History of Nizari Ismailism
The History of the Shī‘ah Imāmī Nizārī-Ismā'īlī Ṭarīqah from the founding of Islam covers a period of over 1400 years. It begins with the mission of the Islamic prophet Muhammad to restore to humanity the universality and knowledge of the oneness of the divine within the Abrahamic tradition, through the final message and what Shia believe was the appointment of Ali Ibn Talib as successor and guardian of that message in both the spiritual and temporal authority of Muhammad, through the institution of Imamate.A few months before his death, Muhammad who resided in the city of Medina made his first and final pilgrimage (Al Hajj) to Mecca, a journey referred to as The Farewell Pilgrimage. There, atop Mount Arafat, he addressed the Muslim masses in what came to be known as The Farewell Sermon. After completion of the Hajj pilgrimage, Muhammad journeyed back toward his home in Medina with other pilgrims.During the journey, Muhammad stopped at the desert oasis of Khumm, and requested other pilgrims gather together, and there he addressed them with the famous words: Following Muhammads death the Shiat Ali (Party of Ali) believed Ali had been designated not merely as the political successor to Muhammad (Caliph) but also his spiritual successor. And looked toward Ali and his most trusted supporters for both political and spiritual guidance. Ali's descendants were also the only descendants of Muhammad as Ali had married Muhammads only surviving progeny in the person of Fatima Az-Zahra. And through the generations the mantle of leadership of the Shi'at Al-Ali would pass through the progeny of Ali and Fatima known as the Ahl al-Bayt the (Household of Muhammad), embodied in the head of the family, the Imam. Among the Shia both the Ismāʿīli and Twelvers accept the same initial Imāms from the descendants of Muħammad through his daughter Fāṭima az-Zahra and therefore share much of their early history.