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Sumreen Siddiqui A2 Media Discuss 2 or more media texts that you would define as ‘post-modern’ and explain why you would give them this label. Refer to at least 2 media forms in your answer. (50) Postmodernism has been very difficult to define, its reaction to the modernism era has allowed it to represent itself through key conventions. As ‘modern’ originally refers to something related to the present. It is used in critical theory to analyse different works of medium. Postmodernism was the basis of the attempt to describe a condition, or a state of being or something concerned with changes to institutions and conditions as post modernity. The ‘Mighty Boosh’ is an example of a post-modern sitcom. In the episode ‘The Nightmare of Milky Joe’ we are presented with many examples of postmodernism and are able to relate them to critical theorists. Jean Francois- Lyotard, a famous postmodern critic who wrote ‘The Postmodern Condition’ criticised that ‘there is an increasing scepticism towards metanarratives. Metanarratives can be grand narratives where a story encompasses and explains another story; this could then refer to the postmodern convention of intertextuality. This is demonstrated within the extract as main character Vince takes his ‘Kings of Leon’ CD with him, which he also uses as a mirror. This can allow us to link Jean Baudrillard’s theory of hyper reality that may demonstrate hyper-consciousness as characters have blurred boundaries between what is real and what is fiction; and narcissism as some characters may prefer a simulated image of themselves created through branding rather than the reality of themselves. A narcissistic individual is someone who has a fascination with oneself; excessive self-love; vanity. This theory can also be associated with the Mighty Boosh as ‘Howard’ says ‘I’m the writer, I should survive’ as hyper-consciousness is used. As the whole episode forms into a fantasy for Vince and Howard as they feel they are stranded on an island, therefore the quote above is a representation of hyper reality. Narcissism has been portrayed many times in this extract. Vince’s physical appearance presents him to prefer himself in a simulated version of himself, his concern about his hair and others appearance. For example, Vince cuts the Captains hair because through his perception the Captains hair looks bad. Another example of this would be when Vince says to Howard ‘Your leaves are out of fashion’. This therefore demonstrates narcissism as Vince comments on Howard’s appearance in terms of fashion, due to this statement Howard may feel threatened and unhappy towards his dress style. The satirical imitation of the moon may also connote conventions of hyper reality as in reality a moon cannot speak, through the diegetic sound; the dialogue, the moon thinks its ‘beautiful’. Vince’s 1970’s clothing celebrates the 1970’s and its glory as his costume is very nostalgic in terms of his red satin shirt that can represent danger, love. The theme of danger is used in the postmodern sitcom as Vince and Howard are stranded on a desert island. His big hair and metallic boots also conform to the 1970’s. When the song ‘isolation is performed by Howard, the use of mise-en-scene represents it as parody, where Howard plays the flute and through his facial expressions we can link that ‘Precious’ who was killed by Howard is influenced in ‘isolation’. The music video – ‘We Made You’ by Eminem is a great example of a postmodern text as it consists of many key conventions. Referring to Lyotard’s theory of metanarratives as intertextuality, we can identify many intertextual references. The music video begins with Eminem: ‘Jessica Simpson sing the chorus’ the lyrics correlate with the visuals as ‘Jessica Simpson’ is portrayed. There are many other intertextual references: Kim Kardashian, Britney Spears, 50-cent, Elvis, Amy Winehouse, Dr Dre, Star Trek and Guitar hero. All of Sumreen Siddiqui A2 Media these celebrities are presented with the lyrics correlating with the visuals this is a convention of Goodwin’s theory of music video as well as the use of parody (a satirical imitation of a text) with the intertextual reference with most of the celebrities allows us to label this video as postmodern. Eminem’s reference to Elvis Presley can be seen as nostalgic and the visual representations of many of the celebrities may seem narcissistic e.g. Kim Kardashian’s physical appearance imitated in a voyeuristic manner. We can also apply Gilles Deleuzes theory as Eclecticism and Bricolage (where a text consists of a variety of influences, techniques and contributions) can arise from his theory the Rhizomatic thought where rhizomes are molds, fungi, moss and there is no central ‘trunk’ or ‘core’ compared to his Aboreal thought of structure. There is no hierarchy as each part is of equal status to every other as a ‘body without organs’ does have organs. This can therefore be interpreted to Eminem’s postmodern music video with the use of Star Trek, Guitar hero and Transformers as they are very random. I would give both texts a postmodern label as they both present many key conventions of postmodernism justified through important critic’s theories e.g. Lyotards and Baudrillards theories of ‘The Postmodern Condition, Hypperreality and Simulation’.