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Biol. 3 Study guide for test 2 F12 8th edition Ch. 5 Genetics and Evolution evolution, natural selection, artificial selection, fitness, directional selection, stabilizing selection, disruptive selection, DNA, alleles, chromosomes, mutation, genotype, phenotype, gene, heterozygous, homozygous, dominant, recessive, English peppered moth and Kettlewell's experiments, Darwin's Finch (on the Galapagos Islands), Darwin's 2 major ideas (variation, offspring survival), microevolution, macroevolution, speciation, adaptive radiation, allopatric speciation, sympatric speciation, genetic isolation Origin of Life/Paleontology (Handouts) origin of life, Miller's experiments, first atmosphere compared to current atmosphere, first cells (approximate time when arose), important events on geological time scale (such as fish--> amphibians-->reptiles, extinction of the dinosaurs), continental drift, plate tectonics, earthquake, San Andreas Fault, pangaea, laurasia, gondwana, landbridge, ocean barrier, mass extinction (past vs. current), glacial vs. interglacial period, refugia, convergence, also article on recent animal extinctions (discussed in class), reasons why dinosaurs went extinct Survey of Domains--- Archae & Eubacteria (Handout) Kindoms Monera, Archae, Eubacteia taxonomy, taxon (kingdom, phylum/division, class, order, family, genus, species), bacteria, cynaobacteria (blue-green algae), 5 major functions of bacteria, chemotroph, coprophagy, algal bloom, eutrophication (causes?) Survey of Domains---Eukarya (Handout) Kingdoms Protista & Fungi: ecological importance of protista, symbiotic relationship, 3 types of symbiotic relationships, lichens (what are they, who uses them?), types of fungi, uses of fungi, how to tell poisonous from nonpoisonous mushrooms, nutritional value of mushrooms Survey of Domains--- Kingdom Animalia (Invertebrates)-- Handout general characteristics of animals (ie. motile, heterotrophs, etc), vertebrate, invertebrate, insect life cycle, metamorphosis, larvae, pupa, molting, pesticides- their problems and their alternatives, leeches, chitin, exoskeleton, molting, anting, class Crustacea, class Insecta, class Arachnida, the following insect orders: (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, Orthoptera), radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry, asymmetrical, complete digestive system, incomplete digestive system, sessile, cephalization, water vascular system, invertebrates that fly? Survey of Domains--- Kingdom Animalia (Vertebrates)-- Handout 4 characteristics of phylum Chordata, characteristics of amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals ie. adaptations to help birds fly & mammary glands, types of snake locomotion (lateral undulation, concertina, etc), endotherm, ectotherm, scales, hemipenis, cloaca, uric acid, uropygial gland, altricial, precocial, marsupials, placentals, gestation period, cetaceans, primates, swim bladder, ungulate, declining amphibian populations? mouse and frog life cyles Survey of Domains--- Kingdom Plantae—Handout major characteristics of plants (ie. sessile, autotrophs, etc), vascular vs. nonvascular plant, gymnosperm vs. angiosperm, parts of a flower, monocot, dicot, anther, filament, stamen, pistil, pollen, ovule, ovary, stigma, style, petal, sepal, conifer, flower, fruit, parts of a seed, embryo, seed coat, endosperm, cotyledon, dendrochronology, pollinator, tannin, seed dispersal **You may have short answer, essay, multiple choice, true/false, matching, definitions and fillin-the-blanks, and "yes" spelling counts!!!! Sample Essays 1. Draw and label the parts of a flower. 2. Draw and explain the life cycle of an insect, frog and mouse. 3. Define invertebrate then vertebrate and give examples of each. 4. List the general characteristics that distinguish plants from animals: (list general characteristics of animals vs. general characteristics of plants--like in 2 columns) 5. Name some evolutionary trends that are found in vertebrate and invertebrate animal phyla. 6. What can you tell me about the article, "Recent Animal Extinctions: Recipes For Disaster?" ie. What is the keystone herbivore hypothesis? 7. List the factors responsible for recent animal extinctions (mastadons & mammoths) and then the factors responsible for dinosaur extinction. 8. How are current mass extinctions different from past extinctions? A na teg!!!!!