questions and answers: reasoning and querying in description logic

... like syntax. The terminological part defines the properties of Birds and Penguins, while the assertional part states some properties of a particular individual (tweety). This individual is described as a bird which cannot fly, having at least one friend which is a flyer. Partitioning knowledge in th ...

... like syntax. The terminological part defines the properties of Birds and Penguins, while the assertional part states some properties of a particular individual (tweety). This individual is described as a bird which cannot fly, having at least one friend which is a flyer. Partitioning knowledge in th ...

The Quest for Efficient Boolean Satisfiability Solvers | SpringerLink

... Even though there were many developments pre-dating them, the original algorithm for solving SAT is often attributed to Davis and Putnam for proposing a resolutionbased algorithm for Boolean SAT in 1960 [5]. The original algorithm proposed suffers from the problem of memory explosion. Therefore, Dav ...

... Even though there were many developments pre-dating them, the original algorithm for solving SAT is often attributed to Davis and Putnam for proposing a resolutionbased algorithm for Boolean SAT in 1960 [5]. The original algorithm proposed suffers from the problem of memory explosion. Therefore, Dav ...

Reducing hard SAT instances to polynomial ones

... Let L be a standard Boolean logical language built on a finite set of Boolean variables, noted a, b, c, etc. Formulas will be noted using upper-case letters such as C. Sets of formulas will be represented using Greek letters like Γ or Σ. An interpretation is a truth assignment function that assigns ...

... Let L be a standard Boolean logical language built on a finite set of Boolean variables, noted a, b, c, etc. Formulas will be noted using upper-case letters such as C. Sets of formulas will be represented using Greek letters like Γ or Σ. An interpretation is a truth assignment function that assigns ...

Applications of MaxSAT in Automotive Configuration - CEUR

... CDCL SAT solver records a trace while solving the formula. From this trace, a resolution based proof can be deduced, which shows the clauses involved in the unsatisfiable core. An unsatisfiable core is also called conflict. The answer to the second question can be of important practical use, too. Fo ...

... CDCL SAT solver records a trace while solving the formula. From this trace, a resolution based proof can be deduced, which shows the clauses involved in the unsatisfiable core. An unsatisfiable core is also called conflict. The answer to the second question can be of important practical use, too. Fo ...

powerpoint slides

... solution was maintained), the new individual replaced its parent if it had a higher fitness • In addition, these early ES’s, maintained the same value for σ throughout the duration of the algorithm • It has been proven that if this vector remains constant throughout the run then the algorithm will c ...

... solution was maintained), the new individual replaced its parent if it had a higher fitness • In addition, these early ES’s, maintained the same value for σ throughout the duration of the algorithm • It has been proven that if this vector remains constant throughout the run then the algorithm will c ...

Algorithm Selection for Combinatorial Search Problems: A Survey

... problems x ∈ P, which are characterised by features. S is created either by using training data that contains the performances of the algorithms on a subset of the problems from the problem space, or feedback from executing the chosen algorithm on a problem and measuring the performance. Some approa ...

... problems x ∈ P, which are characterised by features. S is created either by using training data that contains the performances of the algorithms on a subset of the problems from the problem space, or feedback from executing the chosen algorithm on a problem and measuring the performance. Some approa ...

Schematic Invariants by Reduction to Ground Invariants

... typed schematic language for expressing actions and invariants.1 Definition 1 (Types) Let O be a set of objects. Let there be a finite set T of types, and to each type t ∈ T a non-empty set D(t) ⊆ O of objects is associated by the domain function D : T → O. The objects of different types do not need ...

... typed schematic language for expressing actions and invariants.1 Definition 1 (Types) Let O be a set of objects. Let there be a finite set T of types, and to each type t ∈ T a non-empty set D(t) ⊆ O of objects is associated by the domain function D : T → O. The objects of different types do not need ...

First-Order Extension of the FLP Stable Model

... semantics proposed by Ferraris, Lee and Lifschitz, the semantics proposed here are based on syntactic transformations that are similar to circumscription. The reformulations provide useful insights into the FLP semantics and its relationship to circumscription and the first-order stable model semant ...

... semantics proposed by Ferraris, Lee and Lifschitz, the semantics proposed here are based on syntactic transformations that are similar to circumscription. The reformulations provide useful insights into the FLP semantics and its relationship to circumscription and the first-order stable model semant ...

A Formal Characterization of Concept Learning in Description Logics

... inference plays a key role in ML algorithms, though other inferences such as abduction and analogy are also considered. The effect of applying inductive ML algorithms depends on whether the scope of induction is discrimination or characterization [28]. Discriminant induction aims at inducing hypothe ...

... inference plays a key role in ML algorithms, though other inferences such as abduction and analogy are also considered. The effect of applying inductive ML algorithms depends on whether the scope of induction is discrimination or characterization [28]. Discriminant induction aims at inducing hypothe ...

The State of SAT - Cornell Computer Science

... Currently the most practical extension of general resolution is symmetry detection. The pigeon hole problem is intuitively easy because we immediately see that different pigeons and holes are indistinguishable, so we do not need to actually consider all possible matchings — without loss of generali ...

... Currently the most practical extension of general resolution is symmetry detection. The pigeon hole problem is intuitively easy because we immediately see that different pigeons and holes are indistinguishable, so we do not need to actually consider all possible matchings — without loss of generali ...

Quantitatively Evaluating Formula-Variable Relevance by

... knowledge base via variable forgetting. As we know, it is a common thing that inconsistencies may occur in a knowledge base due to different sources of knowledge or different views of the world for each person. In classical logics, if inconsistency lies in a belief set, then ex falso quodlibet occur ...

... knowledge base via variable forgetting. As we know, it is a common thing that inconsistencies may occur in a knowledge base due to different sources of knowledge or different views of the world for each person. In classical logics, if inconsistency lies in a belief set, then ex falso quodlibet occur ...

Ten Challenges Redux: Recent Progress in Propositional

... graph that has all decision variables on one side, called the reason side, and false as well as at least one conflict literal on the other side, called the conflict side. All nodes on the reason side that have at least one edge going to the conflict side form a cause of the conflict. The negations o ...

... graph that has all decision variables on one side, called the reason side, and false as well as at least one conflict literal on the other side, called the conflict side. All nodes on the reason side that have at least one edge going to the conflict side form a cause of the conflict. The negations o ...

Project specification

... developed. The goal of this project can be summarised as to compare different sudoku solving algorithms and develop our own algorithm depending on which ideas and construction methods that seems to work well for. There should however be a clarification concerning which algorithms that will be consid ...

... developed. The goal of this project can be summarised as to compare different sudoku solving algorithms and develop our own algorithm depending on which ideas and construction methods that seems to work well for. There should however be a clarification concerning which algorithms that will be consid ...

Problem Solving and Search in Artificial Intelligence - DBAI

... Algorithm selection Input (see [8] and [9]): Problem space P that represents the set of instances of a problem class A feature space F that contains measurable characteristics of the instances generated by a computational feature extraction process applied to P Set A of all considered algorit ...

... Algorithm selection Input (see [8] and [9]): Problem space P that represents the set of instances of a problem class A feature space F that contains measurable characteristics of the instances generated by a computational feature extraction process applied to P Set A of all considered algorit ...

Hardness-Aware Restart Policies

... Gomes et al. [7] demonstrated the effectiveness of randomized restarts on a variety of problems in scheduling, theorem-proving, and planning. In this approach, randomness is added to the branching heuristic of a systematic search algorithm; if the search algorithm does not find a solution within a g ...

... Gomes et al. [7] demonstrated the effectiveness of randomized restarts on a variety of problems in scheduling, theorem-proving, and planning. In this approach, randomness is added to the branching heuristic of a systematic search algorithm; if the search algorithm does not find a solution within a g ...

Clustering Approach to Generalized Pattern Identification Based on Multi-instanced Objects with DARA

... generate good clustering results, which leads to less meaningful clustering results. RDBC approach is also not able to generate interpretable rules. In our approach to clustering in a multi-relational environment, we consider all instances of an object when the distance between two objects is comput ...

... generate good clustering results, which leads to less meaningful clustering results. RDBC approach is also not able to generate interpretable rules. In our approach to clustering in a multi-relational environment, we consider all instances of an object when the distance between two objects is comput ...

Sets of Boolean Connectives that make Argumentation Easier

... (Φ, α), where the support Φ is a consistent set (or a minimal consistent set) of formulae from a given knowledge base that entails the claim α which is a formula (see, for example, [BH01, AC02, GS04, DKT06]). Different logical formalisms provide different definitions for consistency and entailment a ...

... (Φ, α), where the support Φ is a consistent set (or a minimal consistent set) of formulae from a given knowledge base that entails the claim α which is a formula (see, for example, [BH01, AC02, GS04, DKT06]). Different logical formalisms provide different definitions for consistency and entailment a ...

Non-CNF QBF Solving with QCIR - Institute for Formal Models and

... It may be noted that QCIR allows and and or gates with zero arguments; as expected, these correspond to the truth values true and false, respectively. The semantics of a QCIR formula is relatively straightforward. For a gate literal x, let [[x]] denote the formula that x represents. (If x is a non-g ...

... It may be noted that QCIR allows and and or gates with zero arguments; as expected, these correspond to the truth values true and false, respectively. The semantics of a QCIR formula is relatively straightforward. For a gate literal x, let [[x]] denote the formula that x represents. (If x is a non-g ...

Benchmarks Description

... When the value of modularity Q used to generate the instances is very high, there exist some instances having a very small refutation. This happens because most of the clauses relate variables of the same community, and hence it is more likely to find a small unsatisfiable set of clauses which only ...

... When the value of modularity Q used to generate the instances is very high, there exist some instances having a very small refutation. This happens because most of the clauses relate variables of the same community, and hence it is more likely to find a small unsatisfiable set of clauses which only ...

1 What is Machine Learning? - Computer Science at Princeton

... as in the left column, but later rewritten with the corresponding number of each letter of each animal name, as shown to the right of each name. There are some things to notice about this experiment. First of all, more data is better. For instance, we were unsure whether platypus should be a positiv ...

... as in the left column, but later rewritten with the corresponding number of each letter of each animal name, as shown to the right of each name. There are some things to notice about this experiment. First of all, more data is better. For instance, we were unsure whether platypus should be a positiv ...

Reformulation based MaxSAT robustness (Extended abstract)

... In this paper we have proposed a mechanism for finding robust solutions to weighted MaxSAT problems. We have extended the approach of Ginsberg et al. [4] to deal with cost constraints and don’t-care variables. By using cardinality constraints, the reformulation results in a much smaller problem in t ...

... In this paper we have proposed a mechanism for finding robust solutions to weighted MaxSAT problems. We have extended the approach of Ginsberg et al. [4] to deal with cost constraints and don’t-care variables. By using cardinality constraints, the reformulation results in a much smaller problem in t ...

Propositional Fragments for Knowledge

... al. 2005)); in particular, it includes SAT as a specific case; furthermore, there is some empirical evidence from various AI fields (including among others planning, nonmonotonic reasoning, paraconsistent inference) that a translation-based approach can prove more “efficient” than domain-dependent a ...

... al. 2005)); in particular, it includes SAT as a specific case; furthermore, there is some empirical evidence from various AI fields (including among others planning, nonmonotonic reasoning, paraconsistent inference) that a translation-based approach can prove more “efficient” than domain-dependent a ...

Powerpoint

... Linear Classifiers Inputs are feature values Each feature has a weight Sum is the activation ...

... Linear Classifiers Inputs are feature values Each feature has a weight Sum is the activation ...

Using fuzzy temporal logic for monitoring behavior

... value of the proposition V isibleBall will be a real number between 0 and 1 reflecting our incapacity to draw clear boundaries between thruthness and falseness of a proposition. This allows us to include fuzzy statements such as “slightly visible” or “completely visible”. On the other hand, it is no ...

... value of the proposition V isibleBall will be a real number between 0 and 1 reflecting our incapacity to draw clear boundaries between thruthness and falseness of a proposition. This allows us to include fuzzy statements such as “slightly visible” or “completely visible”. On the other hand, it is no ...