divided government New Deal Coalition (1) Lobbyists provide critical information to members of Congress, which is aimed at influencing them to pass favorable legislation. Furthermore, they provide campaign support for members of Congress in exchange for favorable policy. APGAP US Review 4 Debate Single-member district Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002 (McCain-Feingold) Soft money Buckley v. Valeo Open primary 527 Coattail effect Iowa Caucus Plurality/winner-take-all (2) The media affects public opinion by serving as gatekeeper and watchdog of the political world. They decide which issues to pay attention to and promote, which shapes the public agenda (i.e. the issues we seem to collectively care about). They also report on political developments and events, which influences public perception. The media affects the public’s opinion of political candidates by reporting on certain people more favorably than others, helping candidates to craft ads and press events, etc. The public image of a political candidate is at least partially shaped by their media access. (FRQ is combined with Review 5 – see that table for responses) APGAP US Review 5 FRQ: Gridlock Advice and Consent Line-item veto White House staff US v. Nixon Twenty Second Amendment Executive privilege Executive order Pyramid structure Congressional Budget and Impoundment Act of 1974 (1) White House staff are appointed by the President (but unconfirmed by the Senate) and help the President with his daily schedule and routine. They help him draft speeches, make policy stances and initiatives, craft his message to the public, set up press events, travel, meet with foreign leaders, etc. They exercise a tremendous degree of influence and are among the closest friends/colleagues of the President. The leaders of the Executive Office of the President (i.e. the OMB, NSC, NEC, etc.) are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. They help the President devise the most important policies (i.e. budgetary and national security matters). They work closely with the President on some of his most important and confidential tasks. The Cabinet consists of the chairs of the fifteen departments of the federal bureaucracy that report directly to the President. Each cabinet department deals with a defined (but sometimes wide-ranging) policy area (i.e. Defense, Education, Labor, etc.) and they lobby the President for the resources and attention they need. (2) Incumbents generally have a much better chance of winning because they have the benefit of voter familiarity. They are already in power, so many voters stick with candidates whom they know. For this reason, incumbents have an easier time raising campaign funds and getting media access, which are critical to winning elections. Also, some incumbents are in “safe” (rather than “marginal”) districts, which are historical strongholds for electing candidates from a certain party. APGAP US Review 6 FRQ: Pigeon-holed Authorization bill Joint committee Marking up Bicameral Conference committee “Power of the Purse” Revenue bill Gerrymandering Incumbency (1) Congressional oversight extends to each branch of government. Congress oversees the spending of all funds from the federal bureaucracy (which is part of the executive branch), passes the federal budget (which the President drafts), confirms Presidential appointments and interviews all federal judges/justices. Congress also checks its own power by using its committee structure to keep its members in line. (2) The House and Senate are organized differently. The House contains 435 members who are apportioned by population and reelected every two years. The Senate contains 100 members who are equally distributed by state and reelected every six years. Because the House is much larger, it is heavily structured. There are several committees, rigid rules, and a Speaker role, which governs the members’ behavior on the floor. The House initiates all revenue bills (i.e. taxes and expenditures) because they are the most direct representatives of their constituents (elected by small districts rather than the states as a whole). The Senate is a more elite body (as each Senator is elected by the entire state and therefore represents the entire state population). The Senate debates more openly as there are fewer members and deals more directly with Presidential issues, such as ratifying treaties and confirming appointed positions. The House and Senate both make policy by passing laws, but they can check each other’s power by not passing a bill that’s being exchanged from one to the other (i.e. both the House and Senate must pass bills before the President signs/vetoes them). APGAP US Review 7 FRQ: Right to counsel (Amendment VI) Civil law Criminal law Marbury v. Madison Common law Class action lawsuit Dual court system Diversity case Defendant Constitutional case (1) The justices of the Supreme Court are relatively insulated from public opinion because they are appointed rather than elected. They are free to make rulings on the basis of their constitutional interpretation, irrespective of public opinion. At the same time, however, Supreme Court justices are members of society and are not completely closed off from the pressing issues of the day or their social significance. They are not supposed to make decisions on this basis, but by virtue of human nature, public opinion and current events undoubtedly affect their worldview. (2) Justices who believe in judicial restraint are considered to be “strict constructionists” who take a more literal interpretation of the Constitution and do not believe that the document should be “read into” or that it should be subject to modern principles and mores. Justices who believe in judicial activism are considered to be “loose constructionists” who take a more broad interpretation of the Constitution and believe that the document should be used to shape policy rather than to merely enforce it.