Popper and Xenophanes - ORCA
... It is next appropriate to summarise Popper’s commentary on this
fragment. As he remarks, this passage goes beyond asserting the
conjectural character of human knowledge, and presents a theory of
objective knowledge, for which, even if you or I may say something true,
neither you nor I nor anyone wil ...
Epistemological Vs - Birkbeck, University of London
... But why all this creative reconstruction, all this make believe? The stimulation
of his sensory receptors is all the evidence anybody has had to go on, ultimately,
in arriving at his picture of the world. Why not just see how this construction
really proceeds? Why not settle for psychology! (Quine ( ...
DAMIAN ILODIGWE OAKESHOTT`S CRITIQUE OF SOVEREIGNTY
... pure reason.15 Indeed Oakeshott complains in Rationalism in Politics that this failure to take
into account the disconnection between rationality and politics and the scepticism it warrants
defines the contemporary situation of European politics.16 Thus as Oakeshott makes clear at
the start of his d ...
METAPHORS IN LEIBNIZ`S PHILOSOPHY
... these domains. But, beyond epistemology, it is also involved in Leibniz's
conceptualization of some central concepts of his metaphysics. A 'connecting
function' is indeed, as we shall see, one of the main cognitive contributions of
The point of view engendered by this metaphor – the v ...
Willful Ignorance and Self-Deception
... though condition B is incurable. Let’s also suppose that these developments are not innocent at
all. However, Burke doesn’t go, because he’d rather not know that he has condition B if he does.
These are two cases of what we would call willful ignorance (also called ‘willful
blindness’). Indeed, the ...
DOC - Princeton University
... some deep distinction between two kinds of rationality here: asking-a-question rationality and
avoiding-the-flu rationality. On the other hand, some have thought that there is a deep and
fundamental distinction between epistemic rationality and other types of rationality. If the
instrumentalist conc ...
Scepticism with regard to Reason* David Owen, University of
... sometimes seen people make mistakes in such matters and accept as certain... things which
seemed false to us.”10 The argument is similar to Hume’s first negative argument: since we are
fallible, and make mistakes, we can’t accept as certain even the results of demonstrations. An
awareness of the un ...
Dialogue Games for Inconsistent and Biased Information
... In this situation, there seems to be convincing evidence to believe that it is
going to rain, but this does not dispel the evidence that it is not going to rain,
that is, the agent is not complete certain, but biased to believe the former.
A belief state is called biased when more evidence exists to ...
A Gentle Introduction to Soar, an Architecture for Human
... how to tell a joke, solve equations, play baseball, or cook dinner. Yet, most of us become
proficient (and some of us expert) at one or more of these activities and thousands of
others. Indeed, perhaps the most remarkable thing about people is how many things they
learn to do given how little they s ...
Disagreement and the Ethics of Belief
... If that is the case, the psychological mechanisms responsible for the
overblown self-assessments would certainly seem to be well adapted
for the attainment of our epistemic ends. But it seems to me that this
would hardly show that the distorted beliefs about one’s self
produced by the mechanism were ...
The central argument is simple:
... One obvious answer to King’s worry is to say that propositions must be composite things that
have objects and properties as parts. So the number 2 is a part of the proposition that 2 + 2 = 4,
but not part of the proposition that first-order logic is undecidable. Similarly, the city of Paris (or
a pr ...
... These statements (especially the last two) are problematic insofar as they suggest
that moves from beliefs about our having intuitions to beliefs in their contents are the
sorts of moves that putatively generate intuitively justified beliefs. The fact that one has
an intuition that P is not like th ...
Virtue, Knowledge, and Goodness
... excellence or ability of an agent. While I am not aware of any attempt to give an exhaustive
list of suitable reliabilist virtues, virtue reliabilists generally have in mind our basic cognitive
faculties. But Baehr argues that this category should include virtues of intellectual character
as well, s ...
EXPERIENCE AND PERCEPTUAL BELIEF
... of science’. We cannot test scientific theories against introspective reports from
scientists, because scientific theories (save for theories belonging to introspective
psychology) say nothing about what the introspective activities of scientists will or
will not reveal about their psyches. [If we f ...
... alternative views that deny this claim. One view is that humans do not possess a generalpurpose mechanism for deductive reasoning, but rather a different kind of generalpurpose reasoning mechanism, for example one devoted to probabilistic or explanatory
A different view is that humans lac ...
Not Every Truth Can Be Known (at least, not all
... that it can never be known for it can never be true. The same kind of process can
be seen in p ∧ ¬Kp, though now we have a conjunction which we can see that
we will never know even though it may be true. It is meaningful because it is a
conjunction of meaningful claims.
THE CONCEPT OF VERBUM IN THE WRITINGS OF ST. THOMAS
... Aquinas. Repeatedly he spoke of an intelligere multa per unum: many
acts of understanding cannot be simultaneous in one intellect; but one
act of understanding can and does grasp many objects in a single
view.15 Understanding a house is not understanding severally the
foundation, the walls, and the ...
Dialectic and Dialogue in Plato: Revisiting the Image of "Socrates
... In this paper, I am working from an interpretation of the “Socratic-method” that differs
drastically from the aforementioned forms of “dialectic,” one in which the method of questioning
expresses a sense of ignorance against the backdrop of an “understanding” that allows for questions to be
given fo ...
A Comparative Study of the Epistemology of Immanuel Kant and that
... which belong to the aforementioned second group of “rationalists and Metaphysicians”. Here
Jayatilleke observes how the essential arguments used by the Indian Materialism were similar or
essentially identical with those used in the Western Empiricism.33 He adds that the resemblance
between the India ...
Knowledge and the curriculum - Brunel University Research Archive
... multifaceted phenomenon. The requirements for a curriculum for learning mathematics are,
after all, quite different from curricula concerned with, for example, car mechanics, aviation,
brain surgery, beauty therapy, citizenship, critical thinking, and so on. It is also important
not to think of thes ...
... want to know what they are; but the philosopher's wish to know
this is stronger than the practical man's, and is more troubled by
knowledge as to the difficulties of answering the question.
To return to the table. It is evident from what we have found, that
there is no colour which pre-eminently app ...
Session 1 Rationalism –v
... • …as we shall see!
• Hence this course of philosophy will NOT give
you final answers to these questions
• But rather present it as a series of
debates/issues (4 of them)
• Covering the foundational aspects of the
disputes and some of the main arguments
• With an AIM of getting you into reading this ...
this PDF file
... Confucius asked his pupil, Zigong, “Which do you think is the better, you or Hui?”
Zigong replied saying, “I’m no equal to Hui. Even if by knowing one thing, Hui can
understand all of the ten things; but if I hear one thing, I wouldn’t figure out more
than two.” Seeing himself “mirrored” in Hui and ...
Russell, Bertrand - The Problems of Philosophy
... as they appear. Here we have already the beginning of one of the distinctions that cause
most trouble in philosophy -- the distinction between 'appearance' and 'reality', between
what things seem to be and what they are. The painter wants to know what things seem to
be, the practical man and the phi ...
Kant`s Distinction Between Theoretical and Practical Knowledge
... ural here to conceive of the relation between practical knowledge and its cognitive
object in the way it was viewed by the rational intuitionists of the seventeenth century (for example, Ralph Cudworth and Samuel Clarke). According t o these
philosophers, as they are commonly understood, reason is ...
Epistemology (/ɨˌpɪstɨˈmɒlədʒi/; from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning ""knowledge, understanding"", and λόγος, logos, meaning ""word"") is a term first used by the Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier to describe the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge and is also referred to as ""theory of knowledge"". Put concisely, it is the study of knowledge and justified belief. It questions what knowledge is and how it can be acquired, and the extent to which knowledge pertinent to any given subject or entity can be acquired. Much of the debate in this field has focused on the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth, belief, and justification. The term was probably first introduced in Ferrier's Institutes of Metaphysic: The Theory of Knowing and Being (1854), p. 46.