Gender justice: capabilities or primary goods?
... versus girls, and also in the gender-stereotypical messages that many textbooks hide.
The media also contributes to spreading gender norms, thereby constructing idealised
notions of masculinity and femininity. Similarly, families are gendered institutions, as
parents teach children what the ‘appropr ...
ISA-RC32 Call for papers for 2010 World Congress of Sociology in
... unpaid work within the context of private life and the degree of change in social practices
and behaviors. We welcome papers that examine the intersection of work and family, the
father-mother balance in the distribution of child care and housework tasks, the new
patterns of life, the allocation of ...
Gender pay gap in Russia
In Russia the wage gap exists (after 1991, but also before) and statistical analysis shows that most of it cannot be explained by lower qualifications of women compared to men. On the other hand, occupational segregation by gender and labor market discrimination seem to account for a large share of it.Eurostat defines the (unadjusted) gender pay gap (or wage gap) as the difference between average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees and of female paid employees as a percentage of average gross hourly earnings of male paid employees. In other words it is the difference between 1 and the gender pay ratio (gender pay ratio = (women's average earnings/men's average earnings)*100%). It serves to some extent as an indicator of gender inequality level within a country, but even more so for the unequal opportunities faced by women and men in the labor market. Also the indicator reflects the incompatible requirements of career and family as well as the poverty risk of single parent households, both problems which mostly women face.The October Revolution (1917) and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 have shaped the developments in the gender wage gap. These two main turning points in the Russian history frame the analysis of Russia’s gender pay gap found in the economic literature. Consequently, the pay gap study can be examined for two periods: the wage gap in Soviet Russia (1917-1991), and the wage gap in the transition and post-transition (after 1991).