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Transcript
CHAPTER
English
GRAMMAR
4
Grammar
ARTICLES
The adjectives "a or an" and "The" are usually called "Articles" they are really Demonstrative
Adjectives". Articles are divided into two kinds namely,
1.
Definite article
2. Indefinite article.
1.
Definite Article: "The" is called definite article because it points out some particular person or
thing as
He saw the Doctor (Particular)
2.
Indefinite article : "A or An" is called the indefinite article because it leaves indefinite the
person or thing spoken of; as
A doctor, A lawyer, A teacher. (Any)
"A or An" is used before a singular countable noun. The choice between "a or an" determined by
sound, before a word beginning with vowel sound [the sound of a, e, i, o, u] "an" is used.
Examples: An ass, an enemy, an inkstand an Umbrella, an orange, an hour, an honest man an
heir, an arm chair, an ulsation, an American, an Australian, an idiot, an ear, an ulcer, an ell, an
apple, an ox, an orphan, an ocean etc.,
Before a word beginning with a consonant sound "a" is used: as
Examples: A boy, a woman, a yard, a horse, a University, a Union, a European, a Unicorn, a
Useful article, a human being, a historical novel, a yard, a yell, a yellow paper, a young man, a
one man tribunal, a One rupee coin, a one way ticket, a eulogy, a Unit etc.,
Note: A and an are singulars "Some" is the plural. If we have to mention a little quantity, we say
some sugar, some salt etc., "A or An" is Used.
1. To give the meaning of 'One'
2. To give the idea of 'every'
3. With Proper Nouns Used as Common Nouns
4. In exclamatory sentences
5. Before numerical expressions
Examples:
1. I have a car
2. It is an apple
3. Apples cost Rs.60/- a dozen
4. The train runs at a speed of 100km an hour
5. He thinks he is a Tagore
6. What a hot day
7. We have ordered a dozen chairs for our college.
“The” ….. is used
1. When we speak of a particular person or thing or one already referred to:
1
English
Grammar
a) The book you want is out of print,
b) I dislike the fellow,
c) Let us go to the club.
2. When a singular Noun is meant to represent a whole class.
a) The cow is a useful animal.
b) The horse is a noble animal,
c) The cat loves comfort.
d) The dog is a faithful animal.
3. When we peak of their
are the only ones of their kind: as
The Sun: The Sky, The Moon, The Earth, The World
4. Before the names of certain books.
(Historical / Religious importance)
The Vedas, The Puranas, The Ramayana, The Gita, The Quran, The Bible, The Mahabharatha
etc.,
But we say : Homer's Iliad, Valmiki's Ramayana.
5. Before names of Rivers, Gulfs, Seas, groups of Islands, Mountain ranges etc.,
The Ganges, The Amazon, The Krishna, The Persian gulf, The pacific Ocean, The Arabian
Ocean, The Laccadive Islands, The Philippines, The Alps, The Sahara, The Himalayas etc.,
6. Before the plural names of the countries.
The USA, The USSR, The UK, The Netherlands etc.,
7. Before a proper Noun when it is used as a common Noun
a. Kalidasa is the Shakespeare of India.
b. Einstein is the Newton of Our age.
c. Bombay is the Manchester of India.
8. Before the superlatives.
The longest, The tallest, The best, The most beautiful etc.,
9. Before Ordinal numbers in titles.
Pope John the 21st , King George the 5th .
10. Before common Nouns followed by a proper Noun.
The river Godavari, The novel "War and peace" etc,/'
2
English
Grammar
11. Before a proper Noun Only when it is qualified by an adjective.
The great Shivaji, The Immortal Shakespeare,
The Wise Solomon, The famous Napoleon etc.,
12. Before the Names of musical instruments.
The Violin, The Trumphet, The Piano, The Flute etc.,
13. Before Plural names.
The Johson's, The Ramsay's, The Tagore's etc.,.
14. Before the names of Ships, Trains, Aeroplanes, Rockets etc.
The Golden Arrow, The Vaijayanthi, The Krishna Express.
15. Before Abbreviations:
The U.N, The W.H.O, The I.A.S, The U.RS.C, etc.,
16. Before Temple, Office, Cinema or Cinema Theatre.
17. As an adverb with Comparatives.
The more They get, The more They Want
The more you speak, The less I understand.
The bigger you job, The greater your responsibilities.
The higher you go, the Colder it gets.
18. Before an adjective to make it a noun in the plural.
The rich must help the poor.
The educated should teach the illiterate.
19. Before a Government Office.
The Head Post Office, The Treasury, The Accountant Office.
20. Before designations
The Secretary, The President, The Principal, The PM.,
The CM., The Chief Secretary etc.,
21. Before o historical age.
The stone age, The Golden age etc., ,
3
English
Grammar
22. Before News papers and magazines.
The Eenadu, The Vaartha, The Hindu, The Week,
The India Today, The Sunday etc.,
23. Before national festivals.
The Independence Day, The Republic Day, The Teacher's Day,
The Children's Day
24. Before a Board, A Corporation, Commission.
The Intermediate Board, The Electricity Board, The LIC of India,
The Indian Cricket Board.
25. Before a Union, a Society, an Association, a Federation.
The JL’s Association, The PRTU, The UTF, The Employees Union, The Farmers Co-Operative
Society.
26. Before Directions, inventions, Part of a day after the adjectives Both, all, particular person
or thing, particular place Revolutions or movements.
The East, The West, The South, The North, The TV, The Telephone, The Computer, The
Morning, The Afternoon, The Evening, The Night, Both the servants, Both the Children, The
beach, The Criminal The French Revolution, The Quit India Movement etc.,
27. Before School, College, Church, Hospital, Prison, Market and Bed When they are used for
other-purpose.
OMISSION OF “THE”
1. "The" is not used before man and woman used in its widest sense.
Man s mortal, Woman is men's mate.
2. Before names of Material nouns, proper nouns, Abstract nouns.
Gold Silver, Copper, Cotton America, Mahabubanagar,
Gadwal, Laxman, Wisdom, Honesty, Virtue etc.,
3. Before languages, Games, names of meals
Hindi, Telugu, English, Cricket, Hockey, Tennis, Brake fast, Lunch, Supper, Dinner etc.,
4. Before names of relations
Father, Mother, Uncle, Sister etc.,
5. Before School, College, Church Bed, Hospital, Prison, Market When they are used for their
primary purpose.
He goes to school regularly,
I usually go to bed at 10 pm
4
English
Grammar
6. Before names of diseases, a day, a month.
Cholera, Typhoid, Malaria, Sunday, Friday, January etc.,
PREPOSITIONS
The preposition is a word, which is usually placed before a noun or pronoun to show its relation with
some other word or words in the sentence.
Examples: I put it in the box; He is coming by plane, she is very angry with you; what are you talking
about?
That is the book I was referring to;
The monkey climbed up the tree;
There is the man I was speaking of.
Relations Shown by Prepositions
Prepositions show Various kinds of relations. The chief are the following.
1.
PLACE
:
He ran across the road
Ravi kumar was at the foot of the tree.
Mayuri stood beside the door.
2.
TIME
:
Amaresh came at 6 O' clock.
You must return before sunset.
Lavanya stayed for a month.
3.
Method and Manner
:
It came by post.
Girija cut it with a knife.
Ram Reddy fought with courage.
4.
Reason and purpose
:
Mr. Goud trembled with anger.
Latha died of fever.
Exercise is good for health.
Dharma Reddy Struggled for freedom.
5.
Possession
:
Delhi is the capital of India.
I saw a boy with red hair
He is a man of principles.
Rama Krishna came with a lot of money.
6.
Direction and Motion
:
Mr. K.K. fell into the well
Rani walked towards the market.
He climbed up the tree.
5
English
Grammar
Some Important Prepositions
In, at
:
‘In’ is used with names of countries and cities.
My friend, Raghu lives in Hyderabad.
"at" is used before small towns and villages.
Mr. Madhav lives at palem.
In. INTO
:
‘In' is used with the things at rest
Rani is in the room
'into' : is used when the things are in motion.
IN, AT, ON
:
"at" expresses exact time.
Satish came at 8 pm.
'In' Expresses period of time (Months, Years,
Seasons)
Bharathi came in the morning.
Examinations will be conducted in March.
'On' is used before days and dates.
Saritha will come on Monday.
Between, among
:
"Between" is used to indicate two persons or things.
Rahman sat between Rani and Krishna.
'among' is used with more than two persons or
things.
Raghunath sat among his students.
Beside, Besides
:
"Beside" means by the side of
There is a school beside Gupta's house.
Besides - means in additions to
Ram Reddy knows Telugu besides English.
Since, for
:
"Since" - indicates a point of time in the past and
used with both present perfect and
Present perfect continuous tense
Hari priya has been reading since break fast
'for' - is used to refer to period of time.
Himabindu has been waiting there for two hours.
Ravi has worked here for 10 days.
6
English
Grammar
VERB AND TENSE
Verb: Verb is word that expresses doing (action), being (state) or possessing.
The word tense derived from Latin "Tempus" means time. We may define. "Tense " as that form of a
verb which shows the time and state of an action or event. (Or) Tense means the time at which the
action of the verb takes place. (Or) Tense is a form of the verb to indicate time and the degree of
completeness of an action or a state.
There are three broad divisions of time - present, Past and Future These are the three Principal
tenses and each of them has four sub divisions. The simple (or indefinite), the continuous (or
Progressive), the Perfect and the Perfect continuous.
There are two kinds of verbs in English namely Helping Verbs and Main Verbs.
VERB
Helping Verb
Main Verb
Primary
Modals
(V1) Write
(V2) Wrote
Be
Do
Have
Shall
is, am, are
was, were
Do
Does
Has
Have
Should
Would
Need, Ought, Dare, used, Must, Might
Will
Can
May
(V3) Written
Could
(V4) Writing
PERSONS
First Person
Singular
I
Second Person
Plural
We
Singular
you
Third Person
Plural
you
Singular
he, she, it
Plural
they
TRANSFORMATION
Voice is a form of the verb. It shows whether the subject does some thing or has something done to
it.
Active Voice: The verb is said to be in the Active Voice when the subject represents the doer.
Passive Voice: The verb is said to be in the passive voice when the subject represents the person or
thing that has something done to him or it.
7
English
Grammar
DEGREES OF COMPARISON
s
There are three types of degrees to compare persons, places, and things namely positive, degree
comparative degree and superlative degree.
Positive Degree: It is used to denote the existence of some quality. In this no comparison) made. It is
just an expression of some fact.
Eg: She is a pretty girl; He is a clever student.
Comparative Degree: It is used when two persons or things are said to be unequal. That is when
there is a difference in respect of some quality. There arises the question of comparison.
Superlative Degree: It denotes the highest or sovereign degree of quality.
Eg: 1. The Nile is the longest fiver.
2. He is the cleverest boy
There are two types of comparison.
1. Comparison between two
2. Comparison among more than two.
ADJECTIVE FORMS
Positive Comparative Superlative Positive Comparative Superlative
tall
taller
tallest
dull
duller
dullest
clever
cleverer
cleverest
strong
stronger
strongest
wise
wiser
wisest
fast
faster
fastest
hard
harder
hardest
cool
cooler
coolest
deep
deeper
deepest
hot
hotter
hottest
holy
holier
holiest
big
bigger
biggest
rich
richer
richest
short
shorter
shortest
dark
darker
darkest
great
greater
greatest
weak
weaker
weakest
small
smaller
smallest
lazy
lazier
laziest
poor
poorer
poorest
quick
quicker
quickest
fine
finer
finest
long
longer
Longest
large
larger
largest
strange
stranger
strangest
sharp
sharper
sharpest
wide
wider
Widest
slow
slower
slowest
easy
easier
Easiest
bright
brighter
brightest
pretty
prettier
prettiest
smart
smarter
Smartest
lean
leaner
Leanest
thick
thicker
thickest
8
English
Grammar
IRREGULAR COMPARISONS
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Good (adj)
Better
Best
Well (adv)
Better
Best
Bad
Wrose
Worst
Much, many
More
Most
Little
Less
least
Old
Older, elder
oldest, eldest
Late
Later, latter
latest, last
Far
Farther (more distant)
farthest
Far
Further (additional)
furthest
SIMPLE, COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES
Sentences can be classified as Simple, Compound and Complex Sentences. Before we go to these
types of sentences you should know the difference between a phrase and a clause.
Phrase is a group of words without a subject and a predicate (or) A group of words without a Finite
verb especially one that forms part of a sentence.
Clause is a group of words with a subject and a predicate.
Kinds of Phrases:
1)
Participle phrase: This phrase begins with a present participle or past participle form of the
verb.
Eg: Seeing the teacher.
2)
Absolute construction: This phrase begins with 'having' followed by the past participle form of
the verb.
Eg: Having gone there.
3)
Prepositional phrase: This phrase begins with a preposition.
Eg: Inspite of, Besides, On account of.
Clauses are of two kinds:
1)
Main clause or Independent clause or principal clause.
2)
Subordinate clause or dependent clause.
9
English
1)
Grammar
Main clause is one which has a subject and predicate and which gives a complete sense. It can
stand by itself as an independent sentence.
He failed in the exams  Main clause
2)
Subordinate clause is one in which though there is a subject and predicate it does not give
complete sense. So it can't stand by itself as an independent sentence. It must be dependent on
main clause.
Though he worked hard - Subordinate Clause.
1.
Simple Sentence: Contains one main clause or a main clause and a phrase.
Eg: Seeing the snake, the baby cried and fainted.
(a phrase + a main clause)
2.
Compound Sentence: Contains two main clauses connected by a conjunction. The conjunctions
are called coordinating conjunctions and they are: and, but, yet, so, or, either …… or, neither....
nor, else.
She passed X class and joined Intermediate.
He worked hard but failed in the examination.
She is old yet she works hard.
It is raining so the match is cancelled.
You must pay the fee or you will not be given admission.
You can take either MPC or BiPC group in Intermediate.
He knows neither Hindi nor Urdu.
Go quickly else you cannot catch the train.
3.
Complex sentence: Contains one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. Types of
subordinate clauses.
1. Noun Clause: It begins with 'that, who, what, where etc. It can be used in the subject place
or object place in a sentence.
Eg: He said that he was innocent.
He said - Main clause.
that he was innocent - Subordinate clause.
I don't remember where he lives.
2. Adjective Clause: It qualifies a noun in the main clause.
Eg: I saw a lion which was dead.
The adjective clauses begin with 'who', whose, which etc.,
He is the student who stood first in the class.
I bought a car whose colour is blue.
10
English
Grammar
3. Adverb clause:
1. Time begins with when, whenever.
He was a boy of four when his father died.
Whenever I go to Hyderabad, I eat biriyani.
2. Place begins with where, wherever.
Wherever you go our network follows you.
Where there is a will there is a way.
3. Reason begins with as, because, since.
As it was raining, I stayed indoors.
He felt worried because he lost his ticket.
4. Condition begins with if, unless.
If you work hard you will get a class.
Unless you go quickly you cannot catch the bus.
5. Concession begins with though, although, even though, even if.
Though he is rich he is greedy.
Although he put in effort it did not bear fruit.
6. Purpose begins with that, So.... that.
We eat that we may live.
He pretended to be innocent so that he could escape punishment.
QUESTION TAGS
A question Tag is a type of question form, which is added to a statement to invite the listener’s
attention to the statement. It is usually used in conversation. It serves the purpose of confirming our
statements.
When a tag is spoken, the voice can go down or up and the meaning of tag depends on the
intonation. A falling intonation indicates that the speaker is sure that the statement is true. Here the
tag is not really a question.
Rules for using Question Tags:
1.
Only the short form "n't" is used in question tag; a comma is added after the statement; the tag
begins with a small letter and there is a question mark at the end of the tag.
2.
An affirmative / positive statement has a negative tag and negative statement has a positive tag.
Eg: 1. He is coming, isn't he ?
2. He is not coming, is he?
3.
A suitable pronoun is used in the tag as its subject according to the number, gender and the
person of the subject.
Eg: 1. Kamala is in the house, isn't she?
2. The children are in the bed room; aren't they?
11
English
4.
Grammar
In the tag as yes/ no question, the verb is shifted to the front.
Eg : you are a nice girl, aren't you?
5.
The "be" forms (are, is, was and were) are repeated to the tag.
Eg : He was here yesterday, wasn't he?
a. In the case of 'am' in the positive statement 'aren't' is used in the tag.
Eg : I am a teacher, aren't 1?(but not amn't 1?)
b. But when "am' is used in the negative statement the tag is 'am 1'
Eg : I am not a magician' am 1?
6.
The appropriate form of "do" is used according to the subject and tense of the statement.
Eg: 1. He became a philosopher, didn't he?
2. Coffee tastes bitter, doesn't it?
3. They come here every day, don't they?
7.
A negative statement with a positive question tag can also be used to ask people for things, or
to ask for help or information.
Eg: 1. You couldn't lend me some money, could you?
2. You don't know where Paul lives, do you?
8.
A positive tag can also be used with a positive statement when the speaker wants to show his /
her reaction to what some one has just said.
9.
With imperative Expression an order or request Modal Auxiliary verbs like will, would can, could
are used in the tag.
Eg: 1. Help me with this bag, could you?
2. Close the door, will you?
10. After a negative imperative, we used will you'
Eg: Don't make any noise, will you? / Do you?
11. After let's we use shall we' to make suggestion
Eg: Let's go for a walk , shall we?
12
English
Grammar
IPE QUESTION PAPERS
I.
Answers are given in the brackets
2003 - MARCH
1. Are you fond in pop music? (of)
2. His Friend took him for hospital, (to)
3. He said that he is young, (was)
4. The four thieves shared the booty between them, (among )
5. The climate of Ooty is better than Chennai. (better than that of)
6. Two Hundred males attended the meeting, (men)
7. She is taking milk daily, (takes)
8. They have lost the way, isn't it? (haven't they)
9. The-book is belonged to me. (belongs)
10. The fact is Known by me. (to)
II.
JUNE - 2002
1. Ravi sat besides me. (beside)
2. Though he is poor but he is honest, (he)
3. The Office works from ten and five, (to)
4. Neither of the two are suitable for the job. (is)
5. He is a good student, does he? (isn't he)
6. I have not worn this dress since two years, (for)
7. They have played a game last week, (played)
8. I ordered for tea. (ordered)
9. Everest is a highest peak in the world, (the)
III.
2002-MARCH
1. The Criminal was hung two days ago. (hanged)
2. Last year I was having a costly camera with me. (had)
3. I saw an one eyed man at the bank, (a)
4. He will write the poem by next week. ( will have written.)
5. There are no less than twenty girls in the class. (fewer than )
6. The boy wrote the exam, isn't it? (didn't the)
7. The book will not only be liked by men but also women, (will be liked not only
8. He said that he will meet me some day. (would )
9. There are five females working in this office, (women)
13
English
Grammar
10. For four days. He did not attend the class, (has not attended)
IV.
2000 - SEPTEMBER
1. He was called as a great man. (a great)
2. If it will rain, Our programme will be cancelled, (it rains)
3. His house is besides the temple, (beside)
4. It is an one rupee coin, (a)
5. Mount Everest is a highest peak in the world, (the)
6. Economics are his favorite subject, (is )
7. They live in Vijayawada for ten years. ( Have lived / have been living)
8. We thought that you can solve the problem, (could)
9. I am believing you. (believe)
10. One of the boys have good knowledge of English, (has)
V.
2000 - MARCH
1. Smita bought five dozens oranges, (dozen)
2. Two hundred males attended the meeting.(men)
3. Mount Everest is the most highest peak in the world, (highest)
4. She is taking milk daily, (takes)
5. They have left for Bombay yesterday, (left)
6. They have lost the way, isn't it? (haven't they )
7. He sat besides me (beside)
8. Gopal is angry on his brother. (With)
9. I ordered for coffee. (Ordered)
10. I agree with your proposal. (to)
VI.
1999 - NOVEMBER
1. One should respect his teachers, (one's)
2. When have you come? (did)
3. He is awaiting for the orders, (waiting for)
4. Padma is elder than Latha. (older)
5. The Ministers are responsible for the parliament, (to)
6. The teacher let the boys to go. (boys go)
7. You will get a first class, if you will work hard. (Work)
8. Much water has overflow under the bridge. (Overflowed)
9. More you speak, the less I understand. (The more)
10. This is the best of the two books, (better)
14
English
VII.
Grammar
1999 - MARCH
1. He was tired and so he lied on the ground, (lay)
2. He is richer and clever, (rich)
3. He wrote the document with ink, (in)
4. Neither of two boys were present, (was)
5. She bought two soaps, (two pieces of soap)
6. What kind of a picture do you like? ( kind of)
7. I am not forgetting his help, (do not forget)
8. The climate of Guntur is hotter than Vizag. (hotter than that of)
9. He was absent to his classes yesterday, (absent his)
10. If it will rain, the match will be cancelled. (It rains)
VIII.
1999 – INSTANT
1. This book is belonging to him. (belongs)
2. The house is built by brick (with)
3. He did not understand the question. Isn't it? (did he)
4. Being a rainy day, we took holiday, (it being ) or As it was a rainy day, we took holiday.
5. The teacher will punish you, if you will repeat the mistake, (you repeat)
6. The matter is known by her. (to)
7. Joseph goes to the church daily, (to church)
8. There was a certain proud in his manner, (pride)
9. They entered into the room, (entered)
10. Science comprises of many branches of learning, (comprises many)
IX.
1998 - NOVEMBER
1. He has a great thirst of knowledge, (for)
2. The general with all his soldiers were killed, (was)
3. I am working here for the last five years, (have been)
4. He is suffering from fever since Sunday, (has been)
5. He said that he is reading English, (was)
6. Neither of two are suitable for the job. (is)
7. The photographer ceased to listen me. (to listen to me)
8. I have completed my work long back, (completed)
9. None coming, he returned back to his seat, (returned)
10. I saw a man who is thirsty, (was)
15
English
X.
Grammar
1998- MARCH
1. We discuss about grammar, (discuss)
2. One of the book is interesting, (one of the books )
3. Where you are going ? (are you)
4. He is not a dancer, isn't it ? (is he)
5. As I was ill, so I could not go. (i)
6. Both Ramu as well as Kumar came to my house, (and)
7. He said that he is reading Telugu. (was)
8. He asked me that I was there, (why)
9. Neither of the boys are clever, (is)
10. I am having a book, (have)
XI.
1997 - INSTANT
1. I and my wife went to a movie last night, (my wife and I)
2. She is my cousin sister, (cousin)
3. Congratulate him for his success, (on)
4. I am knowing all about you. (know)
5. He reads novels to pass away the time, (to pass)
6. You will get first class if you will work hard, (work)
7. I have lived with it since 40 years, (for)
8. The man with two children, were seen boarding the bus.(was)
9. She is wanting her friend now. (wants)
10. You can enter into my house with out my permission, (enter)
XII.
1997 - OCTOBER
1. She is having a car. (has)
2. Economics are his favourite subject, (is)
3. The boy is very fond for sweets, (of)
4. I have seen him a year ago. (saw)
5. We thought that you can solve the problem, (could)
6. You are a doctor, isn't it ?'(aren't you )
7. John is good in English, (good at)
8. I prayed God for help. (to God)
9. You are Younger than me. (i)
10. Kamala is the tallest of two sister. (the teller)
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Grammar
XIII.
1997- MAY
1. Measles have broken out in our area, (has)
2. It is my friend's sharath's car. (friend)
3. Mount Everest is the most highest peak, (highest)
4. It is an one rupee coin, (a)
5. He lives in Vijayawada for 5 years, (has been living)
6. He went to market, is he ? (didn’t he )
7. He sat besides me. (beside)
8. The book will not only be liked by men but also women, (will be liked not only)
9. We are now knowing all the facts about him. (now know)
10. The conductor comes and took the fares, (came)
XIV.
1996 - APRIL
1. I was knowing it all along, (knew)
2. If it will rain the match will be cancelled. (it rains)
3. Neither of two are suitable for the job. (is)
4. He was called as a great man. (called a)
5. He did not notice that the motor is coming, (was)
6. Our ancestors worshipped the Nature. (Nature)
7. Reddy and myself may attend the function. (I)
8. Everest is a highest peak in the world.(the)
9. Neither he nor I has money to spend for this, (have)
10. My house is besides the temple. (Beside)
PARTS OF SPEECH
Language is a means of communication of speech. Our speech consists of certain elements. They are
called the parts of speech. We speak in sentences. Sentences are made up of words; and these
words are called the "parts of speech" In English words are divided into 8 classes according to their
use and the work they do in a sentence. These word classes are called "Parts of speech" Parts of
speech. are eight in number namely
1.
1. Noun
2. Pronoun
3. Adjective
4. Verb
5. Adverb
6. Preposition
7. Conjunction
8. Interjection
The Noun: The Noun is a naming word. It is name of a person, place, animal or thing /quality,
activity, concept or condition.
Eg.:
1. The car makes a lot of noise.
2. Padma took the dog to the park.
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2.
Grammar
3. Gold is a precious metal
4. Ignorance is bliss.
5. Honesty is the best policy.
6. The mob was furious.
7. He always speaks the truth.
8. Never tell a lie
9. Cleanliness is next to godliness.
10. Solmon was famous for his wisdom.
Pronoun: A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.
E.g.:
1. He gave it to Sita
2. She got it framed.
3. This is my hat.
4. That is your coat.
5. I will do it myself
6. You yourself can explain.
7. That is her pen.
8. One must not praise oneself.
9. All were involved in the accident.
10. What did you say?
Each, either, neither, everyone, everybody are pronouns.
3.
Adjective : An adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun.
Eg:
1. She looked calm.
2. The sky is blue.
3. He drank a little water.
4. We don't have much time.
5. This has no meaning.
6. I couldn't get any sugar.
7. He has to pay the whole amount.
8. I want some more books.
9. Only a few people came to meeting.
10. Mind your own business.
11. I saw it with my own eyes.
12. These grapes are sour.
13. Either side may win.
14. Every boy was given a uniform.
15. He can write either hand.
Note : Either, neither, each, every and none are singulars.
4.
Verb: Verb is a word it describes the action or condition of the subject that is what the subject
does, or what happens to it or what it is.
Eg.:
5.
1. She is a doctor.(being)
2. They have a car. (Possessing)
3. He sleeps. (Doing)
4. Iron and copper are useful metals.
5. The bell rangs loudly.
6. Speak the truth.
7. She dances well.
8. I worked hard.
9. She walked fast.
10. She wrote a letter.
Adverb: An adverb, may be defined as a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another /
adverb.
E.g :
1. Copy this out carefully.
2. These shoes are too big for me.
3. He ran very fast.
4. He spoke quite eloquently.
5. He came very late.
6. You must get up early.
7. He will soon return.
8. He lives here.
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6.
9. I want to go there.
10. They all went away.
11. I found him nowhere.
12. You are always welcome.
13. He frequently comes late.
14. He fought bravely.
15. This is good enough
16. He is certainly right.
Preposition: The preposition is a word, which is usually placed before a noun or pronoun to
show its relation with some other word or words in the sentence.
E.g.:
7.
Grammar
1. I put it in the box.
2. The monkey climbed up the tree.
3. There is no sugar in the pot.
4. He is coming by plane.
5. He is very angry with you.
6. What are you talking about?
7. Whom are you thinking of?
8. I ran across the road.
9. Wait till tomorrow.
10. He stayed for a month.
Conjunction: A conjunction may be defined as a word used together words, phrases or clauses.
Eg.
1. He works hard to earn his bread and better.
2. To fight or give up - that is what we have to decide.
3. Though I like him, I cannot excuse his offence.
4. A fool and his money are soon parted.
5. Ram as well as Shyam played in the match.
6. That is as far as I can go.
7. He wore a coat in order that he might not catch cold.
8. We started early so that we might not miss the show.
9. As soon as I finish this, I shall begin another.
10. It looks as though it is going to rain.
8.
Interjection: An interjection may be defined as a word which expresses a sudden feeling
(emotion, joy, surprise, sorrow, fear, anger etc.,) and has no grammatical connection with the
rest of the sentence.
E.g:
1. Hurrah! We have won the match.
2. Hello What brings you here.
3. Oh! That's terrible.
4. Alas! He is dead.
5. Ah! Have they gone.
6. Hush! Don't make, a noise.
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Grammar
1. KINDS OF NOUNS
1.
Proper Noun: A proper noun is the name of a particular person or place.
Eg: Gopal is the name of a particular person.
Mumbai is the name of a particular place.
2.
Common Noun: A common noun is a name which is common to any and every person or thing
of the same kind.
Eg: King, man, city
3.
Collective Noun: A collective noun is the name given to a number of persons or things grouped
together as one.
Eg: The crowd was very big.
The English army won the day.
A fleet of fifty ships left the harbour.
4.
Material Noun: A material noun denotes the matter or substance of which things are made
Eg: gold, glass, cotton, stone.
5.
Abstract Noun: An abstract noun is the name of some quality, state or action that is imagined or
which cannot be seen.
Eg: Quality- cleverness, goodness, wisdom.
State - poverty, youth, death
Action - theft, movement, revenge.
2. KINDS OF PRONOUNS
1.
Personal Pronouns: Personal pronouns are those which stand for the person speaking, spoken
to, or spoken of. There are 3 kinds of personal pronouns.
First person : Eg: I, we, my, me etc.,
Second person : Eg: thou, you, your
Third person : Eg: he, she, it, they
2.
Demonstrative Pronouns: A Demonstrative pronoun is one that points to some person or thing
or stands for some noun already referred to.
Eg: This is a thick sheet of paper.
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English
Grammar
That is the palace.
These are plucked by labourers.
Those are men - servants.
3.
Relative Pronouns: A Relative pronoun joins sentences and does the work of a conjunction
Eg: He has a son who is called Gopal.
The rags are passed through a machine, which beats the dust out of them.
The river turns the mill that grinds the corn.
4.
Interrogative Pronouns: The Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions.
Eg: Who won the match?
What is a run?
Which is our school team?
Who gave you the book?
5.
Reflexive Pronouns: The Reflexive pronouns show that the action done by the subject turns
back upon the subject.
Eg: The king prepared himself for his future duties.
Streams and rivers empty themselves into the ocean.
Other examples: myself, yourself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves.
6.
Indefinite Pronouns: The Indefinite pronouns refer to persons or things in a general way but do
not refer to any person or thing in particular.
Eg: All must show, their tickets at the gate.
Anyone can do this if he tries.
Someone chased the robber.
7.
Distributive Pronouns: A Distributive pronoun shows that things are taken one at a time.
Eg: Each of the boys has taken his books.
Neither or these boys has done it.
Either of the roads leads to the station.
8.
Possessive Pronouns: The Possessive pronouns are used without the noun, and can come either
as subjects, objects or complements.
Eg: This pony is mine.
This country is ours.
That pen is yours
That book is his.
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English
Grammar
That house is theirs.
9.
Reciprocal Pronouns: Reciprocal pronouns denote mutual action.
Eg: The two men hated each other
The girls helped one another.
3. KINDS OF VERBS
Verbs are of two kinds :
a)
Transitive verbs
b) Intransitive verbs
a)
Transitive verb: A transitive verb takes an object after it.
Eg: The crab played a trick on the crane.
b)
Intransitive Verb: An intransitive verb does not take an object after it.
Eg: The man cried.
4. KINDS OF ADJECTIVES
a)
Adjectives of Quality: Adjectives tell us about the kind or the quality of a thing or a number of
things.
Eg: Somaiah is a lazy person.
She has a black horse.
The Arabic language is difficult to learn.
b)
Adjectives of Quantity: Adjectives tell us about the quantity or answer the questions 'how
much', or 'how many'?
Eg: I want some money.
Many years ago there was no paper at all.
He has a few friends in his village,
c)
Adjectives of Number: Adjectives of Number show how many persons or things are meant or in
what order they come.
Eg: Three boys like to work hard.
This is the first edition of this book.
Thousand rupees is not a big amount.
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d)
Grammar
Demonstrative Adjectives: Demonstrative Adjectives point out which person or thing is referred
to.
Eg: This man is braver than Gopi.
Such men are dangerous.
That boy is intelligent.
e)
Distributive Adjectives: Distributive Adjective refers to persons or things taking one at a time.
Eg: Each man has a vote.
Every day has its task.
Either pen will do.
f)
Interrogative Adjectives: Interrogative Adjectives are used with nouns to ask questions.
Eg: Which road links to the main road?
What kind of man is he?
g)
Emphasizing Adjectives: Emphasizing Adjectives lay stress on particular person or things.
Eg: I saw it with my own eyes.
This is the very man who killed the snake.
5. KINDS OF ADVERBS
a)
Adverbs of Manner: Telling How or in What manner.
Eg: He fought bravely.
The boy laughs loudly.
She walked slowly.
b)
Adverbs of Place: Telling 'where'
Eg: She was sitting here.
My mother is out.
Doctor is in. He ran away. '
c)
Adverbs of Time: Telling 'when’.
Eg: He met her yesterday.
He comes here daily.
She visits America frequently.
They lived there for two years.
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d)
Grammar
Adverbs of Number: Telling 'how often'
Eg: He is seldom seen.
She is always late.
I met her thrice.
They shouted again and again.
6. KINDS OF PREPOSITIONS
1.
Simple Prepositions:
Eg: in, on, into, out, from, for, at till, to , up, with, etc, above, below, under, beyond.
2.
Phrase Prepositions:
Eg: According to, along with, because of, by virtue of, inspite of, in place of, with a view to.
3.
Participle Prepositions:
Eg: Barring, concerning, during, respecting, regarding.
7. KINDS OF CONJUNCTIONS
1.
Coordinating Conjunction: When two or more statements or simple sentences are joined by a
conjunction, it is called a coordinate conjunction.
Eg: And, but, also, either-or, neither-nor, yet, or.
2.
Subordinating conjunction: These conjunctions joins adjectives, nouns or adverbial clauses in
complex sentences.
Eg: As, after, because, that, although, till, before, why, when, where, if,
The same word can be used as different parts of speech.
Try to identify the part of speech of the word ‘round’ in each of the following sentences.
a) The racing car rounded the corner at great speed.
b) The earth is like a round ball
c) I’m bored. Let’s play a round of cards.
d) The merry – go – round went round and round.
e) The cat vanished round the corner.
Ans:
1 – Verb
2 – Adjective.
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