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Mr. Boerem
AP European History
AP European History is a challenging course that is meant to be the equivalent of a
freshman course in college. The course is a two-semester survey of European History
from the Renaissance to the present. Solid reading and writing skills, along with a
willingness to devote considerable time to homework and study, are necessary to
succeed. Emphasis is placed on critical thinking skills, essay writing, interpretation of
primary source documents and historiography.
The primary teaching methodologies for this course will consist of lecture and
discussion. Students need to understand that reading is a crucial component for success
in this class. Relying on lectures alone will not be enough. Reading from the textbook
should be done in advance of the material being covered in the lectures.
Course Objectives:
 Master a broad body of knowledge
 Demonstrate an understanding of historical chronology
 Use historical data to support an argument or position
 Differentiate between different schools of historical thought
 Interpret and apply data from original documents, including primary source
documents, graphs, letters, illustrations, works of art, etc.
 Effectively use analytical skills of evaluation, cause and effect, compare and
contrast
 Prepare for and successfully pass the Advanced Placement Exam
Text: The Western Experience by Mortimer Cambers et. al.
A Key To Success:
The most important grading factor in this class is consistent effort. The reading
load is heavy in order to cover the maximum amount of material in the time we have
allotted. You are ultimately responsible for understanding all material for testing. The
amount of time required for homework for this class will vary with your reading speed.
You should expect to do something for this class every day. I hope that you will enjoy
the year, work hard, and come out of it at the end of the school year "thinking like a
historian", and able to tackle the demands and challenges of any college course.
Late Policy:
In order to receive credit for all work, it must be submitted when it is due. I will deduct
10% off of the original grade you would have received for each of the first three days
after the original due date (max of 30% deduction). After that time, you will receive a
zero for that assignment.
Class Rules:
1. Always give your best effort on all class activities and assignments. They are
opportunities to learn, achieve and grow. Take advantage of them.
2. Academic Freedom: All students have a right to their opinions, (however unpopular).
How you support your opinions is a key to doing well on the AP exam and in this class.
Respect for the opinion of others is a class requirement.
3. Remember that your personal honor and integrity are a very precious and important
part of who you are as a person. Therefore, I expect that you will do all of your OWN
work at all times.
4. Do not be late. Be inside the door when the bell rings, unless you have a legitimate
excuse to be tardy.
5. Keep in mind that I want all of you to do well. I am one of your many academic coaches
and I want you to reach your goals and your full potential as a student and as a person.
6. I encourage you to approach me after class so that I can give you my undivided
attention [if I am free] or see me in the halls, or email me at kboerem@agbumds.org.
Course Outline
Each Unit will take approximately two to three weeks
Unit I: Renaissance and Reformation (pages 402-471)
I. Renaissance
a. Definition and origin of Italian Renaissance
i. Definition
ii. Origins
1. Crusades
2. Wealth
3. Italian City-States
b. Humanism
i. Explanation
c. Art and Artist
i. Florence
1. Masaccio
2. Donatello
3. Brunelleschi
ii. Leonrdo
iii. Michelangelo
iv. Raphael
v. Titian
d. The Northern Renaissance
i. Erasmus- The Praise of Folly
ii. Sir Thomas Moore- Utopia
iii. Johannes Gutenberg
iv. William of Ockham- Nominalism
II. Reformation
a. Analysis of Origins
i. Rise of Secular Authority
ii. Division and Corruption in the Church
b. Critics and Reformers
i. John Wycliff
ii. Jan Hus
c. Martin Luther
i. The Indulgence Controversy
ii. Ninety-Five Thesis
iii. Diet of Worms
iv. The Peasant Revolt
d. Ulrich Zwingli
e. Anabaptists
f. John Calvin
g. The Peace of Augsburg
III. English Reformation
a. The War of the Roses
b. Henry VIII seeks to divorce his wife
c. Sir Thomas Moore
d. The Act of Supremacy
IV. Counter- Reformation
a. Council of Trent 1545-1563
b. The Jesuits
c. Effects
Unit II: Discovery and War (pages 474- 530)
I. Expansion Overseas
a. Portuguese Explorations
i. Prince Henry the Navigator
b. Spanish Explorations
i. Columbus’ Voyage, 1492
ii. Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494
II. Political, Social, and Economic Developments in Europe
a. Plague of the 14th Century
b. Population Increases in the 15th and 16th Centuries
c. The Commercial Revolution
i. Trade- the Guild System
ii. Banking
iii. Increase in Money Supply
d. Urbanization
i. Peasant Distress and Serfdom
e. France
i. Estates General
ii. The Parlement of Paris
iii. Louis XI
iv. Charles VIII
1. The Invasion of Italy
v. Spain
1. The Three Kingdoms
2. Ferdinand and Isabella
3. The Spanish Inquisition
4. Charles
III. French Civil Wars 1562-1598
a. Huguenots (Calvinists)
i. Bourbons
b. Catholic League
i. Guises
ii. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
c. Defeat of the Spanish Armada
i. Spain Withdraws support for the League
d. Henry IV of Navarre reunites France
i. Edict of Nantes- Legal rights extended to French Protestants
IV. Dutch Revolt
a. Origins
i. Inquisition against Protestant Heretics
ii. Control of the Catholic Church
iii. Attempt to centralize authority
iv. Taxation- the “tenth penny”
b. Civil War 1572-1609
i. “Sea Beggars”
ii. William of Orange
iii. United Provinces- 7 Northern Provinces
1. Twelve Years Truce 1609
2. 10 Southern Provinces remained the Spanish Netherlands
V. Religious Warfare in England
a. Edward VI
b. Mary I
c. Elizabeth I
i. Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots
ii. Defeat of the Armada
VI. Thirty Years War 1618-1648
a. Origins
i. Division of the Holy Roman Empire
1. Religious
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
2. Political
ii. Division in the Protestant Churches
The Bohemian Phase 1618-1621
i. Rudolph II
ii. Ferdinand of Bohemia
iii. Frederick V of Palatinate
The Danish Phase 1621-1630
i. Maximilian of Bavaria defeats Protestant King Christian IV of
Denmark
ii. Albrecht von Wallenstein
1. Edict of Restitution 1629 Catholic Territories to be returned
2. Ferdinand fires Wallenstein
The Swedish Phase 1630-1632
i. Gustavus Adolphus defeats Ferdinand’s forces in the Battle of
Breitenfeld
ii. Wallenstein is rehired and meets Adolphus in Battle at Lutzen.
Adolphus is killed but his forces win.
iii. Wallenstein is fired again, and then assassinated
The French Phase 1632-1648
i. Ferdinand seeks and receives support of Protestant leaders to
repulse French and Swedish armies
1. The Peace of Prague
ii. Ferdinand repeals Edict of Restitution
The Peace of Westphalia
i. Religious self-determination
ii. Legalization of Calvinism
iii. Swiss Cantons declare independence
iv. United Provinces (Holland) declare independence
v. Weakened central authority of Holy Roman Emperor
vi. France emerges as dominant power in Europe, Hapsburgs and
Spain decline
Unit III: Absolutism and the English Civil War (pages 531-631)
I. Analysis of Absolutism
a.
As a political doctrine
b.
As a religious doctrine
II. English Civil War
a.
Reign of Elizabeth I
b. Socioeconomic Changes in England
i. Rise of the Gentry and merchants
ii. Puritans
1. Colonization of America
iii. Strengthening of Parliament
c.
Reign of James I 1603-1625
i. Antagonizes Parliament
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
III.
ii. Offends the Puritans
Reign of Charles I
i. Taxes illegally levied
ii. Agrees to Petition of Rights but breaks pledge
iii. Parliament dissolved until 1640
iv. Scottish invasion of Northern England
v. Short Parliament and John Pym
vi. Long Parliament of the Grand Remonstrance
Civil War
Oliver Cromwell- The Puritan Republic
i. The Rump Parliament
ii. Execution of Charles I
iii. Failure of Cromwell and the English Commonwealth
English Restoration 1660-1685
i. Charles II
ii. Navigation Acts
iii. Treaty of Dover
iv. Act of Succession
Glorious Revolution
i. James I r. 1685-1688
ii. William III of Orange ascends to the throne
Absolutism in France
a.
Louis XIII
i. Cardinal Richelieu
b.
Louis XIV
i. The Fronde
ii. Economic control
1. Mercantilism
2. Jean-Batiste Colbert
iii. Political Control
1. Cardinal Giulio Mazarin
2. Palace at Versailles
iv. Clerical Matters
1. Attack against Jansenism
2. The Gallican Declaration
3. Edict of Nantes repealed
c.
War of Devolution 1667-1668
d.
War Against the Netherlands 1672-1678
e.
Nine Years War Against the League of Augsburg, 1689-1697
i. England, Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Saxony, the Palatinate and United
Provinces
f.
War of Spanish Succession 1701-1714
i. Grand Alliance formed to oppose Louis’ claim to vacated Spanish
throne
1. Treaty of Utrecht 1713
2. Treaty of Rastadt 1714
Unit IV: Age of Science and Enlightenment (pages 668-696)
I. Origins
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
II.
New Technologies: barometer, thermometer, vacuum pump,
microscope
Legacy of Inquiry from Renaissance and Humanist Education
Copernicus 1473-1543
i. On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres
Johannes Kepler 1571-1630
i. Heliocentric Theory
ii. Elliptical Orbits
Galileo Galilei 1564-1642
i. Dialogues on the Two Chief Systems of the World 1632
ii. Theory of Motion
iii. Attacks by the Church
Isaac Newton
i. Principia Mathematica 1687
ii. Celestial Mechanics
iii. Newtonian Philosophy-acceptance of empiricism
Rene Descartes 1596-1650
i. Principal of Doubt
Blaise Pascal 1623-1661
i. Pensees
Francis Bacon
i. Empiricism
National Interregnum (598-630)
a.
Netherlands
i. William III
ii. Economic decline
b.
France
i. Cardinal Fleury
ii. John Law- The Mississippi Co.
iii. The Duke of Orleans ad Louis XV
c.
Britain
i. The Hanovers
ii. Robert Walpole- development of British Ministires
d.
Sweden
i. Charles XII- Battle of Poltava, 1709
e. Hapsburg Empire
i. Vienna
1. Leopold I- War against the Turks
2. Prince Eugene: Austria-Hungary
3. Charles VI and the pragmatic sanction
4. Maria Teresa
ii. Spain
1. Charles II- Loss of Spanish Netherlands and Italy to Austrian
Hapsburgs in war of Spanish Succession
iii. Prussia
1. Frederick William the Great Elector- the junkers
2. Elector Frederick III becomes King Freserick I of Prussia
1701
3. Frederick William I
a. Militarism
b. General Directory
4. Frederick II the Great- Enlightened Despotism
iv.
Russia
1. Peter I the Great
a. Westernizing Russia
b. Wars against Turkey and Sweden
III.
Enlightenment
a.
The Philosphes
i. Voltaire1694-1778
ii. Denis Diderot
iii. Baron de Montesquieu
iv. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
v. Deism
b.
Enlighened Despotism
i. Frederick the Great of Russia r. 1740-1786
ii. Maria Teresa of Austria r. 1740-1780
iii. Joseph II of Austria r.1765-1790
iv. Catherine the Great of Russia r.1762-1796
Unit V: The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars (pages 700-766)
I. Origins
a.
Enlightenment
b.
American Revolution
c.
Ineffectual Leadership
d.
Intransigent Aristocracy
e.
Economic Crisis
II.
Revolution Begins
a.
Failure of finance ministers to find an economic solution
b.
Taxes and the Paris Parlement
c.
Meeting of Estates- General
d.
Louis’ vacillation
e.
The Tennis Court Oath
f.
The Bastille
g.
The “Great Fear”- feudal regime ended August, 1789
III.
National Assembly Writes a Constitution
a. Political organization
b. Economic organization
i. Civil constitution of the clergy
ii. Counter-revolution
Unit VI: The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars Part II
I. The Second Revolution
a. Emigres and the Declaration of Pillnitz
b. War against Austria and Prussia (1792)
c. August Insurrection
d. September massacre
e. Girondist Purge
f. Paris commune
II.
The National Convention
a. Girondists, Jacobins, Sans-culottes
b. Execution of Louis XVI
c. First Republic Declared
III.
Reign of Terror (1793)
a. War with the first coalition
b. Committee for Public Safety
c. End of Terror- Thermidorian Reaction
IV.
Napoleon
a. Rise to Power
i. Republic
ii. Directory
iii. Brumaire Coup
b. Domestic Policies
i. Civil Codes
ii. Prefectorial System
iii. Concordat with Pius VII
c. Napoleon’s Empire
i. Defeat at Trafalgar (1804)
ii. Victories over Austria, Prussia, and Russia at Battles of Austerlitz,
Jena, and Friedland. Treaty of Tilsit.
iii. Creates Confederation of the Rhine, issues Berlin Decrees
iv. Continental System
d. Opposition and the End of the First Empire
i. Spanish Rebellion- the “Spanish ulcer”
ii. War of 1812
iii. Invasion of Russia
iv. Another coalition formed. The Emperor is defeated at Leipzig.
v. Bourbon Restoration (1814)
Unit VII: Reaction, Romanticism and Revolution (pages 770-842)
I. Reaction to Napoleon’s Era
a. Congress of Vienna
i. Territorial Adjustments
ii. Concert of Europe (Quadruple Alliance)
1. Klemens Von Matternich of Austria
2. Lord Castlereagh of Britain
3. Alexander I of Russia
4. Frederick William III of Prussia
iii. “Hundred Days” of Napoleon
b. Conservative Thought
i. Edmund Burke
c. Liberal Thought
i. David Ricardo- principles of political economy and taxation; labor
theory of value; iron law of wages
ii. Jeremy Bentham- utilitarianism; “The greatest good for the
greatest number”; economic self-interest
iii. John Stuart Mill- “On Liberty”
d. Concert of Europe face many challenges
i. Liberal revolutions in Naples and Spain 1820
ii. Greek Revolution of 1821
iii. Serbian Independence 1830
iv. Belgian Independence 1830
e. The 1830 Revolution
i. Louis XVIII
ii. Charles X
1. July Ordinances
2. Louis-Philippe- The July Monarchy
f. Post Napoleonic Russia
i. Decembrists
ii. The Reactionary Nicholas I
g. Britain
i. Inflation
ii. Peterloo Massacre, the Six Acts
iii. Great Reform Bill of 1832
1. George Canning
2. Sire Robert Peel
3. Earl Grey
iv. Chartism and the Anti-Corn Law League
h. Austria and Prussis
i. Hungarian Nationalism
ii. German Confederation
iii. Calsbad Decrees 1819
II.
Revolution of 1848
a. France
i. Lamartine and the 2nd Republic
ii. National workshops
iii. “Bloody June” days
iv. Revolutions spread throughout Europe
b. Prussia
i. Frederick William IV r. 1840-1861
ii. Frankfurt Parliament
c. Failure of Revolutionaries and Liberalism
i. Nationalistic divisions
ii. Lack of Experience
iii. No consensus and support from lower classes
Unit VIII: Nationalism and Unification (pages 846-881)
I. Analysis of Nationalism
a. Self-determination
b. Political Reform
c. Ethnic origins
d. Radicalism
II.
Second Empire of France (1851-1870)
a. Louis Napoleon
i. Coup D’etat (December 1851)
b. Napoleon III domestic policies
i. Credit Mobilizer
ii. Community Banking
iii. Public works
iv. Public High Schools
v. Awards for artistic and scientific achievement (Pasteur)
c. Crimean War (1853-1856)
i. Russian expansion into Moldavia and Wallachia
ii. French protection of Christians
iii. Cavour and Piedmont
iv. Treaty of Paris (1856)
III.
Italian Unification- The “Risorgimento”
a. Sardinia- Piedmont
i. Cavour’s unification ambition
ii. Support for Britain and France in Crimea
iii. Cavour was a moderate; preferred a Constitutional Monarchy
b. War with Austria 1859
i. France promised Nice and Savoy for support
ii. France withdraws unexpectedly
c. Piedmont joined by other Iatlian states
d. Garibaldi invades Sicily
e. Garibaldi agrees to Victor Emmanuel II as King of Italy
i. Venice under Austrian control until 1866 (Austro-Prussian War)
ii.
Rome remained under French control until 1870 (Franco
Prussian War)
IV.
Unification of Germany
a. William I r. 1861-1888 (regent in 1858 when Frederick William IV was
forced to abdicate)
b. Otto von Bismarck
i. Albrecht von Roon- War Minister
ii.
Helmuth von Moltke- Chief of Staff
iii.
Divided and conquered Parliament
c. War with Denmark 1864
i. Christian IX moved to annex Schleswig and Holstein
d. War with Austria 1866
i. Support Russian suppression of 1863 Polish revolt
ii.
Secures Napoleon III neutrality
iii.
Promises Italy the province of Venice
iv.
Forms the North German Confederation
e. Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871
i. Isabella II deposed in Spain
ii.
EMS telegram
iii.
Second Empire ends with Battle of Sedan
iv.
Paris commune
1. Adolphe Thiers
2. Versailles assembly signs Treaty of Frankfurt- loses Alsace
and Lorraine
3. Fighting against the Paris Commune- Communards
v. Prussian occupation ends in 1873
f. German Second Empire (Reich) created- 1871
Unit IX: Social Studies and Empire (pages 886-923)
I. Social Sciences
a. Socialism
i. Le Comte de Saint-Simon
ii.
Francoise Marie Charles Fourier
1. Phalanstery (an ideal community)
iii.
Robert Owen
1. New Lanark and New Harmony
iv.
Fabian Society of Britain
b. Communism
i. Karl Marx 1818-1883
1. “Bloody June” Days 1848
2. Communist manifesto 1848
3. Das Kapital 1867
ii.
II.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Theories
Dialectical materialism
Labor theory of value
Proletarian Revolution
Militant atheism
First International 1864-1872
iii.
c. Darwinism
i. Survival of the Fittest
ii.
Social Darwinism
European Imperialism
a. Origins
i. Economic
1. J.A. Hobson 1858-1928 believed that imperialism did not
significantly benefit most Europeans.
ii.
V.I. Lenin
1. “Imperialism was the last stage of capitalism,” its monopoly
stage
iii.
Social Darwinism
1. Progress
iv.
Religious
1. “White Man’s Burden”
v. Nationalism- “Pride and Glory”
b. Africa
i. Suez completed in 1869 owned by Britain and France
1. Britain responds to nationalist revolt in Egypt in 1882 and
stays in control to 1946, then moves into Sudan
ii.
South Africa
1. Great Trek 1835-1836
2. Cape Colony
3. Orange Free State and the Transvaal
4. Cecil Rhodes Boer 1899-1901
iii.
Central Africa
1. Stanley and Livingston
2. Leopold II and the Belgian Congo
iv.
North and West Africa
1. France
2. Fashoda Affair in Sudan 1898
c. Asia
i. Opium Wars (1839-1842)
ii.
Boxer Rebellion 1900
iii.
Open Door Policy- John Hay
iv.
French Indochina 1887
v. Meiji Restoration 1868
vi.
Sino-Japanese War 1894
vii.
Russo-Japanese War 1904
I. Origins
Unit X: World War I (pages 964-1003)
a. Imperialism
i. Intense competition for shrinking unclaimed global real estate
b. Arms Race
i. German and French armies doubled
ii.
Naval warship increases
c. Bismarck Alliance Systems and German Imperialism
i. Three Emperor’s League 1873-1875 Germany, Austria, Russia
ii.
Russo-Turkish War 1875
1. Treaty of San Stefano 1878- Balkans freed from Ottomans
2. Congress of Berlin 1878
iii.
Dual Alliance 1879- Germany and Austria
iv.
Second Three Emperor’s League 1881-1885 “Friendly
neutrality”
v. Triple Alliance 1882- Germany, Austria, and Italy (angry with
French occupation of Tunisia)
vi.
Reinsurance Treaty 1887- Germany and Russia
vii.
William II r. 1888-1918 fires Bismarck in 1890 and the
system begins to unravel
viii.
Entente Cordiale 1904- Britain, France
ix.
Triple Entente 1907- Britain, France, Russia
d. French Revenge
i. Return of Alsace and Lorraine
ii.
German spying
e. Balkan Nationalism
i. Young Turks 1908
ii.
Serbian ambitions to unit Slavs
iii.
Austria annexes Bosnia in 1908 before Turkey reasserted
itself
iv.
Italy takes Libya from Turkey in 1911
v. Balkan League (Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Montenegro) attacks
Turkey in 1912 in the First Balkan War
vi.
Second Balkan War 1913- Greece, Serbia, Turkey, Romania
against Bulgaria
f. Failure of peace initiatives
i. First and Second Hague Conferences- 1899 and 1907
II.
Outbreak of War
a. Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand in June 1914
b. Austria with Germany’s “Blank Check” assurances declares war on Serbia
in July
c. Russia and Germany mobilize
d. War declared August 1, 1914 to August 4
III.
The War
a. The Schlieffen Plan
i. Helmuth Von Moltke- Chief of Staff
b. French General Joseph Joffre stops German advance at First Battle of the
Marne, September 1914- trench warfare begins in the Western Front
c. Generals Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff push the Russians
back in the Eastern Front
i. Turkey and Bulgaria join the Central Powers
ii.
Italy joins the allies in 1915
d. Russian Revolution- March 917
e. America joins the war- April 1917
f. David Lloyd- George becomes British Prime Minister in 1917. Formerly
Chancellor of Exchequer and Minister of War
g. Georges Clemenceau rehired as French Premier
h. Second Russian Revolution in November 1917- Lenin takes control
i. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed March 1918
i. Last German offensive fails- nation weary of war they no longer can win
IV.
Armistice and Peace Negotiations
a. William II abdicates, the Social Democratic Party (SPD) assumes
leadership (November 9, 1918)
i. New Republic created at Weimar- Frederick Ebert becomes
President
b. Paris Peace Conference
i. Self-determination (ethnically diverse populations made this
impossible)
ii.
Balfour Declaration of 1917
iii.
Spread of communism
iv.
German punishment
1. Treaty of Versailles
2. Germany forced to accept guilt clause 231 for War
v. The League of Nations
vi.
Czechoslovakia formed
vii.
Southern Slavs formed Yugoslavia
viii.
Austrian and Ottoman empires destroyed
ix.
Britain controls Palestine and Iraq; France controls Syria
and Lebanon
x. League of Nations created
I. Origins
Unit XI: The Russian Revolution pages (1007-1014)
a. Economics
i. Sergei Witte (Finance Minister from 1892)
ii.
Pins of industrial growth
iii.
Peasant discontent and the Kulaks (prosperous peasants)
b. Political
i. Russian SDP created (1898)
ii.
Social Revolutionary Party (1901)- anarchists and extreme
nationalists
iii.
Constitutional Democratic Party (Cadets)- 1905
c. Revolutions of 1905
i. Witte fired (1903)
ii.
Russia loses to Japan (1905)
iii.
Bloody Sunday (January 1905)
iv.
October Manifesto (1905) grants right of Duma to write
constitution
v. Duma created (1906)
d. Tsar Nicholas II
i. Political ineptitude
ii.
Domestic difficulties
1. Hemophiliac son- Alexander
2. Father Gregory Rasputin
II.
Russian Revolutions of 1917
a. Kerensky in power
b. Nicholas II abdicates (March 1917)
c. Bolshevik Revolution (October 1917)
i. Treaty of Brest- Litovsk (1918)
III.
Russian Civil War
a. Royal family executed
b. Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP)
i. Lenin’s death (1924)
c. Trotsky vs. Stalin
i. Ideological differences
1. Trotsky favors exportation of Revolution and NEP
2. Stalin opposed to Soviet antagonism of West and favors
economic communization
Unit XII: Europe Between Wars and the Rise of Dictators (pages 1014-1048)
I. Russia
a. Trotsky expelled from the Party in 1927, Stalin in control
b. Five Year Plan 1928
i. Kulaks collectivized
1. Peasant rebellions and sever repression
c. Purges of Stalinization 1936-1939
II.
Britain
a. King George V r. 1910-1936
b. Ireland
i. Home Rule Bill 1914
ii.
Easter Rebellion 1916
1. Sinn Fein
iii.
2. Irish Republican Army
India
1. Mahandas Gandhi
2. Congress Party
III.
Germany
a. Weimar Republic
b. Inflation
c. Ruhr district occupied 1923
d. Adolph Hitler joins Nazi Party 1920 in Munich
i. Arrested in 1923 for beer hall putsch, released in 1925
e. Paul von Hindenburg replaces Frederick Ebert as German President 1925
f. Dawes Plan 1924- restructuring of post-war reparations
i. Young Plan 1929
1. Reduced Germany’s indebtedness
g. The Locarno Pact 1925
i. Kellogg0Briand Pact 1928
h. Germany joins League of Nations 1924
IV.
Italy
a. Fascism
i. Benito Mussolini 188301945
ii.
Fascists take power
1. March on Rome 1921
2. Full authority granted 1922
3. Purge of opposition 1922-1924
4. Lateran Accord 1929- rapprochement with church
Unit XIII: The Road to Another World War (pages 1035-1045, 1049-1064)
I. The Great Depression
a. Causes and Effects
b. Moratorium on Debts 1931
i. Lausanne Conference formally ended reparations 1932
c. Britain
i. Ramsay MacDonald and Stanley Baldwin lead Britain 1930’s
d. France experiences right and left wing violence
i. Lion Blum 1934-1936
ii.
Edward Daladier returns 1938
II.
Hitler Assumes Power
a. Nazi political gains 1928-1932
i. SS- black shirts
ii.
SA- brown shirts
b. Hindenburg wins 1932 election against Hitler
i. Heinrich Bruning fired as Chancellor
ii.
Franz von Papen appointed
iii.
Kurt von Schleicher replaces Papen
iv.
Hitler replaces Schleicher in January 1933- The Third Reich
established
c. Nazi dictatorship established
i. Purges of opposition- “Night of the Long Knives”
ii.
Anti-semitism
1. Nuremburg Laws of 1935- persecution of Jews
2. Kristalnacht- November 1938- violence against Jews
d. Economic Control
i. Increased military appropriations
1. Versailles Treaty repudiated
ii.
Central Economic planning but allowed private property
iii.
Massive public financing to reduce unemployment
iv.
Trade with Balkan states
III.
Prelude to World War II
a. Japan invades Manchuria 1931
b. Italy invades Ethiopia 1935
i. League of Nations imposes sanctions
ii.
Ethiopia capitulates May 1936- League sanctions end
c. German Forces reoccupy demilitarized Rhineland 1936
i. France finishes construction of Maginot Line
d. Spanish Civil War
i. Origins
1. The Falange
2. Weakened monarchy in 1920s
3. Failing Economy
ii.
Republic created 1931
iii.
Gen. Francisco Franco leads army in Revolt 1936
iv.
Germany and Italy support the Nationalists (Franco); Soviet
Union supports Loyalists (Republicans); Britain, France, and U.S.
neutralized
IV.
Czechoslovakia and the Munich Pact
a. The Austrian Ancschluss (annexation)
i. Kurt von Schuschnigg resists
ii.
German forces occupy Austria 1938
iii.
Austrian government acquiesces
b. Sudetenland
i. Chamberlain agrees to autonomy for disputed territory to avoid
war. Czech’s reluctantly agree.
ii.
Hitler increased demand to occupy immediately
iii.
Chamberlain and Daladier go to Munich to discuss crisis
with Mussolini and Hitler (September 1938)
1. Appeasement (Churchill disappointed)
iv.
Germany invades Czechoslovakia (March 1939)
c. Poland
i. Germany agrees to non-aggression treaty with Soviet Union.
(negotiated by von Ribbentropp and Molotov)
ii.
Germany claims part of Poland (Danzig)
iii.
Poland invaded (September 1st)
iv.
War declared (September 3rd)
v. Paul Reynaud replaces Daladier; Winston Churchill replaces
Chamberlain
Unit XIV: World War II (pages 1062-1087)
I. Introduction: 1940
a. Norway and Denmark invaded in April
b. Holland and Belgium attacked in May
i. Dunkirk evacuation
c. Battle of France
i. Failure of Maginot Line
ii.
Fall of France in June
iii.
Armistice
1. Vichy government (capital of unoccupied France) Marshall
Petain becomes President
2. Paris (capital of occupied France)
d. Battle of Britain (August-December)
e. Italy attacked Greece- invasion repulsed
II.
1941
a.
b.
c.
d.
III.
1942
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
Japan takes Philippines- MacArthur goes to Australia
Eisenhower sent to London
Battle of Coral Sea in Spring
Battle of Midway in June
Battle of Stalingrad in August-October
Battle of El Alamein in Egypt in November
Final solution of the Jewish question
1943
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
Summit between FDR and Churchill in Casablanca in January
America begins bombing of Germany from bases in England
Germany withdraws from North Africa
Invasion of Sicily in July- August
Allies invade South Italy in September
IV.
Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece in April
Russia invaded in June
Japan invades Indochina in July
Japan attacks U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor. America enters WWII in
December
f. Meeting in Teheran in December (FDR, Churchill, and Stalin)
i. Invasion of Europe- open a 2nd front
ii.
Polish government undecided
iii.
USSR agrees to war against Japan
V.
1945
a. Yalta Conference in February
i. Creation of United Nations
ii.
Russia declares war on Japan
iii.
Occupation of Germany
iv.
Status of Eastern Europeans
b. FDR dies April 12
c. Hitler commits suicide April 30 or May 1
i. V-E Day is May 8
d. U.S. takes Okinawa and Iwo Jima
e. Potsdam conference in July (Stalin, Clement Atlee, Harry Truman)
i. Berlin to be divided
ii.
USSR gets territory in Japan
iii.
European powers regain their colonies
f. U.S. drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima on August 6
g. Second bomb dropped in Nagasaki on August 9
h. Japan surrenders unconditionally to MacArthur on U.S.S. Missouri on
September 2 (V-J Day)
Unit XV: Post-War Europe (pages 1087-1181)
I. Reconstruction and Reorganization
a. Nuremberg Trials 1945-1946
i. 22 indicted
1. 12 sentenced to death
2. 3 acquitted
b. Marshall Petain and Pierre Laval indicted for treason (Nazi collaborators)
c. International Monetary Fund and Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (World Bank) created at Breton Woods
d. Soviet Union Hegemony
i. Occupation of East Germany and East Berlin
ii.
1946- 5 year plan
iii.
Baltic states become Soviet Republics
iv.
King Michael of Romania forced out but communists in 1947
v. Independent Socialist Party (Moscow affiliate) takes power in 1947
in Poland. Peasant Party relocates to London in exile
vi.
Hungary, Albania, and Bulgaria become Soviet satellites by
1950
vii.
Czechoslovakia resists
1. Jan Masaryk
2. Edward Benes
3. Communist Party with threat of Soviet invasion succeeds.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
II.
Masaryk assassinated
4. Czechoslovakian Revolution suppressed 1968
viii.
Stalin dies in 1953, succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev- favors
rapprochement with the West
ix.
Leonid Brezhnev adopts a hard line approach (1964)
West Germany controlled by Christian Democrats (1946-1949)
i. Federal Republic of Germany created in 1949. Occupation ends
1. Konrad Adenauer serves as chancellor for 14 years
Fourth Republic of France created
i. Unstable coalitions the rule
Spain and Portugal remained military dictatorships
i. Franco in Spain until 1973- monarchy restored (King Juan Carlos);
Franco dies in 1975; Spain joins the European Community in 1896
ii.
Salazar in Portugal until 1968, slowly democratizes; joins
the European Community in 1986
Clement Atlee’s Labour Party nationalizes major industries
i. Bank of England
ii.
Coal
iii.
Steel
iv.
Transportation
v. Medical Insurance
vi.
Conservatives in power- 1950s and early 1960s
Marshall Plan of 1947
i. 18 Western European states for OEEC (Organization for European
Economic Cooperation) 1948
ii.
1957 Treaty of Rome creates European Economic
Community or Common Market
iii.
Maastricht Treaty (1992) creates European Union- adopts a
common currency in 1999
Yugoslavia remains independent communist state under Marshall Tito
(died in 1980)
i. Ethnic tensions increase
ii.
Balkan wars in 1990s
The Cold War 1947-1989
a. Berlin blockade in 1947- Truman Doctrine
b. Nato created in 1949
c. Warsaw Pact 1955
d. U.S> supports Greece and Turkey to prevent communist take-over
e. End of European colonialism
i. Britain loses
1. India- Lord Mountbatten (Last British Viceroy, 1947)
2. Ceylon
3. Burma
4. Egypt
5. Palestine
ii.
France
1. Granted Vietnam independence but stayed for U.S.
2. Algeria remains a problem
3. Netherlands loses Dutch East Indies
a. Sukarno creates Indonesia
f. The Suez Crisis 1956
i. Britain and France attacked Egypt
ii.
Israel attacks from the East
iii.
Eisenhower Doctrine
g. Eastern Europe resistance to Soviet Union
i. East Germany led by Walter Ulbrecht
ii.
Poland led by Wladyslaw Gomulka 1956- Solidarity started
by Lech Walesa, 1980
iii.
Hungarian Revolt- 1956
iv.
Czechoslovakia by Alexander Dubcek- 1968
h. Algerian Crisis
i. Breakaway French officers and officials seize power in Algeria in
1958
ii.
5th Republic established, De Gaulle gains power
iii.
Algeria pacified by 1962
iv.
De Gaulle serves until 1969- ousted by student protests
v. Conservatives in power 1970s- Pompidou and d’Estaing
vi.
Socialists (Mitterand) in power 1980s and 1990s
III.
The End of the Cold War
a. Brezhnev fades
i. Andropov
ii.
Chernienko
b. Gorbachev presides over the end of the Soviet Union
i. Glasnost- political liberalization
ii.
Perestoika- market institutionalization
c. The Boris Yeltsin years
i. A rough road to democracy and a market economy
ii.
Economic and political corruption
iii.
Russia’s end of being a superpower
d. Vladimir Putin and his successors guide Russia in the 21st century