A Taxiomatic Attempt at Comparing SPI Frameworks
... purpose of comparing. This provides a common point of reference from which the
frameworks can be evaluated, compared and contrasted.
In the characteristics approach the goal was to describe key attributes of each SPI
framework. However, the purpose of mapping is to identify overlaps and correlations ...
A Knowledge-Based Approach to Lexical Analogy
... . Structure-mapping is essentially a domain-neutral
approach that relies of the structural richness and
systematicity of a knowledge-representation to yield a
mapping based on graph isomorphism. The approach works
best when two domains are rich in the higher-order causal
structures that can guide ...
... How does the human brain make sense of the 3D world while its visual input, the
retinal images, are only two-dimensional? There are multiple depth-cues exploited by the
brain to create a 3D model of the world. Despite the importance of this subject both for
scientists and engineers, the underlying c ...
... but limited in tolerance to the object transformations. The
histogram-based descriptors, for an example, the SIFT features, show great tolerance to the object transformations but
such feature detectors are not complete in the sense that they
do not take all useful information while trying to achieve ...
reviews - Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences
... The control of focal visual attention involves an intricate network of brain areas (BOX 1). In a first approximation, selecting where to attend next is primarily controlled by the DORSAL STREAM of visual processing18,
although object recognition in the VENTRAL STREAM can
bias the next attentional sh ...
A generative theory of similarity
... be deeply bound up with the notion of similarity.
The one-shot learning problem is of practical importance, but is not the standard context in which similarity
is discussed. More commonly, subjects are shown a pair
of objects and asked to rate the similarity of the pair.
Note that both objects are o ...
Linking Neural Activity to Visual Perception: Separating Sensory and
... A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis (Figure 2) was used to quantify the
discrimination sensitivity of MT neurons in the 2AFC task (see Appendix). For this, two
distributions of spike counts were compared against each other, the distribution of counts
from trials when the coherent moti ...
A Feedback Model of Visual Attention
... The Reynolds and Desimone model, in common with others (e.g., Olshausen et al., 1993), uses top-down signals
to multiplicatively modulate the synaptic strengths of inter-regional connections so that attended information can
be selectively routed to higher cortical regions. Equivalent results can be ...
The role of early visual cortex in visual integration: a neural model of
... mechanism that can be implemented by the early retinotopic visual
areas. On the other hand, when both target and distractors are
composed of similar elementary features, the amount of time required
to distinguish between them increases linearly with the number of
distractors. This is said to suggest ...
Predictions, perception, and a sense of self
... are updated into posterior beliefs after the information is available. In this commentary, we try to
describe the essential properties of the Bayesian brain and highlight recent advances in understanding neuropsychiatric conditions in terms of false inference. Our account is necessarily brief
but ho ...
Chapter 2 An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology
... Factors in Psychopathology
Influence form and expression of behavior
Exerts a strong and puzzling effect on
Social Effects on Health and Behavior
Frequency and quality are important
Related to mortality, disease, and
... theory proposes that while the size of empty space interacts with the magnitude of size contrast to determine the
final magnitude of illusions, it also plays a key role in providing an orientation signal for the application of computation by the perceptual system (Figure 2A and 2B).
There are other ...
Monitoring and switching of cortico-basal ganglia loop
... or events contrary to predictions. In this article, we propose a hypothetical model that envisions that the CM–Pf complex functions in two
different modes depending on the predictability of external events, i.e., one for monitoring ‘top-down’ biased control through the cortico-basal
ganglia loop sys ...
is function OF - Association for Contextual Behavioral Science
... a) BT historically fits within the functional approach:
- classical conditioning (BT): CS-US pairings => change in behavior
- operant conditioning (ABA): Sd: R-O => changes in behavior
=> BT analysis: psychopathology as instances of conditioning
(e.g., fear for elevator as instance of conditioning)
REVIEW Time Course of Auditory Processing, Visual Processing
... and receptive language disorders.
Attention can be top-down (voluntary or taskdependent) or bottom-up (sound-based salience) . For
bottom-up attention, auditory input and processing are
required. For bottom-up processing, sound conductive
mechanism, involving outer and middle ear; and
Causal networks as the backbone for temporal data-to-text
... to use a bottom-up approach. Bottom-up approaches, contrarily to top-down ones, guarantee
that all chosen content will be included in the
rhetorical structure. This can avoid continuity
problems that are due to missing events in the
generated text (Portet et al., 2009, pp. 807–808).
We retain from t ...
Article Page 08.27.20+
... predict the consequences of potential actions (top-down expectations). This information
is then used in a feedforward manner to react quickly to incoming stimuli. Having such a
system allows the brain to overcome time delays inherent in a strictly feedback system.
The unimaginable catches by close-t ...
Psychology Mr. Detjen Chapter Reading/Study Guide 1. “What is
... 1. “What is Psychology?”
I. Chapter Outline. For each chapter, begin by writing a comprehensive and annotated outline. The purpose
of this task is to habituate yourself to taking notes on what you read. And the more and better and effortfully
you “frontload” notes here, the less you will need to re- ...
Full Article - CIHR Research Group in Sensory
... trials for both monkeys and is consistent with a bottom-up (i.e. involuntary) bias. When the delay was increased to 650 ms, one
monkey continued to show faster responses to the Invalid location whereas the other monkey showed faster responses to the Valid
location, consistent with a top-down (i.e. v ...
... from the field of view randomly, but rather, they move continuously across the field of view, given their motion is not
too fast for the brain to respond. At the pixel level, views are
very discontinuous as image patches sweep across the field
of view. Motivated by cerebral cortex, our model explore ...
... D) opponent-process cell.
63. When admiring the texture of a piece of fabric, Calvin usually runs his fingertips over the cloth's surface. He does this
if the cloth were held motionless, sensory adaptation to its feel would quickly occur.
the sense of touch does not adapt.
a relati ...
Top-down and bottom-up design
Top-down and bottom-up are both strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering, used in a variety of fields including software, humanistic and scientific theories (see systemics), and management and organization. In practice, they can be seen as a style of thinking and teaching.A top-down approach (also known as stepwise design and in some cases used as a synonym of decomposition) is essentially the breaking down of a system to gain insight into its compositional sub-systems in a reverse engineering fashion. In a top-down approach an overview of the system is formulated, specifying but not detailing any first-level subsystems. Each subsystem is then refined in yet greater detail, sometimes in many additional subsystem levels, until the entire specification is reduced to base elements. A top-down model is often specified with the assistance of ""black boxes"", these make it easier to manipulate. However, black boxes may fail to elucidate elementary mechanisms or be detailed enough to realistically validate the model. Top down approach starts with the big picture. It breaks down from there into smaller segments.A bottom-up approach is the piecing together of systems to give rise to more complex systems, thus making the original systems sub-systems of the emergent system. Bottom-up processing is a type of information processing based on incoming data from the environment to form a perception. From a Cognitive Psychology perspective, information enters the eyes in one direction (sensory input, or the ""bottom""), and is then turned into an image by the brain that can be interpreted and recognized as a perception (output that is ""built up"" from processing to final cognition). In a bottom-up approach the individual base elements of the system are first specified in great detail. These elements are then linked together to form larger subsystems, which then in turn are linked, sometimes in many levels, until a complete top-level system is formed. This strategy often resembles a ""seed"" model, whereby the beginnings are small but eventually grow in complexity and completeness. However, ""organic strategies"" may result in a tangle of elements and subsystems, developed in isolation and subject to local optimization as opposed to meeting a global purpose.