... power and cast ballots on the basis of how well it did in
often, an incumbent’s record is mixed
no guarantee that future leaders will be better
Review Highlights – Political Parties, Elections, Campaign Finance
... o Form alliances with other groups on a piece of legislation – allows them to share
resources & members and make the support group for the legislation look larger
o Rate congressmen or endorse candidates
o Provide members as volunteers to help on campaigns or canvassing
Political Action Committees – ...
... STATE REVENUES: Largest source of revenue for state governments is
INTERGOVERNMENTAL revenue, which is money one level of government
receives from another. In this case, the state government gets its money from
the FEDERAL government.
The second-highest source of revenue for state governments is ...
Chapter 10: Government Spending
... amount to $5.7 trillion in fiscal year 2001,
approximately $3.3 trillion of which is held by
The debt affects the economy in several ways
◦ Taxes are needed to pay the interest on the debt
◦ The distribution of income is altered
◦ Purchasing power is transferred from the private sector
CHECKING OUT THE HOUSE The Traditional Explanation for Excessive Government
... the House banking scandal of 1992 has changed that situation. The House Ethics
Committee released the names of 303 current and former members who overdrew
their accounts at the now-closed House Bank. Apparently, many ofour elected officials
who have been given the task of balancing the federal budge ...
AP Government – Unit 3 Reading Questions
... particular interest. The downside of narrowcasting is that it creates a politically uninformed majority because it
focuses on one topic/subject and is aimed at a particular audience.
... The House only deals with discretionary
spending. Mandatory spending is not part of
the annual budget process, although
Congress can deal with its separately.
◦ Discretionary spending is broken down for action
by various committees that propose appropriation
◦ The budget is reassemble and vot ...
Money and Campaigning
... unlimited contributions to 527 groups (nonprofit groups created under 527 section of IRS
– There is no limits to contributions to these
groups as long as they do not coordinate with
any candidate (i.e. they don’t use “vote for” or
“vote against” in their ads)
Money Politics: Campaign Finance and the
... themselves out of their own personal funds, the Center for
Responsive Politics has computed that less than one percent of
the population provided a total of 77% of all campaign contributions to the 1992 congressional races.1 2 Most of this money is
special interest money, contributed by PACs and wea ...
... 1) Voting / statistics / obstacles to turnout
2) Other forms of political participation
E) Factors that make citizens differ from one
another in beliefs/behaviors
... from members of interest groups and
channel those contributions to
election campaigns usually for
those candidates supporting policies
favorable to members of the Interest
... Determinants of money supply:
• The banking system along with the Bank of Canada
can influence the supply of money
• Money supply is determined by the Bank of Canada
and is treated as a policy variable
Determinants of money demand:
• Quantity of money held by public (demand) is
determined by interes ...
The Congress, the President, and the Budget: The Politics of Taxing
... Congress passed bills to try and control the deficits.
By 1990, Congress focused on the increases in
Both parties claimed victory for the budget
surpluses that began in 1997.
Economic downturn, income tax cuts, and increased
military expenditures brought a return to deficits by
Supplementary Estimates (B) 2014-15
... outlined in the Budget. The Government then
needs to obtain Parliament’s approval of the
money required to implement its Budget. This
legal consent is provided in one of two ways:
USG Chapter 18
... new laws limited the amounts that individuals
could contribute to federal candidates but
permitted the PACs of labor unions and
corporations to make direct contributions.
C. PACs grew to more than 4,000 in the 1990s,
although during the 1970s new laws
regulated and limited the funds they raised.
Money Growth and Inflation in the Long
... • Intuitively, the velocity of money refers to the
speed at which the typical dollar bill travels
around the economy from wallet to wallet.
• Another way to look at velocity is that it is the
average number of times a unit of money is used
to carry out transactions in the economy.
• For example, if ...
Judicial Supervision of Campaign Information
... likely it is that voters get the actual representation Madison had
envisioned. Enhancing financial disclosure rules and contribution limits,
however, is insufficient to end this erosion. Consequently, the American
people have been dragged down a road where misinformation and false
information flood ...
Robert G. Boatright
... 2001. “Generational Differences in Attitudes Towards Jury Service.” With Susan Carol Losh. Presented
at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, Montreal, QC.
2000. “Static Ambition in a Changing World: Legislators’ Preparations for Redistricting.” Presented at
... members (14-year term) who are all appointed by the US
• Federal Reserve System – Federal Reserve Board (in
Washington D.C.) and 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks in
major U.S. Cities
• Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) – Board of
Governors together with 12 regional presidents who vote ...
Privacy 26.0 Disclosure Not Requiring Authorization or Opportunity
... Terms not defined in this Policy or the HIPAA Terms and Definitions maintained by the UHS
Compliance Office will have the meaning as defined in any related State or Federal privacy law
including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, Public Law 104-191
(“HIPAA”) and regulat ...
this PDF file
... demands. Although they sometimes try to affect the outcome of certain elections, interest groups do
not run candidates for offices or attempt to control or operate government. Their primary concern is
to influence policy that affects their own area of interest.
Differing in size and make-up, interes ...
The impact of £10bn extra capital spending in 2016/17 on
... before the 2015 general election – and may set out plans for
further ahead at the same time
• The state of the public finances and the UK economy, combined
with the Coalition’s fiscal targets, implies some very difficult
choices on tax and spend – for 2015/16 and beyond
• These are not just question ...
... in Citizens United v. FEC for the outsized political influence of the superwealthy, experts in the field know that the constitutional constraints on our ability
to limit the political influence of moneyed elites long-predate Citizens United
and pose a formidable barrier to effective campaign finance ...
Political Hobbyism: A Theory of Mass Behavior
... is the language of hobbyism too light to capture this engagement? No. Common pastimes
like sports entail contributions of time and emotional energy equivalent to political engagement among active participants. The degree of a participant’s emotional commitment is not
what separates politics from oth ...
In the politics of the United States, dark money is a term for funds given to nonprofit organizations—primarily 501(c)(4) (social welfare) and 501(c)(6) (trade association) groups—that can receive unlimited donations from corporations, individuals, and unions, and spend funds to influence elections, but are not required to disclose their donors.According to the Center for Responsive Politics, ""spending by organizations that do not disclose their donors has increased from less than $5.2 million in 2006 to well over $300 million in the 2012 presidential cycle and more than $174 million in the 2014 midterms."" The New York Times editorial board has opined that the 2014 midterm elections were influenced by ""the greatest wave of secret, special-interest money ever raised in a congressional election.""According to the Center for Responsive Politics, dark money (defined as outside groups that did not publicly disclose donors plus groups that received a substantial portion of their contributions from such nondisclosing groups) ""accounted for nearly 44 percent of outside spending in the 2010 election cycle.""