... ____ 59. Although infectious diseases have decreased, human health is still threatened by pesticide-resistant insects
and bacteria which are resistant to antibiotics.
____ 60. The three largest viral diseases are influenza, hepatitis B and SARS.
____ 61. Evaluating relative health risk for an indivi ...
Modeling plague transmission in Medieval European - DUO
... mode of transmission from black rats (Rattus rattus) to humans via the Oriental rat flea
(Xenopsylla cheopis) (Butler 2014; Simond, Godley, and Mouriquand 1998). The
discovery of Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague, is credited to French
physician Alexandre Yersin (1863-1943), who trav ...
Smallpox Chapter (Pink Book)
... is inactivated within 24 hours. In the presence of ultraviolet
light, this percentage would be even greater. In temperate
climates, crusts from the skin lesions from smallpox patients,
in which the virus is contained in a fibrin matrix, can retain
viable virus for several years when held at room tem ...
standard operating procedure for transport of biological specimens
... The purpose of developing this Standard operating procedure is as a reference for
Ministry of Health Malaysia hospital laboratories. It is timely that a standard
operating procedure be made available as a reference for transportation of any
biological specimens by air or surface. This is to ensure t ...
Peter A. Shult, Ph.D., Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene
... • In addition to above, patient information is critical
• Evaluate completeness of patient information to assess
risk of specimen testing
• When should it be undertaken?
• During emergency response (BT or EID) vs. routinely?
• Need new biosafety model in the laboratory!
• Standard (“Universal”) prec ...
Biosafety Program - University of Regina
... Hazard is any activity, situation, or substance that can cause illness or injury.
Infectious agent/material/organism refers to a substance or biological entity that may cause disease or
illness upon exposure.
Local Safety Committee (LSC) is a committee in the Faculties and/or Departments that have b ...
... variable level of protein and glucose, and generally negative
Gram stain [17, 18]. Based on unremarkable CSF analysis and
CNS radiologic evaluation, the cause of the confusion and
the contribution of F. tularensis in the abnormal behavior
observed in our patient could not be established.
Emphasizing Military Vaccination Programs
... 1890 Behring & Kitasato prepare first diphtheria antitoxin. First administered by Ehrlich to a young girl in Berlin in 1891.
1899 Almroth Wright proposed mass immunization of British troops during the Boer War against typhoid fever. Because of "opposition by
influential people," he was able to vacc ...
Biosafety - East Carolina University
... Alert people in the laboratory of spill to evacuate immediately; unless spill is contained within
Biological Safety Cabinet.. Attend to any injured or contaminated persons and remove them from
Shut off any ongoing source of contamination spill or splash.
Close all doors to affected ar ...
GWU Biosafety Manual - George Washington University School of
... materials used and follow the appropriate guidelines.
There are also agent summaries given in section VII of the BMBL which give the appropriate containment level for agents
with regard to varying circumstances. Since Risk Groups and Biosafety Levels are many times the same it may be
instructive to ...
History of biological warfare
Various types of biological warfare (BW) have been practiced repeatedly throughout history. This has included the use of biological agents (microbes and plants) as well as the biotoxins, including venoms, derived from them.Before the 20th century, the use of biological agents took three major forms: Deliberate contamination of food and water with poisonous or contagious material Use of microbes, biological toxins, animals, or plants (living or dead) in a weapon system Use of biologically inoculated fabrics and personsIn the 20th century, sophisticated bacteriological and virological techniques allowed the production of significant stockpiles of weaponized bio-agents:Bacterial agents: Anthrax, Brucella, Tularemia, etc.Viral agents: Smallpox, Viral hemorrhagic fevers, etc.Toxins: Botulinum, Ricin, etc.