... a complete induction. But the complete induction involves a
knowledge of the conclusion—“Socrates is a mortal.” For we
cannot say, that all men are mortal unless we already know
that Socrates is mortal. The Syllogism is, therefore, an
instance of a vicious cycle.
2. Such an argument would only be va ...
Notes to Introduce Epistemology
... but we recall it as we begin to have imperfect contact with the
sensible world. Our senses provide an initial stimulus to the
recollection of our innate ideas.
Belief, Truth, Knowledge notes
... • Rationalists believe that all knowledge is rooted in reason.
• Rationalist statements are true without the use of senses. (If A is greater
than B, and B is greater than C, then A is great than C)
• Cause and Effect - (yes remember Aquinas) - ___________________________ - we
don’t see the cause yet ...
Belief, Truth, & Knowledge
... Belief alone isn’t sufficient for knowledge - you can’t
believe something that is false either.
... English Romanticism, and Indian spirituality/Hinduism.
● Knowledge is not based on experience or dogma but comes from within.
● The inner essence of the individual is the root of all meaningful knowledge.
● Organized religion and institutions corrupt mankind. (Similar to Rousseau’s
caustic critique ...
DO NOW - philoteacher
... in the past seeming to see something, like a penny on
the street, and when I got closer, there it was, just as
it had appeared to be.”
Notes here - Raymond Williams Foundation
... 1. The person believes the statement to be true
2. The statement is in fact true
3. The person is justified in believing the statement to be true
3. Can we know anything? Descarte(1596 -1650) developed an argument
…..suppose there is an evil genius, that is “supremely powerful and clever” and was
... Church beliefs cast
into doubt, Copernicus
& Galileo challenged
Rationalism - George Belic Philosophy
... had accepted, even from my youth, many false opinions for true, and
that consequently what I afterward based on such principles was
highly doubtful; and from that time I was convinced of the necessity
of undertaking once in my life to rid myself of all the opinions I had
adopted, and of commencing a ...
SoccioPP_ch01 - Philosophy 1510 All Sections
... “the history of heresy,” since it challenges us to
question even our most cherished beliefs.
As one famous philosopher put it, “I do not know
how to teach philosophy without becoming a
disturber of the peace.” – Baruch Spinoza
... needs to apply reason to life. Sometimes pain is
necessary in order to gain happiness. Other times,
pleasure leads to more suffering than it is worth.
And there are levels of pain and pleasure, smaller
and greater happiness.
e.g., Friendship is rated one of the highest pleasures.
Society is seen as ...
... (an accurate representation of the way
Some basic terminology
... some point, we may want to gives reasons, justifications, for these beliefs. Empiricists say that
justification of a belief must always end in some kind of appeal to sense experience. (For
example, “I know that P is true because I saw Q.”) Rationalists deny this, and say that, at least
sometimes (ma ...
... means creator, causer, intelligence, sustainer
of the universe.
the arguments that philosophers
consider,examine whether it is reasonable to
suppose there is such a being.
Quiz1 - Ryerson University
... To reject everything that we believed beforehand.
To reject everything that Aristotle had to say.
To reject every belief for which there was even the slightest doubt.
None of the above.
philosophical skepticism at the end of the 20th century
... skeptical attitude is the conviction that to any valid argument one can oppose an
equally valid one. Starting here – it seems – we stop having dogmatic opinions”4.
In this case the skeptic finds himself within a fundamental impossibility of
deciding which argument is better and, as a consequence, he ...
Is it possible that we have any knowledge
at the level of certitude?
one of the most difficult subject in epistemology
Plato, knowledge and virtue
... • The Form of beauty is pure beauty; it (alone) is not
both beautiful and not beautiful.
• Therefore, we can have knowledge of the Forms,
though not through our senses.
• The highest knowledge is knowledge of the Form of
the Good: it is from the good that ‘things that are
just and so on derive their ...
Questions - Tamu.edu
... 2. Why does the closed belief trap suggest the certainty assumption? (Explain what they are.)
3. What is the difference between skepticism and dogmatism?
4. Why is a moral skeptic not always a cynic?
5. What is Socrates’ argument for skepticism?
Chapter Two: Authority and Reason, Arguments and Parad ...
plato n aristotle
... them really is good for them – makes the case of Athens thinking it is right to condemn
Socrates right for Athens. Plato knows condemning Socrates is wrong; so he knows that
there must be standards that are more conventional. The Forms, the dialectic about
Justice, and the subordination of everythi ...
On philosophical method and Eastern Philosophy as a pdf file
... various meditation techniques to acquire knowledge about Reality. Indeed for these philosophers
ultimate knowledge about Reality can be had only through certain kinds of meditation.
The second area of philosophical inquiry has become known as Metaphysics. Metaphysics concerns
questions about the nat ...
Introduction to Philosophy Test #2 Study Sheet Test: June 23, 2010
... passage and show how what is said relates to this context and why what is said is
important. Your explanations should be at least 3 times longer than the passage itself.
1. ‘Suppose a person, though endowed with the strongest faculties of reason and
reflection, to be brought on a sudden into this wo ...
LECTURE 2: APOLOGETICS AND PHILOSOPHY
... rationalist does not trust authority, but also he does not trust even his own observation; in fact, he does
not trust his senses at all. The only dependable knowledge is that which originates from self-evident
presuppositions and that can be developed by logical deduction from those presuppositions. ...
“Encyclopedia” Excerpts from the entry in the Encyclopédie (1751
... without regard for anyone’s feelings. (…) We must ride roughshod over all these ancient puerilities,
overturn the barriers that reason never erected, give back to the arts and sciences the liberty that is so
precious to them . (…) We have for quite some time needed a reasoning age when men would no ...
For a general discussion of skepticism, see Skepticism.Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, ""inquiry"") is both a philosophical school of thought and a method that crosses disciplines and cultures.It is generally agreed that knowledge requires justification. It is not enough to have a true belief: one must also have good reasons for that belief. Skeptics claim that it is not possible to have an adequate justification.Skepticism is not a single position but covers a range of different positions. In the ancient world there were two main skeptical traditions. Academic skepticism took the dogmatic position that knowledge was not possible; Pyrrhonian skeptics refused to take a dogmatic position on any issue—including skepticism. Radical skepticism ends in the paradoxical claim that one cannot know anything—including that one cannot know anything.Skepticism can be classified according to its scope. Local skepticism involves being skeptical about particular areas of knowledge, e.g. moral skepticism, skepticism about the external world, or skepticism about other minds, whereas global skepticism is skeptical about the possibility of any knowledge at all.Skepticism can also be classified according to its method. In the Western tradition there are two basic approaches to skepticism. Cartesian skepticism, named somewhat misleadingly after René Descartes who was not a skeptic but used some traditional skeptical arguments in his Meditations to help establish his rationalist approach to knowledge, attempts to show that any proposed knowledge claim can be doubted. Agrippan skepticism focuses on the process of justification rather than the possibility of doubt. According to this view there are three ways in which one might attempt to justify a claim but none of them are adequate. One can keep on providing further justification but this leads to an infinite regress; one can stop at a dogmatic assertion; or one can argue in a circle.Philosophical skepticism is distinguished from methodological skepticism in that philosophical skepticism is an approach that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge, whereas methodological skepticism is an approach that subjects all knowledge claims to scrutiny with the goal of sorting out true from false claims.