BIOL241 W2010 Exam 5 Study Guide Chapters 25, 26, and 27 Chapter 25: Urinary System 1. Know the functions of the urinary system. 2. Know the structure and functions of the kidneys. Be sure to know the following parts (and identify them in a figure): renal capsule, adipose capsule, renal fascia, hilum, renal cortex, renal medulla, renal pyramids, renal columns, renal lobe, minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, and nephron. Know the general flow of filtrate through the kidneys, and out of the body. 3. Know the general pattern of blood flow through the kidneys. You do not need to know the names of all of the vessels, just the main vessels that take blood into and out of the kidneys, the arterioles that head into and out of the glomerular capillary bed, the glomerulus, and the peritubular capillaries. What is unique about this vessel arrangement? 4. Know the detailed structure of the nephron. Know what happens at each segment of the nephron (glomerulus/Bowman’s capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle (descending limb and ascending limb), distal convoluted tubule, and collecting ducts). Know the different epithelia at each portion of the nephron. How do the structures of the various nephron regions facilitate the function of that region? (For instance, the cells of the PCT compared to cells of the descending limb of the loop of Henle, compared to the ‘waterproof’ cells of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle and collecting duct). 5. Know the two types of nephrons that are found in the kidneys. How are they similar? Different? 6. How does the structure of the glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule support the function? Describe the components of the filtration membrane (HINT: don’t forget the filtration slits). 7. Understand the processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion that occur at the nephron. Know where each occurs within the structure of the nephron (ie. How do activities at the PCT differ from the collecting duct?). What types of things are typically reabsorbed and secreted. What is Tm? 8. Know the forces that are actually responsible for filtration. Be able to predict what can happen to the formation of the filtrate when the hydrostatic pressure increases or decreases, and when the blood colloid osmotic pressure increases or decreases. What is capsular hydrostatic pressure? 9. Define GFR. Understand the intrinsic (autoregulation) and extrinsic (neural and hormonal) control mechanisms of GFR. In response to a small rise or drop in blood pressure, what might happen locally? What does elevated sympathetic tone CAUSE at the kidney? How does it affect GFR? What activates the Renin-angiotensin cascade? What are the consequences of its activation (especially at the nephron- what happens to GFR, what happens at collecting duct)? 10. Know what changes occur to the filtrate (urine-to-be) when ADH, or aldeosterone are elevated in the blood stream. What part of the nephron is affected by these hormones? What actually happens, at the cellular level in the presence of these hormones? (Think about movement of channels/pores/pumps). 11. Know why it is important to have the loop of Henle actively pump NaCl into the peritubular space. What are the benefits of the countercurrent multiplication mechanism? What is the vasa recta? 12. Some cells of the nephron have the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. What is the function of this enzyme in the kidneys? 13. Define a diuretic. How can a substance like mannitol function as a diuretic? How can drugs that increase Na+ loss in the urine (drugs that block sodium transporters/channels) function as a diuretic? Give two reasons a patient might be prescribed a diuretic? Why would someone with hypertension be advised to lower their Na+ intake? 14. Know the general properties of urine. What things are most likely present? What else can be present, and what might it be a sign of? 15. Know the histology and function of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Chapter 26: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-base balance PAGES 1008-1015 (ONLY ACID BASE BALANCE INFO, and only what is covered in power point slides) 1. What is the normal pH range of the ECF? What is acidosis? What is alkalosis? Why is a plasma pH out of range dangerous? 2. What are the major sources of H+ in the body, meaning how are they generated? What three different systems are used by the body to combat major swings in pH? In what order are these systems utilized? What is the time frame for their activities (seconds, minutes, hours, days?) 3. List the three chemical buffer systems of the body. Which is the most important? 4. How does the respiratory system help to maintain acid/base balance? How does the renal system help to maintain acid/base balance? 5. What is normal pH range? CO2 concentration? What can cause the following situations? a. respiratory acidosis b. respiratory alkalosis c. metabolic acidosis d. metabolic alkalosis Chapter 27: Male Reproductive System 1. Know the general structure of the male reproductive system: penis, testes, epididymis, ductus deferens (vas deferens), seminal vesicle, prostate gland. Bulbourethal gland (Cowper’s gland). 2. Know the following parts of the testes: tunica vaginalis, tunica albuginea, lobules, seminiferous tubules 3. Know the role of the following cells: sustentacular cells (Sertoli cells), interstitial cells (Leydig Cells) 4. Know the MOST BASIC similarities and differences between mitosis and meiosis. 5. Know the functions of the epididymis. How are the sperm moved along the tubule? What is the function of the long microvilli here (with the unfortunate name of stereocilia)? 6. Know the function of the ductus deferens (vas deferens). What type of tissue is found in this structure? What is a vasectomy? 7. Know the contribution/function of each of the following glands: seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral. 8. Know the anatomy of a sperm. What changes occur to the cell structure to form a spermatozoon (mature sperm)? 9. What is the role of the following hormones on spermatogenesis: GnRH, FSH, LH, and inhibin? Female Reproductive System 1. Know the general parts of the female reproductive system such as the uterus, uterine (fallopian) tube, ovary, and vagina. Be sure to review the type of tissue (epithelial) found in the uterus and fallopian tubes. 2. Know the stages of development of a follicle within the ovary. Know the role of the hormones GnRH, LH, and FSH in the development of follicles. Which hormone is responsible for maturation of the follicle to a secondary follicle? Which hormone is responsible for the ovulation of the egg? 3. Know what is happening to the lining of the uterus at the same time the follicles are developing in the ovary. 4. How does oogenesis differ from spermatogenesis?