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COMMUNICATION DISORDERS AND LITERACY Eastern New Mexico University SPED 540 Communication and Learning • • • • • Reading Writing Gesturing Listening Speaking What is a Communication Disorder? A communication disorder is an impairment in the ability to receive, send, process, and comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal and graphic symbol systems (American SpeechLanguage-Hearing Association, 1997-2013). Communication Disorders “Communication disorders include a child's ability to hold meaningful conversations, understand others, problem solve, read and comprehend, and express thoughts through spoken or written words” (Helping children with communication disorders, 2013). Literacy Literacy – the ability to read and write * Literacy is the foundation for learning. * Literacy skills helps and individual to participate in society. * Low literacy skills have an impact on the ability to support themselves. (Taber, 2011). Dyslexia ¾“Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that hinders the learning of literacy skills” (Townend & Turner, 2004, p. 10). ¾Characterized by a deficit in phonological processing (Messer, 2011). ¾Poor visual processing (Messer, 2011). Dyslexia is the most common cause of reading and writing difficulties in the U.S. (Townend & Turner, 2004). According to the National Institutes of Health (2013), up to 15 percent of the population may have dyslexia. Signs of Dyslexia Late talker Drowsiness Dilated pupils Problems with pronunciation Problems with fine motor skills Confusing the order of letters Trouble with reading, writing, spelling Trouble following sequences (Tunmer & Greaney, 2010). Dysgraphia is a learning disability that affects writing, which requires a complex set of motor and information processing skills (Mather, 2003). Signs of Dysgraphia • • • • • Poor motor skills Inability to properly use utensils Does not like to color Trouble with buttons, zippers, shoe laces Gives up easily when asks to write (Spies, 2007). Individuals with Dysgraphia experience: o Visual‐spatial difficulties: trouble processing what the eye sees. o Language processing difficulty: trouble processing and making sense of what the ear hears. (Mather, 2003). Stuttering • “Stuttering is a speech disorder in which sounds, syllables, or words are repeated or prolonged, disrupting the normal flow of speech” (Society for Neuroscience, 2010, November 17). • Stuttering affects about one in every 20 children. (Society for Neuroscience, 2010). • With stuttering, there is “reduced activity in brain areas associated with listening, and increased activity in areas involved in speech and movement” (Society for Neuroscience, 2010, November 17). Hearing Impairments No response to voice Inattentiveness Pulling or rubbing on ear Ear pain Tilting head to a favorable side (Park, Warner, Sturgill, & Alder, (2006). HOW LITERACY DEVELOPMENT IS IMPAIRED BY THE SPECIFIC DISABILITY Dyslexia *Experiences imprecise or “fuzzy” representations of phonemes. *When learning to read, it is more difficult to detect consistent patterns between the letters and sounds. *Problems with visual system - letters moving on a page; letters changing place in words; or letters being fused together. Messer, D. (2011). Dysgraphia Dysgraphia makes the act of writing difficult. Leads to problems with spelling, poor handwriting, and putting thoughts on paper. (Mather, 2003). Stuttering Stuttering Hearing impairments Difficulty associating sounds with letters Those who use sign language have no written system. Learning to read is similar to learning a second language Limited vocabulary acquisition Grammatical rules delayed Difficulty with verb tenses (Musselman, 2010 & Perles, 2013). How to Support and Assist the Student in Developing Literacy Skills Early Intervention • Delay or avoid onset of a disorder • Disorders may be quickly eliminated • Improve communication skills and functioning • Modify the child’s environment (Helping children with communication disorders in the school, 2013). Dyslexia Teachers and Parents can assist by helping students to: Learn to recognize phonemes (the smallest sounds that make up words) Understand that letters represent sounds Comprehend what he or she is reading Read aloud Build a vocabulary “Overlearning”, repitition, routines (Kelly & Phillips, 2011). Allow use of print or cursive . Allow extra time for writing assignments. Begin writing assignments by creating ideas through drawings or voice recording. Do not judge timed assignments on neatness and spelling. Have students proofread their work after taking a break. Encourage use of a spell checker. Focus on writing original answers and ideas. Complete tasks in small steps. Find alternative means of assessing knowledge, such as oral reports or visual projects (Mann, 2006). Stuttering Strategies to improve stuttering: Provide a relaxed atmosphere where the child can speak comfortably and freely. Gently makes corrections to the child’s stutter through modeling and verbal praise. Speak in a relaxed manner to reduce stress. Allow for the child to complete their sentences, do not finish it for them. (NIDCD Fact sheet 2010). Hearing Impairments – How do the Hearing Impaired Read? Research suggests that individuals with good signing skills can develop good literacy skills Transitioning from signing to print. Use of illustrations and pictures to construct meaning from text. (Schirmer & McGough, 2005). How do the Hearing Impaired Read?(cont.) Speech/Lip Reading Speech reading provides a phonological code Ability to encode by the movement of articulators (Harris & Moreno, 2006). Speech Pathologists “Promote opportunities for success in spoken and written language for children with and without communication disorders” (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 1997-2013). COMMUNICATION DISORDERS AND LITERACY Conclusion References American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1997-2013). Definitions of communication disorders and variations. Retrieved February 27, 2013 from www.asha.org/policy. Harris, Margret & Moreno, Constanza (2006). Speech reading and learning to read: A comparison of 8year-old profoundly deaf children with good and poor reading ability. Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 11(2), 189-201. Helping children with communication disorders in the school. (2013). Retreived February 27, 2013, from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/5128/ Kelly, Kathleen & Phillips, Sylvia (2011). Teaching literacy to learners with dyslexia: A multisensory approach. Sage Publications. Mann, Rebecca, L. (2006). Effective teaching strategies for gifted/learning-disabled students with spatial strengths. Prufrock Journal, 17 (2). 112-121. References (cont.) Mather, David (2003). Dyslexia and dysgraphia: More than written language difficulties in common. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(4), 307-317. Messer, David (2011). Reading and child development: Research findings: Dyslexia and literacy difficulties. Educational Practice, The Open University, Faculty of Education and Language Studies, Centre for Childhood, Development and Learning. Musselman, Carol (2010). How do children who can’t hear learn to read an alphabetic script? A review on the literature on reading and deafness. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 5(1), 9-31. National Institutes of Health. (2013). Retrieved February 26, 2013 from http://www.nih.gov/ NIDCD Fact sheet (2010). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Park, A. H., Warner, J. Sturgill, N., & Adler, S. C. (2006). A survey of parental views regarding their child’s hearing loss: A pilot study. Otolaryngology : Head and Neck Surgery, 134(5), 794-800. References (cont.) Perles, Keren (2012). The impact of hearing impairment and learning to read. Bright Hub. Schirmer, B. R., & McGough, S. M. (2005). Teaching reading to children who are deaf: Do the conclusions of the National Reading Panel apply? Review of Educational Research, 75(1), 83-117. Society for Neuroscience (2010, November 17). People who stutter show abnormal brain activity when reading and listening. ScienceDaily. Spies, Kelly (2007). Eight signs that your child has dysgraphia. Retrieved February 29, 2013, from http://voices.yahoo.com/8-signs-child-has-dysgraphia-545852.html Taber, Sylvia, R. (2011). Current definitions of literacy. Journal of Reading, 30(5), 458-461. Townend, Janet & Turner, Martin (2004). The study of dyslexia. New York:, NY: Springer. Tunmer, W. & Greaney, K. (2010). Defining dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, (43)3, 229-243.