Abdul Qadeer Khan
Abdul Qadeer Khan, NI, HI, FPAS /ˌɑːbˈdʊl kɑːdɪər kɑːn/ (Urdu: ڈاکٹر عبد القدیر خان; b. 1 April 1936), also known as Mohsin-e-Pakistan (Urdu: محسن پاکِستان, lit. ""Benefactor of Pakistan"") by some people, more popularly known as A. Q. Khan, is a Pakistani nuclear physicist and a metallurgical engineer, colloquially regarded as the founder of high-enriched uranium (HEU) based Gas-centrifuge uranium enrichment program for Pakistan's integrated atomic bomb project. He founded and established the Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) in 1976, being both its senior scientist and the Director-General until his retirement in 2001, and he was an early and vital figure in other science projects. Apart from participating in Pakistan's atomic bomb project, he made major contributions in molecular morphology, physical martensite, and its integrated applications in condensed and material physics.Abdul Qadeer Khan was one of Pakistan's top scientists, and was involved in the country's various scientific programs until his dismissal. In January 2004, Khan was officially summoned for a debriefing on his suspicious activities in other countries after the United States provided evidence to the Pakistan Government, and confessed it a month later.Some have alleged that these activities were sanctioned by the authorities, though the Pakistan government sharply dismissed the claims. After years of official house arrest, the Islamabad High Court (IHC) on 6 February 2009 declared Abdul Qadeer Khan to be a free citizen of Pakistan, allowing him free movement inside the country. The verdict was rendered by Chief Justice Sardar Muhammad Aslam. In September 2009, expressing concerns over the Islamabad High Court's decision to end all security restrictions on Khan, the United States warned that Khan still remains a ""serious proliferation risk"".