Independence logic and tuple existence atoms
R relation, ~x , ~y , ~z tuples of attributes.
Then R |= ~x ~y | ~z if and only if, for all r , r 0 ∈ R such that
r (~x ) = r 0 (~x ) there exists a r 00 ∈ R such that
r 00 (~x ~y ) = r (~x ~y ) and r 00 (~x ~z ) = r (~x ~z ).
Huge literature on the topic;
If ~x ~y ~z contains all attri ...
Semantic Enrichment - UMKC School of Computing and Engineering
... terminologies with a two-level structure are the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) [2-4] and the
WordNet  mapping to the Suggested Upper Merged Ontology (SUMO) . There are major
differences between these two examples. The UMLS was built from the outset as a two-level structure, is
about 1 ...
possibilistic logic - an overview
... Π(A) = 1 whenever N (A) > 0, which totally fits the intuition behind this
formalism, namely that something somewhat certain should be first fully
possible, i.e. consistent with the available information. Moreover, one cannot be somewhat certain of both A and Ac , without being inconsistent.
Note als ...
Ontology Integration Experienced on Medical Terminologies
... Intuitively, categories should have been introduced for the purpose of categorizing concepts (similar to
semantic types in the UMLS). This is what the name ”categories” seems to imply. However, as mentioned
before, there exist different kinds of relationship between concepts and categories of the AC ...
... Studio), MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox and MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox.
I chose these tools because they can easily demonstrate the theory being
presented. However, the book is not tied to any specific tool; the examples given
in the book are easy to implement with different tools.
This book is also ...
... Proving universal statements
Claim: For any integers a and b, if a and b are odd, then ab is also
Definition: integer a is odd iff a = 2m + 1 for some integer m
Let a, b ∈ Z s.t. a and b are odd.
Then by definition of odd a = 2m + 1.m ∈ Z and
b = 2n + 1.n ∈ Z So
ab = (2m + 1)(2n + 1) = 4mn + 2m ...
as a PDF
... Some other approaches include genetic fuzzy neural
networks and genetic fuzzy clustering, among others
... In their introduction to The Description Logic Handbook , Brachman and
Nardi point out that the general goal of knowledge representation (KR) is to
“develop formalisms for providing high-level descriptions of the world that can
be effectively used to build intelligent applications” . This se ...
Completeness or Incompleteness of Basic Mathematical Concepts
... truth values for all sentences of first-order arithmetic. That is, it implies each
first-order sentence or its negation. In fact I think that the concept of the natural
numbers has a stronger property than first-order completeness. I will discuss this
property, which I call “full determinateness” in ...
review and analysis of different methodologies used in mobile robot
... respond to human supplied commands such as “Follow the corridor and turn right at the second T junction” is
achieved by an ensemble of neural networks whose activation and deactivation are controlled by a supervisory
controller that is rule-based. Glasius, Komoda, and Stan (1994) have proposed a mod ...
A Knowledge Representation Tool for Autonomous Machine
... concepts and knowledge systems in multiple ways in order to simulate and
visualize the dynamic concept networks during machine learning based on concept algebra.
Keyword: Cognitive informatics, cognitive computing, computational intelligence, denotational mathematics, intelligent systems, concept al ...
A fuzzy concept is a concept of which the boundaries of application can vary considerably according to context or conditions, instead of being fixed once and for all. This means the concept is vague in some way, lacking a fixed, precise meaning, without however being unclear or meaningless altogether. It has a definite meaning, which can become more precise only through further elaboration and specification, including a closer definition of the context in which the concept is used. A fuzzy concept is understood by scientists as a concept which is ""to an extent applicable"" in a situation, and it therefore implies gradations of meaning. The best known example of a fuzzy concept around the world is an amber traffic light, and indeed fuzzy concepts are nowadays widely used in traffic control systems.The Nordic myth of Loki's wager suggests that concepts which lack a precise meaning or precise boundaries of application cannot be usefully discussed at all. However, the idea of ""fuzzy concepts"" proposes that ""somewhat vague terms"" can be operated with, since we can explicate and define the variability of their application, by assigning numbers to it.