SOP #11 Acoustic Startle and Pre
... Both male and female rats have been used in measures of startle reflex magnitude and
plasticity. The effects of rat gender on many variables and drug responses have not been
studied systematically, so it is important to match the gender of the rats used previously
when studies are replicated or exte ...
Fear Models in Animals and Humans
... Although Pavlovian fear conditioning is a powerful model for understanding fear across species, it
requires direct experience with an aversive event. In humans, many of our fears are learned through
social means without direct aversive experience. For instance, a common phobia is fear of germs.
Rapid eye movement sleep promotes cortical
... times, and with the same distribution across the sleep period, but only
during non-REM (NREM) sleep [NREM sleep fragmentation (NF)
group] (fig. S1B). This is a necessary control because RSD has indirect
effects on NREM sleep duration and EEG activity (9). After 6 hours of
MD and 1 hour of sleep, whe ...
Varieties of Analogical Reasoning
... What we can call “Ad-hoc” (to this) analogy occurs in contexts in which the goal is to construct analogies de
novo, typically in the explicit A : B :: C : D format, to meet certain criteria or to suit particular purposes. The
purpose delimits the form of the analogies (e.g., geometrical, verbal, etc ...
Wild type human TDP-43 potentiates ALS-linked mutant TDP
... while post-natal knockout results in metabolic defects,
leading to rapid death . In contrast, heterozygous
knockdown results only in a mild impairment in grip
strength, with no overt evidence of neurodegeneration
, while motor neuron specific knockdown results in
age dependent progressive mo ...
... Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge
APA Goal: Goal 1: Knowledge Base of Psychology
17. An action potential is
a. the likelihood that a neuron will take action when stimulated.
b. an energy impulse released by the dendrites.
c. the firing of a nerve, either toward or away from the cell bo ...
GnRH Protein Levels in Atrazine-Treated Axolotls
... hypothalamus of developing amphibians,
resulting in disrupted steroidogenesis and sexual
development. We chose the axolotl, Ambystoma
mexicanum, as our model organism because its
long history as an experimental amphibian
provides many well-established laboratory
protocols, and because it is large, h ...
Altered Resting-State Functional Connectivity of
... are functionally heterogeneous, with distinct roles in learning and expressing fear behaviors. PTSD differences in amygdala-complex function
and functional connectivity with cortical and subcortical structures remain unclear. Recent military veterans with PTSD (n ¼ 20) and
matched trauma-exposed con ...
Early Sensory Pathways for Detection of Fearful Conditioned Stimuli
... Boatman and Kim, 2006). Whether this is also the case during
active avoidance conditioning is unknown.
Rats readily learn to avoid an aversive stimulus by detecting a
low-intensity 10 Hz electrical CS applied unilaterally to the whisker pad (Castro-Alamancos, 2004a). Such a stimulus (termed
here WCS ...
Enlargement of Axo-Somatic Contacts Formed by
... females experiment with dieting, while only 1% of them succumb
to the condition of AN (Hudson et al. 2007). What is the basis for
the individual differences in vulnerability to AN? This was the
question of our study strived to answer through the use of a
mouse model of AN, namely activity-based anor ...
Foundations of Physiological Psychology, 7e (Carlson)
... B) Damage to the brain can alter our self-awareness.
C) Inhalation of certain gases renders us aware of the environment.
D) Our awareness levels change with our emotional states.
E) Consciousness is similar across organisms with very different brain structures.
Rationale: The proposition t ...
... § Cross-cultural data support associative learning
§ An evolutionary argument: Some animals exhibit an
instinctive aversion to smells from predators, etc.
§ Learned taste aversion: Avoidance of a novel flavor after it
has been paired with gastric illness
A behavioral switch: cGMP and PKC signaling in olfactory neurons
... activates an insulin receptor/PI 3-kinase signaling pathway within the ASER salt-sensing
neuron to suppress its attractive activity (Tomioka et al., 2006). Mutation of the PI 3-kinase
pathway eliminates salt chemotaxis learning, and constitutive activation by a mutation in the
PTEN lipid phosphatase ...
neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine treatment eliminates cholinergic
... those present in the glands of control animals (Fig. 3).
Fewer axons were present in each bundle, and the axons
contained relatively few microtubules and lacked large,
synaptic vesicle-filled varicosities. Some small varicosities were seen, but these contained almost exclusively
large dense-core ves ...
A Brain-to-Brain Interface for Real
... nose poking necessary for the tactile task is part of the rats’ natural
behavioral repertoire. These overall changes in the dyad behavior,
irrespective of their direction (e.g. increased or decreased latency),
are a clear indicator that a fundamentally more complex system
emerged from the operation ...
View PDF - e-Science Central
... found to be present in individuals who were diagnosed with PTSD.
Given the overlapping effects of PTSD and alcoholism, the
interpretation of published findings pertaining to these disorders
has been complicated by their frequent co-occurrence in Veterans.
Recent studies indicate that OEF/OIF Veteran ...
A Master Key to Assess Stroke Consequences Across Species: The
... showed to be promising as a predictor of post-stroke functional outcome (Rose et al., 1994).
In the way of improving the functional assessment in experimental stroke models, adhesive
removal test has been first adapted to rats about a quarter of century ago (Schallert et al.,
1982). The stimulus emp ...
NIH Public Access
... Despite the compelling empirical support for this model of PTSD pathophysiology, there are
strong reasons to seek additional corroborative evidence. Whereas conditioned fear can be
measured across species with relatively simple autonomic or behavioral responses that may
even occur non-consciously in ...
Virtual dissection and comparative connectivity of the superior
... recognized in both macaques and humans (Makris et al., 2005;
Fernandez-Miranda et al., 2008; Gharabaghi et al., 2009; Petrides and
Pandya, 2009; Thiebaut de Schotten et al., 2011a; Martino and Marco
de Lucas, 2014). Here we use the term “SLF” to refer speciﬁcally to
direct fronto-parietal connection ...
MUSIC PERCEPTION AND COGNITION
... category boundaries, relative to stimuli in the center of a category (Studdert-Kennedy et al.,
1970). Pitch classes differ from stronger instances of categorical perception, as in speech, in that
it is still possible to discriminate between different examples within the same category (see
Jusczyk & ...
The Social Contract
... "What did I do?" His refuge may lie in social paranoia such as that so favored by the young. It is
somebody else's fault. But the mature must inquire more deeply. What did we do that was
wrong? And there is coming about in our time a generation of scientists who, granted the
courage, have the power ...
Ping-An Li, Ashfaq Shuaib, Hiro Miyashita, Qing
... tional histopathological evaluation of brain damage. In hyperglycemic animals, however, survival was severely restricted. Thus, when
6 animals in a pilot study were allowed to wake up after the
ischemia, all developed seizures during the first 1 to 3 hours and
subsequently died in status epilepticus ...
Chapter 2 - Monsignor Farrell High School
... • pituitary gland: gland located in the brain that
secretes human growth hormone and influences
all other hormone-secreting glands (also known
as the master gland)
• pineal gland: endocrine gland located near the
base of the cerebrum that secretes melatonin
• thyroid gland: endocrine gland found in ...
ECBB 2016 Abstract book.
... Visual, acoustic, and olfactory warning signals in true bugs: how do they interact in defence against avian predators?
Ethological Aspects of Stress in a Model Lizard, Anolis carolinensis1
... provide indices of the flux of circulating stress-relevant hormones, and are seen in situations from spontaneous exploration through agonistic behavior. Furthermore, captive adult males spontaneously and consistently manifest social dominance relationships that provide many of the elements of a stre ...
Trans-species psychology is the field of psychology that states that humans and nonhuman animals share commonalities in cognition (thinking) and emotions (feelings). It was established by Gay A. Bradshaw, American ecologist and psychologist.Trans-species psychology argues that existing scientific evidence points to a common model of brain, mind, and behavior for humans and nonhuman animals. Bradshaw claims the theory and data from neuroscience, ethology, and psychology, both current and dating back through the evolutionary biology research of Charles Darwin in the mid-1800s, shows that evolution conserves brain and mind across species. Humans and other animals share a common capacity to think, feel, and experience themselves and their lives. Some mammals have demonstrated the ability to experience empathy, culture, self-awareness, consciousness, psychological trauma, mourning rituals, and complex communication abilities.The knowledge that nonhuman animals have the ability to think and feel in complex ways has also brought the understanding of their capacity to experience psychological trauma and suffering. Trans-species psychology seeks to prevent and treat trauma in all animals through increased scientific understanding.The prefix trans is a Latin noun meaning ""across"" or ""beyond"", and it is used to describe the comparability of brain, mind, and behavior across animal species. In an interview, G.A. Bradshaw stated that the trans affixed to psychology ""re-embeds humans within the larger matrix of the animal kingdom by erasing the ‘and’ between humans and animals that has been used to demarcate and reinforce the false notion that humans are substantively different cognitively and emotionally from other species."" Animal Visions Interview with Gay Bradshaw, 2010.