Attitudes and Attitude Change - 2008
... attitudes in a rigorous and scientifically defensible manner. Arguably, the measurement approach developed by Thurstone set the stage for almost all that has
followed in the field of attitudes and, by extension, social psychology. Thurstone’s
insistence on the fundamental evaluative nature of attitu ...
Fritz Heider: Philosopher and Psychologist
... Moore and Bertrand Russell in the early years of analytical philosophy, and Meinong is still wellknown in today’s philosophical circles for his analysis of how we can know and refer to nonexisting
objects (see Zalta, 1988). A philosopher at heart, Meinong was also a strong proponent of empirical
Are ``implicit`` attitudes unconscious?
... awareness of the causes of their attitudes. Research on the mere exposure eﬀect (Zajonc, 1968), for example,
has repeatedly shown that prior exposure to an object can enhance self-reported liking of that object (for a
meta-analysis, see Bornstein, 1989). Most importantly, participants in these studi ...
Attitude Change: Multiple Roles for Persuasion
... message, but persuasion in response to affective arguments was mediated by both cognitive and affective
responses (see also Zuwerink & Devine, 1996). The accumulated literature makes it clear that although the
affective, cognitive, and behavioral bases of attitudes can be independent (Zanna & Rempel ...
Opinions and attitudes in discourse comprehension.
... believer. These models are important first steps in our understanding of the role
of speaker's and hearer's beliefs in discourse processing. Yet, they do not fully
account for possible differences between knowledge and subjective beliefs, nor do
they explicitly discuss the nature and representation ...
2 Attitude Change and Persuasion
... asked to retrieve fewer examples subsequently viewed themselves as more
assertive, because their experience of generating or retrieving relevant cognitions was subjectively easier. This cognitive ease, in turn, can lead people to
infer that many more such cognitions are likely to be available (Schwa ...
The Dynamics of Ambivalence: Evaluative Conflict in Attitudes and
... stay uncommitted as well as to the univalent control group that did not have to choose. The
results of their second study are depicted in Figure 1 and show an increase in arousal in each of
the three experimental conditions starting at baseline, via the introduction of the forthcoming
choice to the ...
Self-Compassion and Self-Monitoring as Moderators of Cognitive
... Brannon, Tagler, and Eagly’s (2007) research on attitude strength and cognitive
dissonance offers an explanation as to why some people do not experience cognitive dissonance.
People who have strong attitudes tend to seek out attitudinally consistent information and resist
being exposed to counter-at ...
Persuasion - psychology at Ohio State University
... people to be more favorable in their cognitive reactions to the
message than if the source was not mentioned or was of low
credibility. This idea harkened back to Solomon Asch (1948)
who proposed that a message (e.g., ‘‘a little rebellion now and
again is a good thing’’) from one source (e.g., Thoma ...
Behaviour and Attitudes
... While Wicker and others were describing the weakness of attitudes, some
personality psychologists found personality traits equally ineffective in predicting behaviour (Mischel, 1968). If we want to know how helpful people are
going to be, we usually won’t learn much by giving them tests of self-este ...
Perspectives on Psychological Science (in press)
... studies, but bad in others. Also, support for any one mechanism by which persuasion
worked was not compelling. Finally, a puzzle that researchers have struggled with for
decades is that sometimes attitude changes seemed to be relatively durable and
impactful (e.g., guiding behavior), but sometimes t ...
Full Text - University of British Columbia
... According to the MMM (Heine et al., 2006; Proulx & Heine, 2010), any violation
of expectation (i.e., a meaning violation) produces aversive arousal, motivating
individuals to address the violation. This arousal is context general; people require
contextual cues to identify the proximal cause of thei ...
Pre-Purchase Behaviour: Is There a Cognitive Dissonance?
... well trained sales personnel for assistant, etc.) with more consumers oriented rather than too technical, which
subsequently reduce chances of getting into a negative emotional cognitive dissonance state like
disappointment, angry, uneasy and frustrated once they engage with the product. The lesser ...
research - DataPro
... CCDR illustrates that striving for behavioral ﬁt with a different cultural
group can cause misﬁt within one’s self that must be resolved for an
expat to be truly adjusted
holier than me? threatening social comparison in the moral domain
... of morality. We have argued elsewhere that the different
emphasis on these distinct aspects of morality provides a central
orienting dimension in the moral psychology literature (see
Monin, Pizarro & Beer, in press). Kelley’s argument, from the
perceiver’s point of view, is that both elements need t ...
Implicit Consistency Processes in Social Cognition
... describe how a dual-systems perspective on attitudes explains the psychological processes
underlying situations such as these. In particular, we focus on situations where our implicit
evaluations of attitude objects are inconsistent with our explicit evaluations of them, describing
how these inconsi ...
sample - Test Bank Corp
a. knowing that initial insecurity as a university freshman is normal and temporary improved
academic performance through the end of the freshman year for African-American and
Caucasian students, but not beyond that year.
b. knowing that initial insecurity as a university freshman is normal and ...
The Case for Motivated Reasoning
... Reasoning Driven by Accuracy Goals
The work on accuracy-driven reasoning suggests that when people are motivated to be accurate, they
expend more cognitive effort on issue-related reasoning, attend to relevant information more carefully,
and process it more deeply, often using more complex rules. T ...
Holier than me? Threatening Social Comparison in the Moral Domain
... central for most people. Importance or centrality of a trait has
been identified by several authors (Tesser, 1991; Beach & Tesser,
2000; Major et al., 1991) as one of the necessary preconditions
for upward comparison to represent threat, and morality seems
to be central to most people’s self-concept ...
LPPT-Ch06-ARS8 - To Parent Directory
... How We Reduce Cognitive Dissonance
There are three basic ways of reducing dissonance: change your behavior, change your
cognition, or add a new cognition.
Social Psychology, Eighth Edition
Elliot Aronson | Timothy D. Wilson | Robin M. Akert
... How is aggressive behavior determined by biology and learning?
What is altruism, and how is deciding to help someone related to the
presence of others?
What is social neuroscience?
A New Understanding of Terrorism Using Cognitive Dissonance
... singular cause in most cases. Similarly, Baumeister (1996) identifies four roots of
terrorism, at least three of which are strongly related to hate. First is an ideological
division between good (one’s own group) and evil (the enemy), leading to hatred
for the enemy because the enemy is evil. Second ...
Leon Festinger (8 May 1919 – 11 February 1989) was an American social psychologist, perhaps best known for cognitive dissonance and social comparison theory. His theories and research are credited with repudiating the previously dominant behaviorist view of social psychology by demonstrating the inadequacy of stimulus-response conditioning accounts of human behavior. Festinger is also credited with advancing the use of laboratory experimentation in social psychology, although he simultaneously stressed the importance of studying real-life situations, a principle he perhaps most famously practiced when personally infiltrating a doomsday cult. He is also known in social network theory for the proximity effect (or propinquity).Festinger studied psychology under Kurt Lewin, an important figure in modern social psychology, at the University of Iowa, graduating in 1941; however, he did not develop an interest in social psychology until after joining the faculty at Lewin’s Research Center for Group Dynamics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1945. Despite his preeminence in social psychology, Festinger turned to visual perception research in 1964 and then archaeology and history in 1979 until his death in 1989. Following B. F. Skinner, Jean Piaget, Sigmund Freud, and Albert Bandura, Festinger was the fifth most cited psychologist of the 20th century.