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AP Biology
Mr. Wallis
Reading Guide: Campbell Chapter 41
Name:
due date:
Chapter 41: Animal Nutrition
NUTRITION REQUIREMENTS
Animals are heterotrophs that require food for fuel, carbon skeletons, and essential nutrients
What three things does a nutritionally adequate diet satisfy?
Homeostatic mechanisms manage an animal’s fuel
Explain how fuels can be converted to chemical energy for the animal.
What are basal energy requirements?
What is the difference between overnourishment and undernourishment?
Explain the homeostatic regulation of cellular fuel. (figure 41.1)
An animal’s diet must supply essential nutrients and carbon skeletons for biosynthesis
Define:
 Essential elements:

Essential amino acids:

Essential fatty acids:

Vitamins:

Minerals:
FOOD TYPES AND FEEDING MECHANISMS
Most animals are opportunistic feeders
Define:
 Carnivores:

Herbivores:

Omnivores:
page 1
Diverse feeding adaptations have evolved among animals
 Suspension feeders:

Substrate feeders:

Fluid feeders:

Bulk feeders:
OVERVIEW OF FOOD PROCESSING
The four main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination
Define:
 Ingestion

Digestion:

Absorption:

Elimination:

Enzymatic Hydrolysis:
Digestion occurs in specialized compartments
Intracellular Digestion
Explain what intracellular digestion is and how it works?
Extracellular Digestion
What is extracellular digestion?
What is the difference between a gastrovascular cavity and a complete digestive tract? (use examples)
THE MAMMALIAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Define:
 Peristalsis:

Sphincters:

Salivary glands:

Pancreas:

Liver:

Gallbladder:
Chapter 41 Reading Guide
page 2
The oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus initiate food processing
The Oral Cavity
What occurs when food enters the oral cavity?
The Pharynx
What is the epiglottis?
The Esophagus
What the purpose of the esophagus?
How does the esophagus perform its job?
The stomach stores food and performs preliminary digestion
Define:
 Stomach:

Gastric juice:

Pepsin:

Acid chyme:
The small intestine is the major organ of digestion and absorption
What is the role of the small intestine?
What is the duodenum?
Where is bile produced? What is its purpose?
Enzymatic Action in the Small Intestine
Carbohydrate Digestion:
Explain what elements are involved in carbohydrate digestion
Protein Digestion:
Explain what elements are involved in protein digestion.
Nucleic Acid Digestion:
Explain what elements are involved in nucleic acid digestion
Fat Digestion:
Explain what elements are involved in fat digestion
Absorption of Nutrients
What are villi and microvilli?
Chapter 41 Reading Guide
page 3
What is their purpose?
What is absorption?
How does it occur across the epithelial lining of the small intestine?
Hormones help regulate digestion
What is a hormone???
What hormones aid in digestion?
Reclaiming water is a major function of the large intestine
Define:
 Colon:

Appendix:

Rectum:
EVOLTUIONARY ADAPTATIONS OF VERTEBRATE DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS
Structural adaptations of the digestive system are often associated with diet
Explain the differences in dental structure between a carnivore, herbivore, and omnivore.
Symbiotic microorganisms help nourish many vertebrates
What does –sym mean?
What does –biotic refer to?
What are microorganisms?
Why do symbiotic microorganisms give a cow the ability to eat newspaper?????? (Extra credit)
Chapter 41 Reading Guide
page 4
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