Back to Marx - Universitätsverlag Göttingen
... study of Marx’s notes and the literature he digested in the course of his construction of thought. Back to Marx is much more than just an extensive and thorough
piece of philosophical research. Perhaps without any intention, it is as much a
testimonial for the profound scholarly and philosophical ex ...
Three Policies to Improve Productivity Growth in Canada.
... increased material living standards for Canadians. It is also the most important means by
which any fiscal pressures arising from the demographic challenges associated with an
aging population can be met. The objective of this paper is to put forward three concrete
policy proposals to improve the pr ...
Some Lessons for Monetary Policy Based on Interest Rates Rules
... The Wicksell’s theory, or his hypothesis as he preferred to call it, takes as departure point the
transformation in monetary and banking institutions was occurring along the XIX century.
Fiduciary money was becoming a current fact (see De Aguirre, 2000, p. 28).
Looking at the desirability of the pol ...
... capacity lies unused. (If more goods aren’t produced it’s because they couldn’t be
profitably sold.) Supply has exceeded Demand and nevertheless prices have risen yearly
by around 7.2%. The deflationist policy of the last two years has not affected this
situation in the least, though hope springs et ...
The Works of Marx and Engels in Ethnology
... (1964), p. 238 note: Socialism, Utopian and Scientific and other later writings of
Engels "are a veritable compendium of the new positivist world-view". But cf.
Herbert Marcuse, Reason and Revolution (1960), Preface; ib., p. 323: "This
absolutism of truth completes the philosophical heritage of Marx ...
Political Economy for Contemporary Capitalism
... ‘virtually every controversy within Marxist economics is at bottom a controversy concerning the nature and status of value theory.’6
This book develops an interpretation of value theory drawing upon a
range of contributions, especially those of Ben Fine and John Weeks.7 This
interpretation is orthod ...
A post-growth society for the 21st century. Does prosperity
... For the last forty years, economic growth has
been on the decline in the rich countries, and a
weak-growth environment could well persist or
even worsen. In fact, it is not inconceivable that
today’s new technologies turn out to be less “radical” than those that propelled the industrial revolution, ...
Factors affecting the economic and social well
... ^Kuznets states, " ... an agricultural revolution — a marked rise
in productivity per worker in agriculture — is a precondition of the
industrial revolution for any sizeable region in the world" (1.8, pp. 5960). Similarly, Nicholls writes, " ... until underdeveloped countries
succeed in achieving an ...
Tinbergen`s business cycle analysis
... on the basis of a macroeconomic aggregate such as gross domestic product or industrial production
as deviation from a trend;
as a degree of capacity utilisation in relation to full capacity compiled either by a full employment rate
combined with labour productivity measure or by capital stock combin ...
NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA ECONOMIC
... How to Get the Most from this Course
In distance learning the study units replace the university lecturer. This is one of the great
advantages of distance learning; you can read and work through specially designed study
materials at your own pace and at a time and place that suit you best.
Think of ...
The American University in Cairo
... widening the inequality gaps not only among the different countries but within each country
depending on where that country stands from the development ladder. As a result, various
theoretical and empirical researches in different social science disciplines were directed to
study the factors of prod ...
The concept of alienation, its origins and consequences in capitalism
... producers and products, in which, the former is determined by the latter instead of determining the
Secondly, workers are alienated from their working activities because the product of their
labour is sold and does not belong to them. The first and second types of alienation relate closely
economics and philosophy: more than having fun and
... Which of these three studies belongs to economics? I can easily imagine you would
believe that none of them belongs to economics. None of them deals with typically
economic issues such as wealth, poverty, economic growth, company takeovers,
inflation, financial crises or something of that sort. I ca ...
Three simple models of social capital and economic growth
... 2. The concept of social capital
2.1. Deﬁning social capital
Like many sociological concepts, social capital encompasses many different meanings. While
some researchers define social capital in terms of trust and norms of civic cooperation, others
characterize it in terms of cultural values such as ...
... and the economy as a whole; this process of expanding inputs into production is one
way the economy can grow. But how much income should be saved? This is the
The Degrowth of Consumption as an Economic Strategy: Is
... and its relationships1. For the purpose of this dissertation, every economic system shall solve an ultimate
problem: what/how/for that shall goods and services be produced and in what quantities?
The allocation problem triggers basic questions that must be answered in order for an economy to run
1 Career capital in transitions crossing career fields Markus Latzke
... individual goes for a job change it is an opportunity to learn not just about the individual but
also about the context in which this transition takes place. A PhD for example might be
evaluated very differently depending on the area in which one is working; it might enhance or
reduce the possibili ...
The Case of General Purpose Technologies
... are called General Purpose Technologies (GPTs henceforth). Prominent examples of
the past would be the steam engine, electricity, and in the last years information and
communication technology (ICT). New generation technologies, and specifically nanotechnology (Youtie et al., 2008), have the high p ...
Karl Marx and the Classics
... (who is thus transformed into a wage-labourer, possessor only of his
labour-force) and in the full ownership of the production means by the
capitalist: the capitalist has both the power to place into operation the
means of production (which was not the case in pre-capitalist modes of
production) as ...
ssptvol20 [PDF 1.25MB]
... a supersession of the objective contradictions, it becomes also speculative in
Hegel’s sense. In his Encyclopaedia, Hegel relates the speculative moment to
the third phase of a dialectical movement, when contradictions are
conceived, not as debilitating, but as productive. It is “the affirmative, wh ...
An Introduction to the three volums of Karl Marx`s
... But it was also—and in particular—the 1990s that showed that capital
ism, even after its apparent “final victory,” continued to go hand in hand
with processes of crisis and immiseration; and Kosovo, Afghanistan, and
the first war in Iraq showed that wars in which the developed capitalist
Marx`s Theory of the Money Commodity
... money was a matter of critical political significance for Marx because he charged
the utopian socialists and British Owenites with exaggerating the potential of
monetary reforms to alter the social system. They falsely imagined that the defects
of the economic system could be removed by tinkering wi ...
In Marxian economics, economic reproduction refers to recurrent (or cyclical) processes Aglietta views economic reproduction as the initial conditions necessary for economic activity to occur are constantly re-created. Marx viewed reproduction as the means by which society re-created itself, both materially and socially. The recreation of the conditions necessary for economic activity to take place was a key part of that. A capitalist would need to reproduce a certain social hierarchy of workers who owned nothing but their labor power and of others who controlled the capital necessary to make production start. Thus, the process of reproduction would need to recreate workers as workers, and capitalists as capitalists. Economic reproduction involves the physical production and distribution of goods and services, the trade (the circulation via exchanges and transactions) of goods and services, and the consumption of goods and services (both productive or intermediate consumption and final consumption). Karl Marx developed the original insights of Quesnay to model the circulation of capital, money, and commodities in the second volume of Das Kapital to show how the reproduction process that must occur in any type of society can take place in capitalist society by means of the circulation of capital.Marx distinguishes between ""simple reproduction"" and ""expanded (or enlarged) reproduction"". In the former case, no economic growth occurs, while in the latter case, more is produced than is needed to maintain the economy at the given level, making economic growth possible. In the capitalist mode of production, the difference is that in the former case, the new surplus value created by wage-labour is spent by the employer on consumption (or hoarded), whereas in the latter case, part of it is reinvested in production.Ernest Mandel additionally refers in his two-volume Marxist Economic Theory to contracted reproduction, meaning production on a smaller and smaller scale, in which case business operating at a loss outnumbers growing business (e.g., in wars, depressions, or disasters). Reproduction in this case continues to occur, but investment, employment, and output fall absolutely, so that the national income falls. In the Great Depression of the 1930s, for example, about one-quarter of the workers became unemployed; as a result of the 2008–9 slump, the unemployed labour force increased by about 30 million workers (a number approximately equal to the total workforce of France, or Britain).