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Transcript
Film and Literature
Mrs. McKenna
PVHS
Film Language, Terminology and Concepts
As we define and discuss each element in class, please enter the
definition and any other pertinent information in the appropriate spaces.
Film Professionals and industry terms:
Director:
Cinematographer (also known as the DP or Director of
photography):
Screenwriter:
Editor:
Gaffer:
Producer:
CGI:
Composing the Shot (Shot Composition)
Frame:
SHOT:
Sequence:
Camera Distances
Establishing shot/extreme long shot
Long shot
Medium long shot
Medium shot
Medium close-up
Close up
Extreme close-up
CAMERA ANGLES
HIGH ANGLE
LOW ANGLE
CANTED OR DUTCH ANGLE
STRAIGHT ON SHOT
PERSISTANCE OF VISION
THE ILLUSION OF MOVEMENT
CAMERA MOVEMENT
PAN
TILT
TRACK OR DOLLY
ZOOM
CRANE OR BOOM
HAND-HELD CAMERA
Steadicam
MISE-EN-SCENE:
COMPOSED OF:
 Setting - SET DESIGN (THE SPACE,
PROPS, ETC.)
 Figure - CHARACTER MOVEMENT AND
Behavior, costume, makeup, etc.
 Shot composition (depth, negative
space, tight v. loose frame, etc.)
 LIGHTING
o FRONT LIGHTING
o BACK LIGHTING
o SIDE LIGHTING
o UNDER LIGHTING
o TOP LIGHTING
o HOLLYWOOD 3-POINT LIGHTING

KEY LIGHT

FILL LIGHT

BACK LIGHT
CONSTRUCTING NARRATIVE, STORY AND SEQUENCE
Screenplay:
Genre:
Editing:
EDITING TRANSISTIONS
Cut:
Fade out / fade in:
Dissolve:
Editing rhythms
Normal take:
Long take:
Short take:
Continuity editing
montage sequence:
Match-on-action:
Jump cut:
180 degree rule:
parallel editing:
FOCALIZATION
PERSPECTIVE AND POINT-OF-VIEW
Focalization – perspective from which the shots are taken,
similar to point-of-view in literature
There are three different types of focalization used in
film. They are:
 Point-of-view focalization
 neutral focalization
 authorial focalization
POINT-OF-VIEW FOCALIZATION: similar to first person pointof-view in literature, the viewer sees and experiences what
a character sees and experiences
POV Focalization is usually achieved using
the following sequence of shots:


Establishing shot – a shot of the character looking at
something
Eye-line match – a shot of what the character sees
from his/her perspective; called a subjective camera

Reaction shot – character’s reaction to what he/she
just saw
Neutral focalization: The camera is always
objective, there is no subjective shot nor
cuts in editing.
Authorial focalization: the author or
director provides a shot that gives the
viewer information the characters do not
know. This is similar to dramatic irony in
literature
FILM SOUND
Diegetic sound –
Nondiegetic sound –
Sound Editing and Mixing:
Labor intensive process of editing and mixing that combines
dialogue and sound recorded on location with effects that
are added during post-production




On-set sound handled by “production sound mixer”
Sound effects are created by the “sound designer”
“Foley process” sound artists add sound effects that
synchronize with on-screen sound (footsteps, doors
closing, etc.)
Re-Recording Mix – final stage of sound editing where
all aural components (dialogue, effects, music) are
combined and adjusted to produce a soundtrack