... contexts; and the processes by which gender norms change. This section includes a discussion of adolescent
girls’ agency in challenging discriminatory gender norms, and processes of resistance and backlash against
changing gender norms. While a comprehensive survey of relevant literature on all thes ...
... Johan Galtung formulated a theory of violence based on the recognition that direct, personal violence (from bar brawls to international
wars) is only one of three shapes which violence assumes. The other
two categories of violence, namely structural (or indirect) and cultural
violence are present in ...
... painted by patriarchal ideologies (and assumed by Orgon), masculinity is always potentially at risk of being destabilized precisely because it occupies the
dominant position within the sex/gender system. I argue furthermore that it
is through positions of marginality, such as the one occupied by Org ...
... Lorber argues that “it has been very difficult, if not impossible,
to get mainstream sociology to use the concept of gender as a
building block and organizational principle of social orders and
social institutions...” (p. 449). She attributes this resistance to the
persistent belief in mainstream so ...
... 3.1 Effective delivery of security and
The security sector must be able to respond to the
different security needs of men, women, boys and
girls, many of which are determined by differences in
gender roles, norms and behaviour. For instance,
gender-based violence (GBV), including hu ...
... mobilized to change gender relations in and outside academia, and sociology was one of the many social
institutions that they changed.
In this paper, we trace the process of these transformations in the United States. We argue that the
dramatic increases of women in sociology since the early 1970s h ...
Gender systems are systems of gender roles in societies. A gender role is ""everything that a person says and does to indicate to others or to the self the degree that one is either male, female, or androgynous. This includes but is not limited to sexual and erotic arousal and response."" Gender identity is one's own personal experience with gender role and the persistence of one's individuality as male, female, or androgynous, especially in self-awareness and behavior.Gender binary is one example of a gender system. A gender binary is the classification of sex and gender into two distinct and disconnected forms of masculine and feminine. It can describe a social boundary that discourages people from crossing or mixing gender roles, or from creating a third form of gender expression altogether. It can also represent some of the prejudices which stigmatize intersex and transgender people. The gender binary often involves gender roles and gender identities as a means of identifying a place for someone to fit in a male or female role in society.