... Associated laboratory findings. Laboratory test results are remarkable for the absence of findings
to support the subjective complaints.
Associated physical examination findings and general medical conditions.
Physical examination is remarkable for the absence of objective findings to fully explain ...
Avril V. Brereton 2008
... One of the key features of autism is abnormality in interpersonal relationships, such as:
reduced responsiveness to or interest in people, an appearance of aloofness and a
limited or impaired ability to relate to others. Infants with autism often do not assume a
normal anticipatory posture or put up ...
stimulant treatment history predicts frontal-striatal
... The immediate effects of stimulants on the brain are relatively well known.
Within one hour after a single clinical dose, stimulants block dopamine and
norepinephrine reuptake in the presynaptic terminal. As a result, dopamine and ...
response inhibition is differentially related to instrumental and
... (Volkow, Tancredi, Grant, Gillespie, Valentine, Mullani, Wang, & Hollister, 1995). Several studies
suggest that prefrontal regulation of aggression depends on 5-HT input (for a review see Montoya et
al. 2012). Since these receptors receive input from the 5-HT raphe system that originates in the
the big five and adhd: an investigation of subtypes and
... hyperactive symptoms differentiated between the subtypes of ADD: with hyperactivity (ADD/H)
or without hyperactivity (ADD/noH) (APA, 1980). The revised version of the DSM-III – DSMIII-R – eliminated subtypes altogether, only including an ADHD diagnosis and resulting in a
heterogeneous population of ...
Clinical Utility of EEG in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
... considerably with correct classification rates of 76% of
normals, 89% of ADHD–ADD, and 70% of LD children (Chabot et al., 1996). There are also methodological issues that may affect the generality of these results.
Children were diagnosed ADHD using only parent and
teacher behavior rating scales, wh ...
Associations between substance use disorder and
... relationship could be due to genetic factors, vulnerability for earlier substance use in
individuals with ADHD or the presence of SUD in parents, but the nature of the
relationship is still unclear (Wilens, 2007). This is an important topic, since the results of
further investigations presumably cou ...
... of mental models that support self-referential computations [3,42]. This set of functions seems to contrast with
externally-oriented goal-directed thought. Thus, by its
nature, DMN activity could conflict with computations
necessary for externally-oriented processes, reflected in
the divergent archi ...
Autism: A Review of Biological Bases, Assessment, and
... MR comorbidity rate of 69.2% for autism, 7.6%
for PDD-NOS, and 0% for Asperger’s disorder
(Chakrabarti & Fombonne, 2001).
The association between ASDs and seizure
disorders is also well recognized. Estimates of
epilepsy within autism range from 8% to 42%
of autism cases (Canitano, Luchetti, & Zappel ...
ADHD Combined Type and ADHD Predominantly Inattentive Type
... also described criteria for establishing the validity of a psychiatric illness that are divided into ﬁve phases. In line
with its Kraepelinian origins, the ﬁrst phase involves
obtaining a clinical description of the disorder. This
includes not only describing associated symptoms, but
also the distri ...
... Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common
neurodevelopmental disorders occurring in childhood. The main symptoms are
developmentally excessive levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. ADHD
occurs in 8 to 12% of school age children worldwide; the majority ...
... 3. Neuroimaging in ADHD………………………………………………………... 27
3.1. MRI techniques……………………………………………………….……. 27
3.2. Neuroanatomical findings in ADHD children ……………………..……….27
3.2.1. Total brain volume and regional abnormalities……………...……… 30
3.2.2. Clinical and pharmacological correlations …………………….…….33
... cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex of patients with
bipolar disorder following exposure to significant emotional stimuli (Hassel et al., 2008;
Wessa and Linke, 2009). It appears that imbalance between the ventral-limbic network and
the dorsal brain structure ...
pathophysiology of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder
... speed, verbal fluency, or visual spatial accuracy, findings
that suggest that observed neuropsychological impairments
are caused by specific, not generalized, deficits (51).
Notably, neuropsychological studies have consistently
found adults with ADHD to be impaired on measures of
vigilance using the ...
taking Disorder seriously
... is supposed to be failing in medical pathology. “Disorder” can be used generically for
failure of many types of order, as in “civic
disorder.” I argue below that in medicine, it
is the order derived from the biologically designed functioning of the mind and body that
is claimed to fail in attributio ...
Vocal cord dysfunction: a functional cause of respiratory
... Pathophysiology of VCD
Several studies have suggested that a spontaneous
onset of VCD is often associated with underlying
psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric consultation for
further therapy and consideration of underlying
somatoform disorders has been recommended
. In a report by Selner et al. [ ...
The continuous performance test: a window on
... The CPT is now cited as the most frequently used measure of attention in both practice and research.
Across studies, results are consistent with models of sustained attention that involve the interaction of
cortical (frontal, temporal, parietal), subcortical (limbic, basal ganglia), and functional s ...
Neuroimaging and neuropsychological findings in
... especially useful in characterizing the neuropsychological strengths or deficits associated
with specific regional brain abnormalities. For
example, several studies have suggested that
adult OCD is characterized by a prominent
impairment in response inhibition [3,4] , which
could be conceptualized a ...
S C A R
... The then Minister also advised that in order to understand this condition and its impact
in Western Australia, he had requested Professor George Lipton, General Manager of the
Health Department’s Mental Health Division, to establish a small panel of internationally
recognised psychiatric experts to ...
Updating verbal and visuospatial working memory: Are the
... memory updating task with phonological short-term
memory task[9,10]. Morris and Jones predicted that if
memory updating requires CE resources but not the articulary loop, and the serial recall aspect of the task requires the articulatory loop but not the central executive,
then the times of upda ...
... motivational and timing systems and, specifically, their role in the pathophysiology of
Therefore, we analyzed functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) of 20 unmedicated, combined, adult ADHD subjects and 25 healthy controls. Date sets were
used to identify and compare the brain activation ...
The World Health Organization adult ADHD self
... epidemiological data exist to evaluate this claim,
as none of the many adult community psychiatric epidemiological surveys carried out over
the past two decades with either the Diagnostic
Interview Schedule (DIS ; Robins et al. 1981) or
the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI ; Robins ...
Running Head: BIPOLAR DISORDER - People
... as many psychotropic medications do, lithium…appears to work inside neurons
themselves, essentially reprogramming them” (Castle, 2003, p. 195). Many scientists
believe lithium prevents the early stages of developing further mood episodes. Doctors
often prescribe antidepressants, which relieve depres ...
In psychology and neuroscience, executive dysfunction, or executive function deficit is a disruption to the efficacy of the executive functions, which is a group of cognitive processes that regulate, control, and manage other cognitive processes. Executive dysfunction can refer to both neurocognitive deficits and behavioural symptoms. It is implicated in numerous psychopathologies and mental disorders, as well as short-term and long-term changes in non-clinical executive control.Executive dysfunction is not the same as dysexecutive syndrome, a term coined by Alan Baddeley to describe a common pattern of dysfunction in executive functions, such as deficiencies in planning, abstract thinking, flexibility and behavioural control. This group of symptoms, usually resulting from brain damage, tend to occur together. However, the existence of dysexecutive syndrome is controversial.