CBCS Bioscience B.Sc. Honours Course Code CP1 Core subjects Title of the Paper I Semester Biomolecules CP2 CP3 Plant Physiology Biostatistics and computer applications 2 2 0 0 2 0 4 2 CP4 Seminar 0 1 0 Total 1 12 CP4 CP5 CP6 CP7 II Semester Enzymology and metabolic pathways Advanced cell biology Ecology and evolution Seminar 3 3 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 1 0 Total 5 5 3 1 14 EP1 EP2 EP3 EP4 EP5 EP6 Electives (Any Four) Biophysics Microbiology Toxicology Biochemical techniques Behavioural biology Developmental biology 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 2 2 2 2 2 2 8 CB1 CB2 Cross Border (any two) Human Body and Health Human diseases and Hygiene 2 2 0 0 1 1 Total 3 3 6 L T P Credits 3 0 2 5 TOTAL 40 Masters Course Code CP8 Core subjects Title of the Paper III Semester Genetics CP9 CP10 Animal Physiology Immunobiology 2 2 0 0 2 1 4 3 CP11 Seminar 0 1 0 Total 1 13 CP12 CP13 CP14 CP15 IV Semester Molecular Biology Genetic Engineering and Bioinformatics Project work Paper Presentation 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 6 0 Total 5 2 6 1 14 EP7 EP8 EP9 EP10 EP11 EP12 Electives (Any Four) Cell cuture Cell biology Techniques Genomics Cancer Biology Medicinal Plants Proteomics 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total 2 2 2 2 2 2 8 CB3 Cross Border You and your Heredity 2 0 1 Total 3 3 TOTAL 38 L T P Credits 3 0 2 5 Biomolecules Ch 1.Carbohydrates: Classification, Structure, Stereochemistry of monosaccharide. Anomer, Isomer, Epimer, dextro and Laevo rotation, Structure of disaccharides and determination of linkage in disaccharides, Strategies for sequencing poly saccharides, Structure of starch, Cellulose and Glycogen. -08 Hrs Ch2.Amino acids: Structure and stereochemistry, D and L, R and S. Chemical reactions of amino acids, Zwitter ionic structure of amino acids, peptide bond, chemical synthesis of dipeptides, solid phase peptide synthesis, amino acid analysis, automatic amino acid analysis. -05 Hrs Ch3.Lipids: Classification of lipids, Physical and chemical properties of fats, structure and biological role of phospholipids, Sphingo lipids, Glycolipids and Plasma logins, Structure of cholesterol, Structure and function of essential fatty acids, Eicosanoids, Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, Leukotrienes and Isoprostanes -05hrs Ch4.Vitamins: Structure and function of vitamins, A, D, K, E, and Vitamins B-Complex, C Sources, requirements and deficience of vitamins -03hrs Ch5.Nucleosides: Structure of Purines and pyrimidines, nucleotides, reaction of nucleosides, synthesis of nucleotides. -04 Hrs Ch6.Heterocyclic compounds: Structure, Biological occurrence and properties of Furan, Indole, Pyrrole, Quinone, Imidazole, Thiazole, Pterin, Isoalloxazina, Porphyrins. -04Hrs Ch7.Macromolecules: Classification of proteins, Physico-chemical properties of proteins, sequencing of proteins, determination of prosthetic groups like carbohydrates and establishing Disulphide bond positions. -10hrs Ch8.Physical and Chemical properties of nucleic acids: Base composition, Chargaff rule, tm, Cot curve, Sequencing of DNA- Sangers method, nearest neighbour base frequency analysis, unique sequence, repitative sequence, and Palindromic sequence. -06 Hrs Plant physiology Ch1.Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic apparatus, Thylakoid, Q cycle--, Electron transport system, Carbon dioxide fixation in C3 and C4 and CAM plants, Factors affecting photosynthesis. O2evolution, Energetics, photophosphorylation Ch2.Plant hormones: Auxines, Gibberlines, Cytokinins, Ethylene, Abscisic acid, Structure, occurrence, mechanism of action, physiological effects, commercial importance. Other growth regulators. Assay of plant hormones. Ch3.Nitrogen fixation: Introduction, Formation of root nodules in legumes, Biochemistry of nitrogen fixation, Ammonia assimilating pathways, Effects of environment on nitrogen fixation. Nitrogenous system,non symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Senescence and Abscission Ch4.Phototropism: Description of phenomenon, perception of stimulus. Ch5.Phytochrome: Introduction, Phytochrome as photoreceptor, Structure and properties of phytochrome, Mode of action. Juvenility, Photoperiodism, Vernalisation. Ch6.Seed dormancy, Inception of germination, Germination and growth regulators Biostatistics And Computer Applications Ch1.Mathematical principles and their applications in biology, Logarithms, natural, Logarithms, Applications in Logarithmic growth, radioactive decay. Ch2.Exponentials: exponential growth, Non linear relationships. Rectangular hyperbola Michaelics- Menten equation as a rectangular hyperbola, concepts of differentiation and integration and their application in Biology. Ch3.Statistics: Population, sample, random sample, mean, weighted mean, variance, standard deviation. Representation of statistical data graphically, Normal distribution, probability and binomial distribution, Hypothesis testing, student t test,x2 test, one way ANOVA, correlation and linear regression, Non parametric statistics Sign test, Mann whitney u test, rank sum test, rank correlation. Ch4.Computer Application: Organization of a computer, simple details of some commonly used I/O media Introduction to problem solving using computer, special packages as computational tools – spread sheet, database, Applications for statistical calculations and data retrieval , case studies for the above Concept of Programming, Illustration through High level Language (C or Pascal or BASIC) Variables, I/O Statements, Logical and control statements, subscripted Variables, simple programs. Introduction to computer networks and resource sharing, Internet, Information browsing, e-mail. Enzymes and Metabolic pathways Ch1.Enzymes: Localization, Isolation, Purification, Criteria of purity of enzymes, Nomenclature and IUB classification of enzymes. Assay of enzymes. Ch2.Review of Michaelis: Menten kinetics, Competitive, Non competitive, uncompetitive inhibition. Cleland notation of bisubstrate reactions. Allosteric enzymes. MWC and KMF models. Aspartyl Transcarbamylase. Ch3.Enzyme catalysis: Active center, nature of catalysis (Acid-Base and covalent) energetics, Effect of PH and Temperature. Mechanism of action and structure of Lysozyme, Chymotrypsin, Alcohol dehydrogenase, RNA as enzyme. Coenzymes, Isoenzymes, Multienzyme complex, Multifunctional enzymes. Applications of enzymes. Ch4.Bioenergetics: Mitochondrial electron transport Ch5.Metabolic pathways: ATP synthesis, Pathways of degradation of monosacharides (Glucose, galactose and Fructose) Ch6.Pathways of Degradation of amino acids: general catabolic reactions, Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids, Urea cycle, Pathways of Degradation of fats, Lipases, Alpha, beta and gama, ß-oxidation. Pathways of Degradation of purins and Pyrimidines, Gout. Ch7.Bioenergetics: Mitochondrial electron transport, ATP synthesis Ch8.Biosynthetic pathways: Biosynthetic pathways for glucose, amino acids-amino nitrogen, Fats, chain elongation, desaturation in plants and animals, Nucleosides-Salvage pathways, Phospholipids, Sphingilipids, Oils and Waxes. New insights into metabolic pathways (Glucose paradox, Conversion of sugars to fats) Genetics Ch1. Basic Mendelian principles of inheritance: Applications of Mendel’s principles- the punnet square method forked-line method, probability method; Formulating and testing genetic hypothesis-the chi-square test. Allelic variation and gene function, linkage, crossing over and chromosome mapping. - 08hrs Ch2. Extra nuclear inheritance: Maternal effects (Limnae) Organelle heredity (Mitochondria and Chloroplast) Infection heredity (Kappa and paramecium) -05hrs Ch3.Genetic organization of DNA: Viral and Bacterial chromosomes, super coiling and circular DNA, Mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA. Organization of DNA in chromatin - 06hrs Ch4. Sex determination and dosage compensation; Trigger for sex determination, sex determination in mammals, secondary sex determination, sex determination in Drosophila, Dosage compensation in mammals and drosophila. - 05hrs Ch5. Genetic recombination at Molecular level: Reciprocal recombination, site specific recombination, models of recombination (Holliday model), Role of Rec A in Recombination. - 05hrs Ch6. Transposable genetic elements: Bacterial transposons, Is elements, Composite transposons, Tn3 elements, Eukaryotic transposons-Ac and Ds elements in maize; P elements and Hybrid dysgenesis, Retrotransposons. -06hrs Ch7. Mutation: Molecular basis of spontaneous and induced mutations in evolution, detection of mutations Ames test, use of base analogs and alkylating agents for mutagenesis. Repair mechanisms-Post replication repair, excision repair, mismatch repair, SOS repair, Suppressor mutations. 07hrs Ch8. Human genetics: Human chromosome, Chromosomal abnormalities-Sex chromosal and autosomal, inherited disorder, genetic counseling, gene therapy. -03hrs Animal Physiology Ch1.Digestion: Carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Major products of digestion. Role of gastro intestinal hormone in digestion; Absorption from the gastro intestinal tract. -04hrs Ch2.Excretion: Nature of excretory products, Functional architecture of Kidney, formation of Urine, Mechanism of urine concentration, Hormonal control of Urine formation and Osmoregulation. - 05Hrs Ch3.Respiration: The mechanism of respiration, transport of O2 and CO2, respiratory pigments, respiratory quotient, oxygen toxicity, Acid base balance -04Hrs Ch4. Circulation: Components of blood, Hemoglobin, Types of hemoglobin, clotting of blood –Mechanism and factors involved in clotting. Lymphatic system Blood related disorders-Hemophilia, Sickle cell anemia thalassemia; Types of Circulation, structure of heart, conduction of heart beat, Blood pressure, Factors affecting blood pressure. -05Hrs Ch5.Sensory Physiology: Structure of neuron, types of nerve cells, mechanism of conduction of nerve impulse, synaptic transmission, neurotransmitters, Reflex action and reflex arc, Ion channels-voltage and Sodium gated, patch clamp technique, Neuromuscular transmission, Autonomic nervous system-distribution and functions, physiology of vision, color vision Auditory, olfactory and taste signals. -07Hrs Ch6.Muscle Contraction: Types of muscle-striated, non-striated and cardiac, Structure of skeletal muscle; Muscle contraction-biochemical events, sliding filament theory, Muscle fatigue. -05Hrs Ch7.Thermoregulation: Effect of Temperature on biological system. Temperature relations of Poikilotherms and homeotherms, acclimation and acclimatization to cold and heat, thermo tolerance and heat shock proteins. Neuronal basis of thermoregulation -05Hrs Ch8.Physiology of Reproduction: Spermatogenesis, Oogenesis, hormonal control of testicular and ovarian functions, estrous cycle, Fertilization, Implantation Gestation, Partiution, in vitro fertilization, Embryo transfer. -06Hrs Ch9.Adaptation: Adaptation to extreme environment-Deep sea, desert, terrestrial, cold, salt tolerance, adaptation to space travel, space station and high altitude. -04Hrs Immunology Ch1. Historical development and milestones in immunology. Ch2.Antigens: Antigencity and immunogenicity, haptens, determinants, epitopes, protein, antigens , carbohydrates antigens. Ch3.Antibodies: Classes and subclasses of immunglobulins, structure of immunoglobulins, hyper variable region, Isotopic, allotypic and idiotypic variations. Ch4.Cellular Basis of Immunity: Types of immunity –active, passive and acquired. Primary and secondary response, Reticular-endothelial system. T, B and accessory cells. Subsets of T and B cells, Antigen processing and presentation. T-B co-operation. Soluble factors lymphokines-structure and functions. Ch5.Molecular Biology Of Immunoglobulins: Immunoglobulin genes, mechanisms of diversity. Theories of antibody formation-Burnels glonal selection theory. Gene expression in T and B maturation, Molecular mechanism in T-B accessory cell interactions and signal transduction. Ch6.Histocompatibility complex in man: Tissue haplotypes and disorders, Tissue and organ grafting, graft rejection, Immune suppression. Non specific defences – Skin, mucous membrane, secretory Immunoglobulins, complement ,Hypersensitivity-types Vaccines and their preparation, Adjuvants. Ch7.Disorder of The Immune System: Autoimmune disorders, AIDS Ch8.Assay systems: Immunodiffusion, Immuno-electrophoresis, RIA, ELISA, Immunoblotting, Immune florescence Defense system in plants – Host parasite interaction. Molecular Biology Ch1. Central dogma of molecular biology and its modification Ch2.DNA Replication: Semi conservative origin direction rate of replication positive and negative control of initiation, termination of replication, Replication in phage, plamid, bacteria and mitochondria. Ch3.RNA Biosynthesis: DNA dependent RNA biosynthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Initiation elongation and termination, RNA polymerase I II and III processing of RNA, RNA transport, RNA stability, RNA editing, Antisense RNA Ch4.Genetic Code: Triplet codon, Assignment of codons, degeneracy, variation in codon usage, universality Ch5.Protein Synthesis: Ribosome structure, Bacterial, mitochondrial and Eukaryotic protein synthesis, initiation, elongation and termination. Factors involved in the Process. Ch6.Post Translation Modification: Protein folding, role of chaperonins. O and N glycosylotion , Fatty acylation , attachment of glycosyl anchor, phosphorylation, other modifications. Ch7.Regulation Of Gene Expression: fine structure of eukaryotic gene, exons, introns, repetitive DNA, Promoters enhancers, silencers, regulatory sequences, DNA-binding Proteins. Organization of Prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes, gene families, tandemly repeating genes, pseudogenes. Ch8.Operon Model: Lac operon, catabolite repression. Negative and positive control, Trp operon attenuation, antitermination. Ch9.Regulation at the level of DNA, RNA and Proteins: Structure of DNA: supercoiling, Histones, histone acctylation, Glucocorticoids, Regulation by intiation codons (eg yeast GCN4), Cis and Trans factors (eg Ferretin and Transferrin mRNA by Fe) Translational introns, inteins , Accuracy of Transcription and translation, role of t RNA,secondary genetic code, amino acyl t RNA synthase, ribosomal optimization of translational accuracy, Role of Transcription factors-NFRB Regulation at the level of post translation modification , degradation of proteins-Ubiquitin system. Genetic Engineering and Bioinformatics Ch.1 Genetic Engineering: Isolation of DNA restriction enzymes separation of DNA fragments, cloning- CDNA cloning shotgun techniques. Methods used in cloning- linker addition, Transduction vectors-plasmids, cosmids, phages, vectors used in Eukaryotes-yeast vectors, vectors used in plants. Viral vectors, Expression vectors. Reporter gene (eg: Dual Iuciferase gene) Ch.2 Application of genetic engineering: Transgenic plants and animals. Bt-cotton, terminator gene. Blotting techniques-southern, northen, western, south-western, Polymerase chain reaction. DNA foot printing and finger printing. Gel retardation assay. Ch.3 Human Genome Analysis: Human genome project. Intellectual property rights patenting of human DNA sequence. Treatment of human genetic diseases Ch4.Bioinformatics: Introduction to bioinformatics, Biological data bases, different types of data bases DNA, Protein and others. Bioinformatic analysis (data base searching e.g. BLASTA and FASTA). Application of Bioinformatics. Biophysics Ch1 Basic law of physics and their relevance to biology, Role of Biophysics in natural science, scope and methods of Biophysics Ch2.Physical Methods of study of Macromolecules: Fundamentals of colorimeter, Spectrometry, fluorimetry, magnetic resonance – NMR and ESR. Principles and applications of IR and Raman Spectra. Light scattering, polarized light, circular dichrmism, basic concepts in X-ray crystallography. Ch3.Principles of Separation Techniques: Partition chromatography – Paper, Gel filtration, Gas chromatography, Thin layer chromatography, ion exchange chromatography and affinityhromatography, HPLC and FPLC. Electrophoresis –Principles of PAGE, SDS- PAGE and Iso electrro focusing Ch4.Structure of Macromolecules: Weak forces of interaction – Ionic and Hydrogen Bonding, Vander wall’s forces. Special properties of water. Ch5.Secondary structure of Proteins: Alpha helix, beta sheet, beta bend and a periodic structures, prediction of secondary structure, Ramachandran plot, protein and nucleic acid sequence homology analysis, construction of molecular phylogeny using sequence data. Ch6.Folding of Protein: Anfinsen’s experiment “Molten Globule” 3D structure of myoglobin, hemoglobin, immunoglobulin and collagen. Prediction of Secondary structure of proteins. Secondary structure of nucleic acid B and Z conformation, secondary structure of tRNA Ch7.Radiation Biophysics: Radio Isotopes and Radiations. Nuclear decay, Units of Radiation, Curie,Bequerel, RAD, LET. Measurement of Radiation- GM Counter, Liquid and Solid Scintillation, Interaction of radiation with matter. Applications of Radio Isotopes and radiation. Microbiology Ch1.History: Era of Louis Pasteur, discovery of virus, contribution of Koch to microbiology. Ch2.Methods of Study Of Microorganisms: Isolation of pure colony, Aerobic and anaerobic cultures, sterilization, disinfection, Maintenance of Microorganisms, Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. Ch3.Growth: Culture media, growth curve, continuous culture chemostat, turbidostat, Synchronous growth. Ch4.Bacterial genetics: Recombination in bacteria-Transformation, Conjugation and Transduction, Transposable elements and plasmids Ch5.Fermentation: Types of fermantation, Solid state and submerged. Ch6.Symbiosis and Pathogenesis: Host parasite relationship, Micoflora of human body, Bacterial infection, pathogenic properties of bacteria and fungi, endotoxins and exotoxins, Microbial disease of man Interfrons, Tumor viruses and retroviruses, Life cycle of HIV. Ch7.Microbiology of Water: Testing of water for microbial contamination IMVIC test, source of contamination of water and its purification, microbiology of ground water and aquatic reservoirs, sewage water and treatment. Ch8.Microbiology of Air: Normal micro flora, air borne pathogenic microorganisms and viruses. Ch9.Dairy Microbiology: Micro flora of milk, Pasteurization microbiology of fermentation products of milk, curd, yogurt, sour cream, cheese. Ch10.Microbiology of food spoilage – General principles, food spoilage and infection, food preservation. Food preservation by Chemical, Physical and Modern methods Basic techniques–(2 Credits) Preliminary Techniques in Biochemistry - Animal models- Choice of animals, Types of Studies, Mutant Organisms, Cultured Cells, Plant as models. 2h Cell Fractionation Techniques - Cell lysis, Differential and Density gradient centrifugation, Salting in, Salting out, Dialysis, Ultra filtration. 2 h Chromatographic Techniques - Principles and Applications of Paper, TLC, Adsorption, Ion exchange, Gel filtration, Affinity, GLC, Chromatofocusing, HPLC, FPLC 8 h Electrophoretic Techniques - Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE, 2D-Electrophoresis, Agarose gel Electrophoresis, Separation of Proteins, Lipoproteins, Nucleic acids, Visualizing separated components - staining, fluorescence, PAS staining, Zymogram and reverse zymogram, Isoelectric focusing, Pulsed field electrophoresis, High voltage electrophoresis, Capillary Electrophoresis, Isotachophoresis. 8h Ultra Centrifugation - Construction of preparative and analytical ultra centrifuge, Svedberg's constant, Sedimentation velocity and Sedimentation equilibrium, Schleiran optics. 4h Spectroscopic Techniques - Colorimetry, Spectrophotometry, Fluorimetry. Principles- Beer-Lambert's Law, Limitation, Extinction Coefficient. Application. 6h Advanced cell Biology 2 credits Cell Structure- Diversity of cell shape and size, cell theory, types of cells ECM, Cytoskeletal elements. Cell motility, cell –cell interaction-adhesion Cell - matrix interaction. Integrins and selectins and their interaction. Intside out signaling in endothelial cells Targeting of proteins, protein sorting, polarized cells 6h Cell division and cell cycle: Mitosis and meiosis, phases of cell cycle. Programmed cell death4h Nerve Transmission - Structure of neuron, axon, dendrectes, synapse neuromuscular junction. Neuro transmitters mechanisms of nerve conduction. ionophores, Patch clamp technique. Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system a and p adrenergic neutrons nicotinic and muscarinic neurons. GABA, NMDA, structure and function of acetyl choline recptor. 6 h Biochemistry of vision, colour vision, taste, olfactory and audiotroy responses. 2 hrs. Muscle Contraction - Skeletal muscle and smooth muscle, muscle proteins - actin, myosin, tropomyosine, troponins, mechanisms of muscle contraction, role of calcium, calmodulin, phospholamban. 4 hrs. Cell Signaling - Cell - cell and Cell - matrix interaction. Integrins and selectins and their interaction. Intside out signaling in endothelial cells. General mechanisms of cell signaling by hydrophilic factors transmembrane receptors - 7 transmembrane helical receptors, G protein coupled receptors, receptor tyrosine kinase eicosanoid receptors. Second messangers. 1P3, DAG, CAMP, protein kinases. Nosignaling - Generation and action Cytoplasmic Receptors - steroid hormone signaling. Receptor down regulation, desensitization and upregulation. 10 hrs Targeting of proteins, protein sorting, polarized cells. Cell Culture Techniques Biodiversity Diversity of organisms , Biodiversity hotspots, uses of Biodiversity. Conservation of Biodiversity, in situ and ex situ methods. biodiversity-status, monitoring and documentation; major drivers of biodiversity change; biodiversity management approaches. Conservation biology: Principles of conservation, major approaches to management, Indian case studies on conservation/management strategy (Project Tiger, Biosphere reserves). 6h Cell Culture Techniques Introduction to plant and animal tissue culture – Laboratory design, aseptic conditions, Equipments and materials for cell culture. Different constituents of culture medium types of media and their application. 4h Plant Cell Culture - Micropropagation callus culture, haploid production, somatic embryogenesis, somatic hybridization and cybridization somaclonal variation. Production of disease free plants 4h Animal Cell Culture - Culture techniques, media, preparation of primary culture -disaggregation of tissue and primary culture,- chick embryo, HUVEC, cell lines, characterization of cultures ploidy, cell doubling time.. Cell lines-characteristics and routine maintenance. Cell separation techniques. Measurement of viability and cytotoxicity., Scaling –up of animal cell culture-Bioreactors used in animal cell culture. Amplified cultures, continuous cultures, applications 6h Characterization of the cultured cells, measuring parameters of growth. Cell synchronization, Somatic cell fusion, Cell cloning and cryopreservation. Applications of animal cell culture-Organ and histotypic cultures; Three dimensional culture-Tissue engineering eg skin 6h Breeding in plants and animals. Marker assisted selection Bioremediation 4h ECOLOGY and Evolution -2 credits Ecology The Environment: Physical environment; biotic environment; biotic and abiotic interactions. Habitat and niche: Concept of habitat and niche; niche width and overlap; fundamental and realized niche; resource partitioning; character displacement. Population ecology: Characteristics of a population; population growth curves; population regulation; life history strategies (r and K selection); concept of metapopulation – demes and dispersal, interdemic extinctions, age structured populations. Species interactions: Types of interactions, interspecific competition, herbivory, carnivory, pollination, symbiosis. Community ecology: Nature of communities; community structure and attributes; levels of species diversity and its measurement; edges and ecotones. Ecological succession: Types; mechanisms; changes involved in succession; concept of climax. Ecosystem: Structure and function; energy flow and mineral cycling (CNP); primary production and decomposition; structure and function of some Indian ecosystems: terrestrial (forest, grassland) and aquatic (fresh water, marine, eustarine). Biogeography: Major terrestrial biomes; theory of island biogeography; biogeographical zones of India. Applied ecology: Environmental pollution; global environmental change; Evolution Emergence of evolutionary thoughts: Lamarck; Darwin–concepts of variation, adaptation, struggle, fitness and natural selection; Mendelism; spontaneity of mutations; the evolutionary synthesis. Basis for Darwin’s theory, observations from embryology, comparative anatomy and Biochemistry .Confouding observations from embryology, comparative anatomy and Biochemistry, Haeckel’s drawings of embryos to fit the theory of evolution Origin of cells and unicellular evolution: Origin of basic biological molecules; abiotic synthesis of organic monomers and polymers; concept of Oparin and Haldane; experiment of Miller (1953); the first cell; evolution of prokaryotes; origin of eukaryotic cells; evolution of unicellular eukaryotes; anaerobic metabolism, photosynthesis and aerobic metabolism. Paleontology and evolutionary history: Big bang theory, Age of stars, confounding data from the Hubbel space telescope, expanding universe, The evolutionary time scale; eras, periods and epoch; major events in the evolutionary time scale; origins of unicellular and multicellular organisms; major groups of plants and animals; Punctuted equilibrium and phylectic gradualism,stages in primate evolution including Homo. geological time scale, pre biotic conditions. Dating of fossils, different methods, current controversies concerning theory of evolution. Controversies concerning evolution of prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes, birds Vs dinosaurs, age of humans, asexual vs sexual reproduction, cold blooded vs warm blooded; living fossils, evolution of birds and dinosaurs ,hoaxes and falsification of data e.g., Javaman. Molecular Evolution Concept of Neutral theory of evolution Molecular divergence and molecular clocks molecular tools in phylogeny, classification and identification; protein and nucleotide sequence analysis; origin of new genes and proteins; gene duplication and divergence. The Mechanisms: Population genetics – populations, gene pool, gene frequency; Hardy-Weinberg law; concepts and rate of change in gene frequency through natural selection, migration and random genetic drift; adaptive radiation and modifications; isolating mechanisms; speciation; allopatricity and sympatricity; convergent evolution; sexual selection; co-evolution of predator-prey, pollinating insects and flowering plants Behavioral Biology- 2 credits Introduction: Classification of behavior types, reflexes and complex behavior, nervous system and behavior; development of Behavior and phylogeny of behavior. Genetics and behavior: Micro evolutionary changes in behavior; Hamilton’s rule, inclusive fitness, Kin selection altruism and altruistic behavior. Inprinting work of Timberger and Lorenz. Learning and Memory: Theories of Learning-Cognitive and SR theory of Learning-associative and nonassociative types; reasoning and intelligence, learning abilities in animal groups. Instinct vs learning Reproductive behavior: Sexual selection, competition, dominance and aggression; alternate mating strategies, female choice, runway selection, mating system, monogamy, polygamy, polyandry. Social behavior: Pheromones and insect behavior. Distance and direction, Communication in Honey bees, chemical communication in ants. Thwarting and conflict behavior, pure attack and escape, threat displays, social signals, appeasement displays, displacement activities, territorial and courtship conflicts, . Mimicry Batsean and Mullerian. Toxicology 2 credits Toxicants – natural and man made, anti nutrition factors, heavy metals, animal, insect and microbial toxins, endo and exo toxins. Routes of entry of toxicants-oral, dermal, inhalation, ADME Acute toxicity- toxicity symptoms, preventive measures, Chronic toxicity, LD50, ED 50, methods of their determination. Toxicity to man made toxicants- pesticides, organic and biological pollutants Radioactive pollution- natural radioactivity and artificial radioactivity, nuclear weapons. Examples of some disasters- Agent Orange,Bhopal gas tragedy, Chernobyl explosion,- causes and consequences. Minimata bay disease, Toxicity assessment and environmental impact of industries, effluents and waste disposal. Bioremediation. Biotransformation. Detoxification of Xenobiotics in man – phase I and phase II reactions. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY – 2 credits Basic concepts of development: Potency, commitment, specification, induction, competence, determination and differentiation; morphogenetic gradients; cell fate and cell lineages; stem cells; genomic equivalence and the cytoplasmic determinants; Gametogenesis, fertilization and early development: Production of gametes, cell surface molecules in sperm-egg recognition in animals; embryo sac development and double fertilization in plants; zygote formation, cleavage, blasula formation, embryonic fields, gastrulation and formation of germ layers in animals; embryogenesis, establishment of symmetry in plants; seed formation and germination. Morphogenesis and organogenesis in animals: Cell aggregation and differentiation in Dictyostelium; axes and pattern formation in Drosophila, amphibia and chick; organogenesis – vulva formation in Caenorhabditis elegans; eye lens induction, limb development and regeneration in vertebrates; differentiation of neurons, post embryonic development-larval formation, metamorphosis; environmental regulation of normal development; sex determination. Morphogenesis and organogenesis in plants: Organization of shoot and root apical meristem; shoot and root development; leaf development and phyllotaxy; transition to flowering, floral meristems and floral development in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum.