Biography of Andrei Nikolaevich Kolmogorov
... Academy of Sciences of the USSR. He received one of
the first State Prizes in 1941, the Lenin Prize in 1965,
the Order of Lenin on seven separate occasions, and
the Lobachevsky Prize in 1987. He had the title of Hero
of Socialist Labour.
International Honours. He was also elected to the many
other a ...
... Machine Learning Approach. In Prince, V. and Roche, M. (ed). "Information Retrieval
... Reliability theory and reliability engineering also make extensive use
of the exponential distribution. Because of the memoryless property of
this distribution, it is well-suited to model the constant hazard rate
portion of the bathtub curve used in reliability theory. It is also very
convenient bec ...
Information theory is a branch of applied mathematics, electrical engineering, and computer science involving the quantification of information. Information theory was developed by Claude E. Shannon to find fundamental limits on signal processing operations such as compressing data and on reliably storing and communicating data. Since its inception it has broadened to find applications in many other areas, including statistical inference, natural language processing, cryptography, neurobiology, the evolution and function of molecular codes, model selection in ecology, thermal physics, quantum computing, linguistics, plagiarism detection, pattern recognition, anomaly detection and other forms of data analysis.A key measure of information is entropy, which is usually expressed by the average number of bits needed to store or communicate one symbol in a message. Entropy quantifies the uncertainty involved in predicting the value of a random variable. For example, specifying the outcome of a fair coin flip (two equally likely outcomes) provides less information (lower entropy) than specifying the outcome from a roll of a die (six equally likely outcomes).Applications of fundamental topics of information theory include lossless data compression (e.g. ZIP files), lossy data compression (e.g. MP3s and JPEGs), and channel coding (e.g. for Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)). The field is at the intersection of mathematics, statistics, computer science, physics, neurobiology, and electrical engineering. Its impact has been crucial to the success of the Voyager missions to deep space, the invention of the compact disc, the feasibility of mobile phones, the development of the Internet, the study of linguistics and of human perception, the understanding of black holes, and numerous other fields. Important sub-fields of information theory are source coding, channel coding, algorithmic complexity theory, algorithmic information theory, information-theoretic security, and measures of information.