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CBCS Bioscience
B.Sc. Honours
Course Code
CP1
Core subjects
Title of the Paper
I Semester
Biomolecules
CP2
CP3
Plant Physiology
Biostatistics and computer applications
2
2
0
0
2
0
4
2
CP4
Seminar
0
1
0
Total
1
12
CP4
CP5
CP6
CP7
II Semester
Enzymology and metabolic pathways
Advanced cell biology
Ecology and evolution
Seminar
3
3
2
0
0
0
0
1
2
2
1
0
Total
5
5
3
1
14
EP1
EP2
EP3
EP4
EP5
EP6
Electives (Any Four)
Biophysics
Microbiology
Toxicology
Biochemical techniques
Behavioural biology
Developmental biology
2
2
2
2
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total
2
2
2
2
2
2
8
CB1
CB2
Cross Border (any two)
Human Body and Health
Human diseases and Hygiene
2
2
0
0
1
1
Total
3
3
6
L
T
P
Credits
3
0
2
5
TOTAL 40
Masters
Course Code
CP8
Core subjects
Title of the Paper
III Semester
Genetics
CP9
CP10
Animal Physiology
Immunobiology
2
2
0
0
2
1
4
3
CP11
Seminar
0
1
0
Total
1
13
CP12
CP13
CP14
CP15
IV Semester
Molecular Biology
Genetic Engineering and Bioinformatics
Project work
Paper Presentation
3
2
0
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
6
0
Total
5
2
6
1
14
EP7
EP8
EP9
EP10
EP11
EP12
Electives (Any Four)
Cell cuture
Cell biology Techniques
Genomics
Cancer Biology
Medicinal Plants
Proteomics
2
2
2
2
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Total
2
2
2
2
2
2
8
CB3
Cross Border
You and your Heredity
2
0
1
Total
3
3
TOTAL
38
L
T
P
Credits
3
0
2
5
Biomolecules
Ch 1.Carbohydrates: Classification, Structure, Stereochemistry of monosaccharide. Anomer, Isomer, Epimer,
dextro and Laevo rotation, Structure of disaccharides and determination of linkage in disaccharides, Strategies for
sequencing poly saccharides, Structure of starch, Cellulose and Glycogen.
-08 Hrs
Ch2.Amino acids: Structure and stereochemistry, D and L, R and S. Chemical reactions of amino acids, Zwitter ionic
structure of amino acids, peptide bond, chemical synthesis of dipeptides, solid phase peptide synthesis, amino acid
analysis, automatic amino acid analysis.
-05 Hrs
Ch3.Lipids: Classification of lipids, Physical and chemical properties of fats, structure and biological role of
phospholipids, Sphingo lipids, Glycolipids and Plasma logins, Structure of cholesterol, Structure and function of
essential fatty acids, Eicosanoids, Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, Leukotrienes and Isoprostanes
-05hrs
Ch4.Vitamins: Structure and function of vitamins, A, D, K, E, and Vitamins B-Complex, C Sources, requirements and
deficience of vitamins
-03hrs
Ch5.Nucleosides: Structure of Purines and pyrimidines, nucleotides, reaction of nucleosides, synthesis of
nucleotides.
-04 Hrs
Ch6.Heterocyclic compounds: Structure, Biological occurrence and properties of Furan, Indole, Pyrrole, Quinone,
Imidazole, Thiazole, Pterin, Isoalloxazina, Porphyrins.
-04Hrs
Ch7.Macromolecules: Classification of proteins, Physico-chemical properties of proteins, sequencing of proteins,
determination of prosthetic groups like carbohydrates and establishing Disulphide bond positions.
-10hrs
Ch8.Physical and Chemical properties of nucleic acids: Base composition, Chargaff rule, tm, Cot curve, Sequencing
of DNA- Sangers method, nearest neighbour base frequency analysis, unique sequence, repitative sequence, and
Palindromic sequence.
-06 Hrs
Plant physiology
Ch1.Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic apparatus, Thylakoid, Q cycle--, Electron transport system, Carbon
dioxide fixation in C3 and C4 and CAM plants, Factors affecting photosynthesis. O2evolution, Energetics,
photophosphorylation
Ch2.Plant hormones: Auxines, Gibberlines, Cytokinins, Ethylene, Abscisic acid, Structure, occurrence,
mechanism of action, physiological effects, commercial importance. Other growth regulators. Assay of
plant hormones.
Ch3.Nitrogen fixation: Introduction, Formation of root nodules in legumes, Biochemistry of nitrogen
fixation, Ammonia assimilating pathways, Effects of environment on nitrogen fixation. Nitrogenous
system,non symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Senescence and Abscission
Ch4.Phototropism: Description of phenomenon, perception of stimulus.
Ch5.Phytochrome: Introduction, Phytochrome as photoreceptor, Structure and properties of
phytochrome, Mode of action. Juvenility, Photoperiodism, Vernalisation.
Ch6.Seed dormancy, Inception of germination, Germination and growth regulators
Biostatistics And Computer Applications
Ch1.Mathematical principles and their applications in biology, Logarithms, natural, Logarithms,
Applications in Logarithmic growth, radioactive decay.
Ch2.Exponentials: exponential growth, Non linear relationships. Rectangular hyperbola
Michaelics- Menten equation as a rectangular hyperbola, concepts of differentiation and
integration and their application in Biology.
Ch3.Statistics: Population, sample, random sample, mean, weighted mean, variance, standard
deviation. Representation of statistical data graphically, Normal distribution, probability and
binomial distribution, Hypothesis testing, student t test,x2 test, one way ANOVA, correlation
and linear regression, Non parametric statistics Sign test, Mann whitney u test, rank sum test,
rank correlation.
Ch4.Computer Application: Organization of a computer, simple details of some commonly
used I/O media Introduction to problem solving using computer, special packages as
computational tools – spread
sheet, database, Applications for statistical calculations and
data retrieval , case studies for the above Concept of Programming, Illustration through High
level Language (C or Pascal or BASIC) Variables, I/O Statements, Logical and control
statements, subscripted Variables, simple programs. Introduction to computer networks and
resource sharing, Internet, Information browsing, e-mail.
Enzymes and Metabolic pathways
Ch1.Enzymes: Localization, Isolation, Purification, Criteria of purity of enzymes, Nomenclature and IUB
classification of enzymes. Assay of enzymes.
Ch2.Review of Michaelis: Menten kinetics, Competitive, Non competitive, uncompetitive inhibition.
Cleland notation of bisubstrate reactions. Allosteric enzymes. MWC and KMF models. Aspartyl
Transcarbamylase.
Ch3.Enzyme catalysis: Active center, nature of catalysis (Acid-Base and covalent) energetics, Effect of PH
and Temperature. Mechanism of action and structure of Lysozyme, Chymotrypsin, Alcohol
dehydrogenase, RNA as enzyme. Coenzymes, Isoenzymes, Multienzyme complex, Multifunctional
enzymes. Applications of enzymes.
Ch4.Bioenergetics: Mitochondrial electron transport
Ch5.Metabolic pathways: ATP synthesis, Pathways of degradation of monosacharides (Glucose,
galactose and Fructose)
Ch6.Pathways of Degradation of amino acids: general catabolic reactions, Ketogenic and glucogenic
amino acids, Urea cycle, Pathways of Degradation of fats, Lipases, Alpha, beta and gama, ß-oxidation.
Pathways of Degradation of purins and Pyrimidines, Gout.
Ch7.Bioenergetics: Mitochondrial electron transport, ATP synthesis
Ch8.Biosynthetic pathways: Biosynthetic pathways for glucose, amino acids-amino nitrogen, Fats, chain
elongation, desaturation in plants and animals, Nucleosides-Salvage pathways, Phospholipids,
Sphingilipids, Oils and Waxes. New insights into metabolic pathways (Glucose paradox, Conversion of
sugars to fats)
Genetics
Ch1. Basic Mendelian principles of inheritance: Applications of Mendel’s principles- the punnet square method
forked-line method, probability method; Formulating and testing genetic hypothesis-the chi-square test. Allelic
variation and gene function, linkage, crossing over and chromosome mapping.
- 08hrs
Ch2. Extra nuclear inheritance: Maternal effects (Limnae) Organelle heredity (Mitochondria and Chloroplast)
Infection heredity (Kappa and paramecium)
-05hrs
Ch3.Genetic organization of DNA: Viral and Bacterial chromosomes, super coiling and circular DNA, Mitochondrial
and chloroplast DNA. Organization of DNA in chromatin
- 06hrs
Ch4. Sex determination and dosage compensation; Trigger for sex determination, sex determination in mammals,
secondary sex determination, sex determination in Drosophila, Dosage compensation in mammals and drosophila.
- 05hrs
Ch5. Genetic recombination at Molecular level: Reciprocal recombination, site specific recombination, models of
recombination (Holliday model), Role of Rec A in Recombination.
- 05hrs
Ch6. Transposable genetic elements: Bacterial transposons, Is elements, Composite transposons, Tn3 elements,
Eukaryotic transposons-Ac and Ds elements in maize; P elements and Hybrid dysgenesis, Retrotransposons.
-06hrs
Ch7. Mutation: Molecular basis of spontaneous and induced mutations in evolution, detection of mutations Ames
test, use of base analogs and alkylating agents for mutagenesis. Repair mechanisms-Post replication repair,
excision repair, mismatch repair, SOS repair, Suppressor mutations.
07hrs
Ch8. Human genetics: Human chromosome, Chromosomal abnormalities-Sex chromosal and autosomal, inherited
disorder, genetic counseling, gene therapy.
-03hrs
Animal Physiology
Ch1.Digestion: Carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Major products of digestion. Role of gastro intestinal hormone in
digestion; Absorption from the gastro intestinal tract.
-04hrs
Ch2.Excretion: Nature of excretory products, Functional architecture of Kidney, formation of Urine, Mechanism of
urine concentration, Hormonal control of Urine formation and Osmoregulation.
- 05Hrs
Ch3.Respiration: The mechanism of respiration, transport of O2 and CO2, respiratory pigments, respiratory
quotient, oxygen toxicity, Acid base balance
-04Hrs
Ch4. Circulation: Components of blood, Hemoglobin, Types of hemoglobin, clotting of blood –Mechanism and
factors involved in clotting. Lymphatic system Blood related disorders-Hemophilia, Sickle cell anemia thalassemia;
Types of Circulation, structure of heart, conduction of heart beat, Blood pressure, Factors affecting blood pressure.
-05Hrs
Ch5.Sensory Physiology: Structure of neuron, types of nerve cells, mechanism of conduction of nerve impulse,
synaptic transmission, neurotransmitters, Reflex action and reflex arc, Ion channels-voltage and Sodium gated,
patch clamp technique, Neuromuscular transmission, Autonomic nervous system-distribution and functions,
physiology of vision, color vision Auditory, olfactory and taste signals.
-07Hrs
Ch6.Muscle Contraction: Types of muscle-striated, non-striated and cardiac, Structure of skeletal muscle; Muscle
contraction-biochemical events, sliding filament theory, Muscle fatigue.
-05Hrs
Ch7.Thermoregulation: Effect of Temperature on biological system. Temperature relations of Poikilotherms and
homeotherms, acclimation and acclimatization to cold and heat, thermo tolerance and heat shock proteins.
Neuronal basis of thermoregulation
-05Hrs
Ch8.Physiology of Reproduction: Spermatogenesis, Oogenesis, hormonal control of testicular and ovarian
functions, estrous cycle, Fertilization, Implantation Gestation, Partiution, in vitro fertilization, Embryo transfer.
-06Hrs
Ch9.Adaptation: Adaptation to extreme environment-Deep sea, desert, terrestrial, cold, salt tolerance, adaptation
to space travel, space station and high altitude.
-04Hrs
Immunology
Ch1. Historical development and milestones in immunology.
Ch2.Antigens:
Antigencity and immunogenicity, haptens, determinants, epitopes, protein, antigens ,
carbohydrates antigens.
Ch3.Antibodies: Classes and subclasses of immunglobulins, structure of immunoglobulins, hyper variable region,
Isotopic, allotypic and idiotypic variations.
Ch4.Cellular Basis of Immunity: Types of immunity –active, passive and acquired. Primary and secondary
response, Reticular-endothelial system. T, B and accessory cells. Subsets of T and B cells, Antigen processing and
presentation. T-B co-operation. Soluble factors lymphokines-structure and functions.
Ch5.Molecular Biology Of Immunoglobulins: Immunoglobulin genes, mechanisms of diversity. Theories of
antibody formation-Burnels glonal selection theory. Gene expression in T and B maturation, Molecular mechanism
in T-B accessory cell interactions and signal transduction.
Ch6.Histocompatibility complex in man: Tissue haplotypes and disorders, Tissue and organ grafting, graft
rejection, Immune suppression. Non specific defences – Skin, mucous membrane, secretory Immunoglobulins,
complement ,Hypersensitivity-types Vaccines and their preparation, Adjuvants.
Ch7.Disorder of The Immune System: Autoimmune disorders, AIDS
Ch8.Assay systems: Immunodiffusion, Immuno-electrophoresis, RIA, ELISA, Immunoblotting, Immune florescence
Defense system in plants – Host parasite interaction.
Molecular Biology
Ch1. Central dogma of molecular biology and its modification
Ch2.DNA Replication: Semi conservative origin direction rate of replication positive and negative control of
initiation, termination of replication, Replication in phage, plamid, bacteria and mitochondria.
Ch3.RNA Biosynthesis: DNA dependent RNA biosynthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Initiation elongation and
termination, RNA polymerase I II and III processing of RNA, RNA transport, RNA stability, RNA editing, Antisense
RNA
Ch4.Genetic Code: Triplet codon, Assignment of codons, degeneracy, variation in codon usage, universality
Ch5.Protein Synthesis: Ribosome structure, Bacterial, mitochondrial and Eukaryotic protein synthesis, initiation,
elongation and termination. Factors involved in the Process.
Ch6.Post Translation Modification: Protein folding, role of chaperonins. O and N glycosylotion , Fatty acylation ,
attachment of glycosyl anchor, phosphorylation, other modifications.
Ch7.Regulation Of Gene Expression: fine structure of eukaryotic gene, exons, introns, repetitive DNA, Promoters
enhancers, silencers, regulatory sequences, DNA-binding Proteins. Organization of Prokaryotic and eukaryotic
genes, gene families, tandemly repeating genes, pseudogenes.
Ch8.Operon Model: Lac operon, catabolite repression. Negative and positive control, Trp operon attenuation,
antitermination.
Ch9.Regulation at the level of DNA, RNA and Proteins:
Structure of DNA: supercoiling, Histones, histone acctylation, Glucocorticoids, Regulation by intiation codons (eg
yeast GCN4), Cis and Trans factors (eg Ferretin and Transferrin mRNA by Fe)
Translational introns, inteins , Accuracy of Transcription and translation, role of t RNA,secondary genetic code,
amino acyl t RNA synthase, ribosomal optimization of translational accuracy, Role of Transcription factors-NFRB
Regulation at the level of post translation modification , degradation of proteins-Ubiquitin system.
Genetic Engineering and Bioinformatics
Ch.1 Genetic Engineering: Isolation of DNA restriction enzymes separation of DNA fragments, cloning- CDNA
cloning shotgun techniques. Methods used in cloning- linker addition, Transduction vectors-plasmids, cosmids,
phages, vectors used in Eukaryotes-yeast vectors, vectors used in plants. Viral vectors, Expression vectors.
Reporter gene (eg: Dual Iuciferase gene)
Ch.2 Application of genetic engineering: Transgenic plants and animals. Bt-cotton, terminator gene. Blotting
techniques-southern, northen, western, south-western, Polymerase chain reaction. DNA foot printing and finger
printing. Gel retardation assay.
Ch.3 Human Genome Analysis: Human genome project. Intellectual property rights patenting of human DNA
sequence. Treatment of human genetic diseases
Ch4.Bioinformatics: Introduction to bioinformatics, Biological data bases, different types of data bases
DNA, Protein and others. Bioinformatic analysis (data base searching e.g. BLASTA and FASTA).
Application of Bioinformatics.
Biophysics
Ch1 Basic law of physics and their relevance to biology, Role of Biophysics in natural science, scope and methods
of Biophysics
Ch2.Physical Methods of study of Macromolecules: Fundamentals of colorimeter, Spectrometry, fluorimetry,
magnetic resonance – NMR and ESR. Principles and applications of IR and Raman Spectra. Light scattering,
polarized light, circular dichrmism, basic concepts in X-ray crystallography.
Ch3.Principles of Separation Techniques: Partition chromatography – Paper, Gel filtration, Gas chromatography,
Thin layer chromatography, ion exchange chromatography and affinityhromatography, HPLC and FPLC.
Electrophoresis –Principles of PAGE, SDS- PAGE and Iso electrro focusing
Ch4.Structure of Macromolecules: Weak forces of interaction – Ionic and Hydrogen Bonding, Vander wall’s
forces. Special properties of water.
Ch5.Secondary structure of Proteins: Alpha helix, beta sheet, beta bend and a periodic structures, prediction of
secondary structure, Ramachandran plot, protein and nucleic acid sequence homology analysis, construction of
molecular phylogeny using sequence data.
Ch6.Folding of Protein: Anfinsen’s experiment “Molten Globule” 3D structure of myoglobin, hemoglobin,
immunoglobulin and collagen. Prediction of Secondary structure of proteins. Secondary structure of nucleic acid B
and Z conformation, secondary structure of tRNA
Ch7.Radiation Biophysics: Radio Isotopes and Radiations. Nuclear decay, Units of Radiation, Curie,Bequerel,
RAD, LET. Measurement of Radiation- GM Counter, Liquid and Solid Scintillation, Interaction of radiation with
matter. Applications of Radio Isotopes and radiation.
Microbiology
Ch1.History: Era of Louis Pasteur, discovery of virus, contribution of Koch to microbiology.
Ch2.Methods of Study Of Microorganisms: Isolation of pure colony, Aerobic and anaerobic cultures, sterilization,
disinfection, Maintenance of Microorganisms, Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance.
Ch3.Growth: Culture media, growth curve, continuous culture chemostat, turbidostat, Synchronous growth.
Ch4.Bacterial genetics: Recombination in bacteria-Transformation, Conjugation and Transduction, Transposable
elements and plasmids
Ch5.Fermentation: Types of fermantation, Solid state and submerged.
Ch6.Symbiosis and Pathogenesis: Host parasite relationship, Micoflora of human body, Bacterial infection,
pathogenic properties of bacteria and fungi, endotoxins and exotoxins, Microbial disease of man Interfrons, Tumor
viruses and retroviruses, Life cycle of HIV.
Ch7.Microbiology of Water: Testing of water for microbial contamination IMVIC test, source of contamination of
water and its purification, microbiology of ground water and aquatic reservoirs, sewage water and treatment.
Ch8.Microbiology of Air: Normal micro flora, air borne pathogenic microorganisms and viruses.
Ch9.Dairy Microbiology: Micro flora of milk, Pasteurization microbiology of fermentation products of milk, curd,
yogurt, sour cream, cheese.
Ch10.Microbiology of food spoilage – General principles, food spoilage and infection, food preservation. Food
preservation by Chemical, Physical and Modern methods
Basic techniques–(2 Credits)
Preliminary Techniques in Biochemistry - Animal models- Choice of animals, Types of Studies, Mutant
Organisms, Cultured Cells, Plant as models. 2h
Cell Fractionation Techniques - Cell lysis, Differential and Density gradient centrifugation, Salting in,
Salting out, Dialysis, Ultra filtration. 2 h
Chromatographic Techniques - Principles and Applications of Paper, TLC, Adsorption, Ion exchange, Gel
filtration, Affinity, GLC, Chromatofocusing, HPLC, FPLC 8 h
Electrophoretic Techniques - Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, 2D-Electrophoresis,
Agarose gel Electrophoresis, Separation of Proteins, Lipoproteins, Nucleic acids, Visualizing separated
components - staining, fluorescence, PAS staining, Zymogram and reverse zymogram, Isoelectric
focusing, Pulsed field electrophoresis, High voltage electrophoresis, Capillary Electrophoresis,
Isotachophoresis.
8h
Ultra Centrifugation - Construction of preparative and analytical ultra centrifuge, Svedberg's constant,
Sedimentation velocity and Sedimentation equilibrium, Schleiran optics.
4h
Spectroscopic Techniques - Colorimetry, Spectrophotometry, Fluorimetry. Principles- Beer-Lambert's
Law, Limitation, Extinction Coefficient. Application. 6h
Advanced cell Biology 2 credits
Cell Structure- Diversity of cell shape and size, cell theory, types of cells ECM, Cytoskeletal
elements. Cell motility, cell –cell interaction-adhesion Cell - matrix interaction. Integrins and
selectins and their interaction. Intside out signaling in endothelial cells Targeting of proteins,
protein sorting, polarized cells
6h
Cell division and cell cycle: Mitosis and meiosis, phases of cell cycle. Programmed cell death4h
Nerve Transmission - Structure of neuron, axon, dendrectes, synapse neuromuscular junction. Neuro
transmitters mechanisms of nerve conduction. ionophores, Patch clamp technique.
Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system a and p adrenergic neutrons nicotinic and
muscarinic neurons. GABA, NMDA, structure and function of acetyl choline recptor. 6 h
Biochemistry of vision, colour vision, taste, olfactory and audiotroy responses.
2 hrs.
Muscle Contraction - Skeletal muscle and smooth muscle, muscle proteins - actin, myosin,
tropomyosine, troponins, mechanisms of muscle contraction, role of calcium, calmodulin,
phospholamban.
4 hrs.
Cell Signaling - Cell - cell and Cell - matrix interaction. Integrins and selectins and their interaction.
Intside out signaling in endothelial cells. General mechanisms of cell signaling by hydrophilic factors transmembrane receptors - 7 transmembrane helical receptors, G protein coupled receptors, receptor
tyrosine kinase eicosanoid receptors. Second messangers. 1P3, DAG, CAMP, protein kinases. Nosignaling
- Generation and action
Cytoplasmic Receptors - steroid hormone signaling. Receptor down regulation, desensitization and
upregulation.
10 hrs
Targeting of proteins, protein sorting, polarized cells.
Cell Culture Techniques
Biodiversity Diversity of organisms , Biodiversity hotspots, uses of Biodiversity.
Conservation of Biodiversity, in situ and ex situ methods. biodiversity-status, monitoring and
documentation; major drivers of biodiversity change; biodiversity management approaches.
Conservation biology: Principles of conservation, major approaches to management, Indian case
studies on conservation/management strategy (Project Tiger, Biosphere reserves).
6h
Cell Culture Techniques
Introduction to plant and animal tissue culture – Laboratory design, aseptic conditions, Equipments and
materials for cell culture. Different constituents of culture medium types of media and their application.
4h
Plant Cell Culture - Micropropagation callus culture, haploid production, somatic embryogenesis,
somatic hybridization and cybridization somaclonal variation.
Production of disease free plants
4h
Animal Cell Culture - Culture techniques, media, preparation of primary culture -disaggregation of tissue
and primary culture,- chick embryo, HUVEC, cell lines, characterization of cultures ploidy, cell doubling
time.. Cell lines-characteristics and routine maintenance. Cell separation techniques. Measurement of
viability and cytotoxicity., Scaling –up of animal cell culture-Bioreactors used in animal cell culture.
Amplified cultures, continuous cultures, applications 6h
Characterization of the cultured cells, measuring parameters of growth. Cell synchronization, Somatic
cell fusion, Cell cloning and cryopreservation. Applications of animal cell culture-Organ and histotypic
cultures; Three dimensional culture-Tissue engineering eg skin 6h
Breeding in plants and animals. Marker assisted selection
Bioremediation
4h
ECOLOGY and Evolution -2 credits
Ecology
The Environment: Physical environment; biotic environment; biotic and abiotic interactions.
Habitat and niche: Concept of habitat and niche; niche width and overlap; fundamental and
realized niche; resource partitioning; character displacement.
Population ecology: Characteristics of a population; population growth curves; population
regulation; life history strategies (r and K selection); concept of metapopulation – demes and
dispersal, interdemic extinctions, age structured populations.
Species interactions: Types of interactions, interspecific competition, herbivory, carnivory,
pollination, symbiosis.
Community ecology: Nature of communities; community structure and attributes; levels of species
diversity and its measurement; edges and ecotones.
Ecological succession: Types; mechanisms; changes involved in succession; concept of climax.
Ecosystem: Structure and function; energy flow and mineral cycling (CNP); primary production and
decomposition; structure and function of some Indian ecosystems: terrestrial (forest,
grassland) and aquatic (fresh water, marine, eustarine).
Biogeography: Major terrestrial biomes; theory of island biogeography; biogeographical zones of
India.
Applied ecology: Environmental pollution; global environmental change;
Evolution
Emergence of evolutionary thoughts: Lamarck; Darwin–concepts of variation, adaptation, struggle,
fitness and natural selection; Mendelism; spontaneity of mutations; the evolutionary synthesis. Basis for
Darwin’s theory, observations from embryology, comparative anatomy and Biochemistry .Confouding
observations from embryology, comparative anatomy and Biochemistry, Haeckel’s drawings of embryos
to fit the theory of evolution
Origin of cells and unicellular evolution: Origin of basic biological molecules; abiotic synthesis of organic
monomers and polymers; concept of Oparin and Haldane; experiment of Miller (1953); the first cell;
evolution of prokaryotes; origin of eukaryotic cells; evolution of unicellular eukaryotes; anaerobic
metabolism, photosynthesis and aerobic metabolism.
Paleontology and evolutionary history: Big bang theory, Age of stars, confounding data from the
Hubbel space telescope, expanding universe, The evolutionary time scale; eras, periods and epoch;
major events in the evolutionary time scale; origins of unicellular and multicellular organisms; major
groups of plants and animals; Punctuted equilibrium and phylectic gradualism,stages in primate
evolution including Homo. geological time scale, pre biotic conditions. Dating of fossils, different
methods, current controversies concerning theory of evolution. Controversies concerning evolution of
prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes, birds Vs dinosaurs, age of humans, asexual vs sexual reproduction, cold
blooded vs warm blooded; living fossils, evolution of birds and dinosaurs ,hoaxes and falsification of
data e.g., Javaman.
Molecular Evolution Concept of Neutral theory of evolution Molecular divergence and molecular clocks
molecular tools in phylogeny, classification and identification; protein and nucleotide sequence analysis;
origin of new genes and proteins; gene duplication and divergence.
The Mechanisms: Population genetics – populations, gene pool, gene frequency; Hardy-Weinberg law;
concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selection, migration and random genetic
drift; adaptive radiation and modifications; isolating mechanisms; speciation; allopatricity and
sympatricity; convergent evolution; sexual selection; co-evolution of predator-prey, pollinating insects
and flowering plants
Behavioral Biology- 2 credits
Introduction: Classification of behavior types, reflexes and complex behavior, nervous system and
behavior; development of Behavior and phylogeny of behavior.
Genetics and behavior: Micro evolutionary changes in behavior; Hamilton’s rule, inclusive fitness, Kin
selection altruism and altruistic behavior. Inprinting work of Timberger and Lorenz.
Learning and Memory: Theories of Learning-Cognitive and SR theory of Learning-associative and nonassociative types; reasoning and intelligence, learning abilities in animal groups. Instinct vs learning
Reproductive behavior: Sexual selection, competition, dominance and aggression; alternate mating
strategies, female choice, runway selection, mating system, monogamy, polygamy, polyandry.
Social behavior: Pheromones and insect behavior. Distance and direction, Communication in Honey
bees, chemical communication in ants. Thwarting and conflict behavior, pure attack and escape, threat
displays, social signals, appeasement displays, displacement activities, territorial and courtship conflicts,
. Mimicry Batsean and Mullerian.
Toxicology 2 credits
Toxicants – natural and man made, anti nutrition factors, heavy metals, animal, insect and microbial
toxins, endo and exo toxins.
Routes of entry of toxicants-oral, dermal, inhalation, ADME
Acute toxicity- toxicity symptoms, preventive measures, Chronic toxicity,
LD50, ED 50, methods of their determination.
Toxicity to man made toxicants- pesticides, organic and biological pollutants
Radioactive pollution- natural radioactivity and artificial radioactivity, nuclear weapons.
Examples of some disasters- Agent Orange,Bhopal gas tragedy, Chernobyl explosion,- causes and
consequences. Minimata bay disease, Toxicity assessment and environmental impact of industries,
effluents and waste disposal. Bioremediation. Biotransformation. Detoxification of Xenobiotics in man –
phase I and phase II reactions.
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY – 2 credits
Basic concepts of development: Potency, commitment, specification, induction, competence,
determination and differentiation; morphogenetic gradients; cell fate and cell lineages; stem cells;
genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic determinants;
Gametogenesis, fertilization and early development: Production of gametes, cell surface molecules in
sperm-egg recognition in animals; embryo sac development and double fertilization in plants; zygote
formation, cleavage, blasula formation, embryonic fields, gastrulation and formation of germ layers in
animals; embryogenesis, establishment of symmetry in plants; seed formation and germination.
Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals: Cell aggregation and differentiation in Dictyostelium;
axes and pattern formation in Drosophila, amphibia and chick; organogenesis – vulva formation in
Caenorhabditis elegans; eye lens induction, limb development and regeneration in vertebrates;
differentiation of neurons, post embryonic development-larval formation, metamorphosis;
environmental regulation of normal development; sex determination.
Morphogenesis and organogenesis in plants: Organization of shoot and root apical meristem; shoot and
root development; leaf development and phyllotaxy; transition to flowering, floral meristems and floral
development in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum.
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