II. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVE 2 ► LEARNING Describe the interpersonal communication process. (Text pages 57-63) A. Because managers spend so much time with employees, effective communication is critical. 1. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION is an interactive process between individuals that involves sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages. 2. Steps in the interpersonal communication process: a. An event or condition generates information. b. The desire to share information creates the need to communicate. c. The sender then creates a message and communicates it. d. The receiver perceives and interprets the message and creates a reply. e. The reply can generate a response by the sender. 3. Many factors interfere with this process. TEXT FIGURE 3.2 Interpersonal Communication Process (Text page 57) POWERPOINT 3-5 Interpersonal Communication (Refers to text page 57) ETHICAL MANAGEMENT (Text page 58) You have worked at the same company with your best friend for the last ten years. In fact, he told you about the job and got you the interview. He works in the marketing department and is up for a promotion to marketing director – a position that he has been wanting for a long time. You work in sales, and on your weekly conference call the new marketing director, someone recruited from outside the company, joins you. Your boss explains that although the formal announcement hasn’t been made yet, the company felt it was important to get the new director up to speed as quickly as possible. He will be joining the company in two weeks, after completing his two-week notice with his current employer. Should you tell your friend what happened? Sharing information among friends on the job has no formal boundaries. Therefore, all participating parties enter this exercise at their own risk. Being privy to important information can happen. Using this information has to be done carefully and can have consequences. Telling a friend that a job that he wanted has already been filled is using unannounced information. Generally speaking, it should be kept under wraps until a formal announcement is made. However, the culture of the company is another variable. Their practices on these matters might be very informal. A better decision might be to encourage your friend to ask his direct boss for an update on the hiring of the new marketing director position, thus taking the pressure off you to convey this information. If the boss does not handle the request for a hiring update in an informative and professional way, it might suggest that working for the company might need closer viewing. B. Conflicting or Inappropriate Assumptions 1. Without feedback, the sender may assume communication is flowing smoothly when it isn’t. 2. Assumptions can interfere with interpretation of meaning. C. SEMANTICS is the science or study of the meanings of words and symbols. 1. A word may mean very different things to different people. 2. Problems involved in semantics a. Some words and phrases have multiple interpretations. b. Groups of people in specific situations often develop their own technical language. 3. Words are the most common form of interpersonal communication. D. PERCEPTION deals with the mental and sensory processes an individual uses in interpreting information received. 1. Perception begins when the sense organs receive a stimulus, which is the information received. 2. The sense organs respond to, shape, and organize the information received. 3. The brain further organizes the POWERPOINT 3-6 Conflicting or Inappropriate Assumptions (Refers to text page 58) TEXT FIGURE 3.3 Interpretations of The Word “Fix” (Text page 59) POWERPOINT 3-7 Semantics (Refers to text page 58) CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISE 3-1 Multiple Meanings of Words Many words in the English language have multiple meanings. This exercise asks students to identify all the meanings of the word “run.” See complete exercise on page 3.Error! Bookmark not defined. of this manual. POWERPOINT 3-8 Perception and Emotions (Refers to text pages 59-60) CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISE 3-2 4. 5. information, resulting in perception. Different people perceive the same information differently. Selective perception often distorts the intended message. PROGRESS CHECK QUESTIONS (Text page 59) 1. What is communication? 2. Define interpersonal communication. 3. What is semantics? 4. What is perception, and what role does it play in communication? Gender-Neutral Language Most people now refer to “businessmen” as “business people” or “sales associate.” This exercise lets students practice identifying gender neutral substitutes for twelve common words. See complete exercise on page 3.Error! Bookmark not defined. of this manual. E. Emotions Either Preceding or During Communication 1. Emotions affect our disposition to send and receive communication. 2. Managers need good communication skills to manage the emotional, as well as the physical, environment. III. LEARNING TO COMMUNICATE A. Managers communicate both in writing and verbally. B. Understanding the Audience 1. To communicate effectively, managers need to identify their audience. 2. The text uses the example of a hotel manager communicating with employees and with higher management. C. Developing good listening skills is one of the most important management skills. 1. Active listening involves absorbing what another person is saying and responding to the person’s concerns. 2. Tests show that most people do not TEXT REFERENCE Study Skills Box: Keys to Good Study Habits Gives students suggestions for improving their study skills. (Box in text on page 62.) An additional exercise and discussion is available in this chapter on page 3.Error! Bookmark not defined.Error! Reference source not found.Error! Reference source not found.. POWERPOINT 3-9 Learning To Communicate (Refers to text pages 60-61) CRITICAL THINKING EXERCISE 3-3 Rate Your Listening Skills listen actively. 3. To improve communication effectiveness managers need to learn to be active listeners. 4. Steps in active listening: a. Identify the speaker’s purpose. b. Identify the speaker’s main ideas. c. Note the speaker’s tone as well as his or her body language. d. Respond to the speaker with appropriate comments, questions, and body language. D. Feedback 1. Effective communication is a two-way process. 2. Feedback, the flow from the receiver back to the sender, lets the sender know whether the receiver received the message and vice versa. E. Understanding the Importance of Nonverbal Communication 1. Paralanguage includes the pitch, tempo, loudness, and hesitations in verbal communication. 2. Gestures, body posture, and eye contact communicate information. 3. Nonverbal communication supplements verbal communication and can change its meaning. This short quiz lets students assess how good their listening skills actually are. See complete exercise on page 3.Error! Bookmark not defined. of this manual. TEXT FIGURE 3.4 Are you a Good Listener? (Text page 61) POWERPOINT 3-10 Developing Good Listening Skills (Refers to text pages 61-62) TEXT FIGURE 3.5 Using Active Listening (Text page 61) POWERPOINT 3-11 Feedback (Refers to text pages 62-63) LECTURE LINK 3-1 Types of Nonverbal Communication As much as 93% of emotional meaning is communicated nonverbally. Seven nonverbal communication types are discussed. See complete lecture link on page 3.Error! Bookmark not defined. of this manual.