The orbital angular momentum of light: Genesis and

... the sign depending on the left or right handedness of the circular polarization. Furthermore, for a cylindrically symmetric cross section with the origin on the cylinder axis, the transverse components of the total angular momentum turn out to be zero. The existence of a nonzero longitudinal compone ...

... the sign depending on the left or right handedness of the circular polarization. Furthermore, for a cylindrically symmetric cross section with the origin on the cylinder axis, the transverse components of the total angular momentum turn out to be zero. The existence of a nonzero longitudinal compone ...

Polarization properties of coherent VUV light at 125

... Vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) light with a high and well known degree of polarization, in the 10 eV range (∼ 125 nm), is a powerful tool for a large amount of investigations. Many important properties of various materials may be revealed by experiments using either linearly or circularly polarized VUV r ...

... Vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) light with a high and well known degree of polarization, in the 10 eV range (∼ 125 nm), is a powerful tool for a large amount of investigations. Many important properties of various materials may be revealed by experiments using either linearly or circularly polarized VUV r ...

document

... the gamma-ray arrival time and the arrival time of the scintillation photons, the terms “gamma-ray timing resolution” or “gamma-ray jitter” will be used to refer to errors in the gamma-ray arrival time estimate, whereas the terms “SPAD timing resolution” or “SPAD jitter” will refer to the error in t ...

... the gamma-ray arrival time and the arrival time of the scintillation photons, the terms “gamma-ray timing resolution” or “gamma-ray jitter” will be used to refer to errors in the gamma-ray arrival time estimate, whereas the terms “SPAD timing resolution” or “SPAD jitter” will refer to the error in t ...

Continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography

... is the Fourier transform of the spatial wave function. If we know a priori that the ensemble can be described by a pure state, then we can determine, by numerical methods, the complex wave function 共x兲, up to certain symmetry transformations 共such as a complex conjugation兲 just from these two types ...

... is the Fourier transform of the spatial wave function. If we know a priori that the ensemble can be described by a pure state, then we can determine, by numerical methods, the complex wave function 共x兲, up to certain symmetry transformations 共such as a complex conjugation兲 just from these two types ...

Here - Science Advances

... For a general three-dimensional field, Sz and Lz are not valid as independent angular momenta because they do not preserve the transversality of the electromagnetic field (17, 21). They appear in the usual combination Jz = Lz + Sz for the total angular momentum, which is uniquely determined by the r ...

... For a general three-dimensional field, Sz and Lz are not valid as independent angular momenta because they do not preserve the transversality of the electromagnetic field (17, 21). They appear in the usual combination Jz = Lz + Sz for the total angular momentum, which is uniquely determined by the r ...

Document

... – angular momentum is also well recognized by now. The first theoretical research, made by Poynting in 1909 [1] showed that a circularly polarized λ light beam carries a flux of angular momentum equal to 2π u, where u and λ are the average energy density and beam wavelength. Expanding this result to ...

... – angular momentum is also well recognized by now. The first theoretical research, made by Poynting in 1909 [1] showed that a circularly polarized λ light beam carries a flux of angular momentum equal to 2π u, where u and λ are the average energy density and beam wavelength. Expanding this result to ...

Microsphere optical device

... sphere in accordance With the present invention. One mecha nism includes using a generator that applies an alternating electric ?eld perpendicular to the equatorial plane of the microsphere. Another method provides an alternating cur rent to a current-carrying stem placed through the center of the m ...

... sphere in accordance With the present invention. One mecha nism includes using a generator that applies an alternating electric ?eld perpendicular to the equatorial plane of the microsphere. Another method provides an alternating cur rent to a current-carrying stem placed through the center of the m ...

Monte Carlo simulation of light scattering in the atmosphere and

... source. Atmospheric blur occurs especially for long distances and total optical depths greater than unity. This effect is well known for light propagation in the atmosphere and has been studied by many authors. A nice review of relevant findings in this research field can be read in [1]. Originally, ...

... source. Atmospheric blur occurs especially for long distances and total optical depths greater than unity. This effect is well known for light propagation in the atmosphere and has been studied by many authors. A nice review of relevant findings in this research field can be read in [1]. Originally, ...

Wave-front sensing from defocused images by use

... here for both mathematical convenience and practical significance, but the analysis is valid for an aperture of any shape. In the circular case, Zernike polynomials are a set of orthonormal basis functions that can be used to describe wave-front aberrations: ...

... here for both mathematical convenience and practical significance, but the analysis is valid for an aperture of any shape. In the circular case, Zernike polynomials are a set of orthonormal basis functions that can be used to describe wave-front aberrations: ...

Remote Entanglement of Trapped Atomic Ions

... Despite this, I hope to make clear my deep appreciation for all those who helped me to get through graduate school and to the point of writing this thesis. As anyone who has worked in experimental physics can tell you, research does not get done singlehandedly. I’d therefore like to first thank all ...

... Despite this, I hope to make clear my deep appreciation for all those who helped me to get through graduate school and to the point of writing this thesis. As anyone who has worked in experimental physics can tell you, research does not get done singlehandedly. I’d therefore like to first thank all ...

Polarization Entanglement Storage in Ensemble-Based ARCHIVES

... respectively, satisfying the phase matching condition ks + kas = kr + k, results in a very high probability amplitude for the anti-Stokes photon to be in the kr + k, - k, direction due to constructive interference [TGS+09]. Our analysis merges the approaches of trapped single atoms in cavity quantum ...

... respectively, satisfying the phase matching condition ks + kas = kr + k, results in a very high probability amplitude for the anti-Stokes photon to be in the kr + k, - k, direction due to constructive interference [TGS+09]. Our analysis merges the approaches of trapped single atoms in cavity quantum ...

[pdf]

... Flow in turbid media is an interesting problem that has received some attention. In these measurements experimenters typically determine a correlation function that may be a compound of many decays representing a weighted average of flow within the sample. For example, Bonner and Nossa! have develop ...

... Flow in turbid media is an interesting problem that has received some attention. In these measurements experimenters typically determine a correlation function that may be a compound of many decays representing a weighted average of flow within the sample. For example, Bonner and Nossa! have develop ...

PPT - Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar

... Increasing the length doesn‘t help due to strong absorption in the medium Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) provides a larger 3rd order non-linearity without absorption. ...

... Increasing the length doesn‘t help due to strong absorption in the medium Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) provides a larger 3rd order non-linearity without absorption. ...

Observation of two-photon emission from semiconductors

... 100-mW continuous-wave 514-nm argon laser (photon energy, Évpump 1.73Egap where Egap is the energy gap between the electron levels), focused with a spot size of 30 mm (after filtering out spontaneous infrared (IR) emission) onto a 200-mm-thick GaAs sample (much thicker than the laser penetration ...

... 100-mW continuous-wave 514-nm argon laser (photon energy, Évpump 1.73Egap where Egap is the energy gap between the electron levels), focused with a spot size of 30 mm (after filtering out spontaneous infrared (IR) emission) onto a 200-mm-thick GaAs sample (much thicker than the laser penetration ...

Two electric field Monte Carlo models of coherent backscattering of

... coherent backscattering (CBS), is a coherent wave phenomenon in which light rays traveling through time-reversed paths (i.e., two light rays that travel through the same sequence of optical events but in the opposite directions relative to each other) interfere constructively to create an angular in ...

... coherent backscattering (CBS), is a coherent wave phenomenon in which light rays traveling through time-reversed paths (i.e., two light rays that travel through the same sequence of optical events but in the opposite directions relative to each other) interfere constructively to create an angular in ...

High visibility six-photon entanglement Magnus R˚ admark

... non-linear process of parametric down-conversion are described. These components are needed to generate the entangled photons and to engineer the desired state. In chapter 3, the quantum state analysis, detectors and a self-developed coincidence unit are described. The experimental results of the si ...

... non-linear process of parametric down-conversion are described. These components are needed to generate the entangled photons and to engineer the desired state. In chapter 3, the quantum state analysis, detectors and a self-developed coincidence unit are described. The experimental results of the si ...

Single-Photon Nonlinear Optics with Graphene Plasmons

... difficult given the small nonlinear coefficients of bulk optical materials. The ultimate limit is that of singlephoton nonlinear optics, where individual photons strongly interact with each other. Realization of such nonlinear processes would not only facilitate peak performance of classical nonline ...

... difficult given the small nonlinear coefficients of bulk optical materials. The ultimate limit is that of singlephoton nonlinear optics, where individual photons strongly interact with each other. Realization of such nonlinear processes would not only facilitate peak performance of classical nonline ...

Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) - Tutorial

... the energy of a signal photon and an idler photon must equal the energy of a pump photon. Therefore an infinite number of generated photon combinations are possible. However, the combination that will be efficiently produced is the one for which the periodicity of the poling in the lithium niobate c ...

... the energy of a signal photon and an idler photon must equal the energy of a pump photon. Therefore an infinite number of generated photon combinations are possible. However, the combination that will be efficiently produced is the one for which the periodicity of the poling in the lithium niobate c ...

Polarization directions of noncollinear phase

... ‘‘What is the nature of reality?’’ and ‘‘Is the quantum mechanical view an accurate representation of nature?’’1–5 While such questions often lead to confusion, or at least to a failure to comprehend the full ramifications of the theory, they are certainly useful in the attempt to comprehend the ful ...

... ‘‘What is the nature of reality?’’ and ‘‘Is the quantum mechanical view an accurate representation of nature?’’1–5 While such questions often lead to confusion, or at least to a failure to comprehend the full ramifications of the theory, they are certainly useful in the attempt to comprehend the ful ...

PPLN waveguide for quantum communication | SpringerLink

... the non-linear coefficient of the substrate as well as the orientation of the domains. Our PPLN substrate features a length of 3.2 cm, and the waveguide employed in the experiments has a 1/e width of 6 µm, a 1/e depth of 2.1 µm and a poling period of 12.1 µm. Pumping the sample at a wavelength of 65 ...

... the non-linear coefficient of the substrate as well as the orientation of the domains. Our PPLN substrate features a length of 3.2 cm, and the waveguide employed in the experiments has a 1/e width of 6 µm, a 1/e depth of 2.1 µm and a poling period of 12.1 µm. Pumping the sample at a wavelength of 65 ...

chapter 2 photons and atoms

... The intensity at the observation plane is calculated using electromagnetic (wave) optics and the result is converted to a probability density function that specifies the random position of the detected photon. The interference arises from phase differences in the two paths. ...

... The intensity at the observation plane is calculated using electromagnetic (wave) optics and the result is converted to a probability density function that specifies the random position of the detected photon. The interference arises from phase differences in the two paths. ...

How does it scale? Comparing quantum and classical nonlinear

... presented there, and then, for we are free to do so, set n̄ n and χ̄ 2 2d0ijk ∕ ε0 , as well as approximate vm ≈ c ∕ n. Comparing our quantum [Eq. (12)] and classical [Eqs. (19) and (20)] expressions, we first note that SPDC, DFG, and SHG all scale the same way with the characteristic power, P, ...

... presented there, and then, for we are free to do so, set n̄ n and χ̄ 2 2d0ijk ∕ ε0 , as well as approximate vm ≈ c ∕ n. Comparing our quantum [Eq. (12)] and classical [Eqs. (19) and (20)] expressions, we first note that SPDC, DFG, and SHG all scale the same way with the characteristic power, P, ...

Model for estimating the penetration depth limit of

... light propagation, phase-conjugated light in turn propagates back to the ultrasound focus, where it creates an optical focus. Recently, TRUE has been experimentally achieved by both analog and digital OPC systems. Analog method utilizes nonlinear optical phenomena such as Brillouin scattering and no ...

... light propagation, phase-conjugated light in turn propagates back to the ultrasound focus, where it creates an optical focus. Recently, TRUE has been experimentally achieved by both analog and digital OPC systems. Analog method utilizes nonlinear optical phenomena such as Brillouin scattering and no ...

V807 -Photon-Counting Avalanche Photodiodes – A Primer

... Non-localized radiation and free space photon modes also exist, and are analogous to unbound electron states. We draw a distinction between the smallest amount of light that can be extracted versus the smallest amount of light that exists, because the zero-point energy of the electromagnetic field e ...

... Non-localized radiation and free space photon modes also exist, and are analogous to unbound electron states. We draw a distinction between the smallest amount of light that can be extracted versus the smallest amount of light that exists, because the zero-point energy of the electromagnetic field e ...

High optical efficiency and photon noise limited sensitivity of microwave

... efficiency of a circular antenna illuminated by a singlemoded gaussian beam is21 gA ¼ 0:80. For the measured array the filling fraction of the square packing means that we have a total array aperture efficiency of 57%. Using an array with hexagonal packing the total array aperture efficiency can be ...

... efficiency of a circular antenna illuminated by a singlemoded gaussian beam is21 gA ¼ 0:80. For the measured array the filling fraction of the square packing means that we have a total array aperture efficiency of 57%. Using an array with hexagonal packing the total array aperture efficiency can be ...