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II. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
OBJECTIVE 2
► LEARNING
Describe the interpersonal communication process.
(Text pages 57-63)
A. Because managers spend so much time
with employees, effective communication
is critical.
1. INTERPERSONAL
COMMUNICATION is an interactive
process
between individuals that involves
sending and receiving verbal and
nonverbal messages.
2. Steps in the interpersonal
communication process:
a. An event or condition generates
information.
b. The desire to share information
creates the need to communicate.
c. The sender then creates a
message and communicates it.
d. The receiver perceives and
interprets the message and
creates a reply.
e. The reply can generate a
response by the sender.
3. Many factors interfere with this
process.
TEXT FIGURE 3.2
Interpersonal
Communication Process
(Text page 57)
POWERPOINT 3-5
Interpersonal
Communication
(Refers to text page 57)
ETHICAL MANAGEMENT (Text page 58)
You have worked at the same company with your best friend for the last ten years. In fact, he
told you about the job and got you the interview. He works in the marketing department and is up for a
promotion to marketing director – a position that he has been wanting for a long time. You work in
sales, and on your weekly conference call the new marketing director, someone recruited from outside
the company, joins you. Your boss explains that although the formal announcement hasn’t been made
yet, the company felt it was important to get the new director up to speed as quickly as possible. He will
be joining the company in two weeks, after completing his two-week notice with his current employer.
Should you tell your friend what happened?
Sharing information among friends on the job has no formal boundaries. Therefore, all
participating parties enter this exercise at their own risk. Being privy to important information can
happen. Using this information has to be done carefully and can have consequences. Telling a friend that
a job that he wanted has already been filled is using unannounced information. Generally speaking, it
should be kept under wraps until a formal announcement is made. However, the culture of the company
is another variable. Their practices on these matters might be very informal. A better decision might be
to encourage your friend to ask his direct boss for an update on the hiring of the new marketing director
position, thus taking the pressure off you to convey this information. If the boss does not handle the
request for a hiring update in an informative and professional way, it might suggest that working for the
company might need closer viewing.
B. Conflicting or Inappropriate
Assumptions
1. Without feedback, the sender may
assume communication is flowing
smoothly when it isn’t.
2. Assumptions can interfere with
interpretation of meaning.
C. SEMANTICS is the science or study of the
meanings of words and symbols.
1. A word may mean very different things
to different people.
2. Problems involved in semantics
a. Some words and phrases have
multiple interpretations.
b. Groups of people in specific
situations often develop their own
technical language.
3. Words are the most common form of
interpersonal communication.
D. PERCEPTION deals with the mental and
sensory processes an individual uses in
interpreting information received.
1. Perception begins when the sense
organs receive a stimulus, which is the
information received.
2. The sense organs respond to, shape,
and organize the information received.
3. The brain further organizes the
POWERPOINT 3-6
Conflicting or
Inappropriate Assumptions
(Refers to text page 58)
TEXT FIGURE 3.3
Interpretations of The
Word “Fix” (Text page 59)
POWERPOINT 3-7
Semantics
(Refers to text page 58)
CRITICAL THINKING
EXERCISE 3-1
Multiple Meanings of
Words
Many words in the English
language have multiple
meanings. This exercise asks
students to identify all the
meanings of the word “run.”
See complete exercise on
page 3.Error! Bookmark
not defined. of this manual.
POWERPOINT 3-8
Perception and Emotions
(Refers to text pages 59-60)
CRITICAL THINKING
EXERCISE 3-2
4.
5.
information, resulting in perception.
Different people perceive the same
information differently.
Selective perception often distorts the
intended message.
PROGRESS CHECK QUESTIONS (Text page 59)
1.
What is communication?
2.
Define interpersonal communication.
3.
What is semantics?
4.
What is perception, and what role does it play in
communication?
Gender-Neutral Language
Most people now refer to
“businessmen” as “business
people” or “sales associate.”
This exercise lets students
practice identifying gender
neutral substitutes for twelve
common words. See
complete exercise on page
3.Error! Bookmark not
defined. of this manual.
E. Emotions Either Preceding or During
Communication
1. Emotions affect our disposition to send
and receive communication.
2. Managers need good communication
skills to manage the emotional, as well
as the physical, environment.
III. LEARNING TO COMMUNICATE
A. Managers communicate both in writing and
verbally.
B. Understanding the Audience
1. To communicate effectively, managers
need to identify their audience.
2. The text uses the example of a hotel
manager communicating with
employees and with higher
management.
C. Developing good listening skills is one
of the most important management skills.
1. Active listening involves absorbing
what another person is saying and
responding to the person’s concerns.
2. Tests show that most people do not
TEXT REFERENCE
Study Skills Box: Keys to
Good Study Habits
Gives students suggestions
for improving their study
skills. (Box in text on page
62.) An additional exercise
and discussion is available in
this chapter on page 3.Error!
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found..
POWERPOINT 3-9
Learning To Communicate
(Refers to text pages 60-61)
CRITICAL THINKING
EXERCISE 3-3
Rate Your Listening Skills
listen actively.
3. To improve communication
effectiveness managers need to learn
to be
active listeners.
4. Steps in active listening:
a. Identify the speaker’s purpose.
b. Identify the speaker’s main ideas.
c. Note the speaker’s tone as well as
his or her body language.
d. Respond to the speaker with
appropriate comments, questions,
and body language.
D. Feedback
1. Effective communication is a two-way
process.
2. Feedback, the flow from the receiver
back to the sender, lets the sender
know whether the receiver received
the message and vice versa.
E. Understanding the Importance of
Nonverbal Communication
1. Paralanguage includes the pitch,
tempo, loudness, and hesitations in
verbal communication.
2. Gestures, body posture, and eye
contact communicate information.
3. Nonverbal communication
supplements verbal communication
and can change its meaning.
This short quiz lets students
assess how good their
listening skills actually are.
See complete exercise on
page 3.Error! Bookmark
not defined. of this manual.
TEXT FIGURE 3.4
Are you a Good Listener?
(Text page 61)
POWERPOINT 3-10
Developing Good Listening
Skills
(Refers to text pages 61-62)
TEXT FIGURE 3.5
Using Active Listening
(Text page 61)
POWERPOINT 3-11
Feedback
(Refers to text pages 62-63)
LECTURE LINK 3-1
Types of Nonverbal
Communication
As much as 93% of
emotional meaning is
communicated nonverbally.
Seven nonverbal
communication types are
discussed. See complete
lecture link on page 3.Error!
Bookmark not defined. of
this manual.