THE BOOT PROCESS The Forensic Services Group 1.) Initiates
... 9.) The POST results are compared against the expected results stored in RTC/NVRAM
10) All other components BIOS are added to the overall BIOS in RAM
11) POST is complete.
12) Searches available drives for an operating system.
a. Searches system according to the order in the boot sequence.
b. ROM BI ...
Master boot record
... Use of multi-boot setups, which allow users to have more than one operating system on a single computer. For example, one could install Linux, BSD,
Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows or other operating systems on different partitions of the same hard disk and have a choice of booting into any compatible
System Software - Computing Systems` Blog
... which are loaded into the CPU, and the CPU starts by
executing the system software which is stored on the
• The startup programs are stored in ROM circuits
which contain data, and can only be read.
• BIOS is important system software, only after these
programs have been loaded and execu ...
Basic Functions of the operating system
... • When making changes, you see many pop-up
messages asking if it’s ok to do the change.
What’s this called & what can you do to stop this?
– UAC; lower the settings in the User Account in CP
2.1 Input Output Control System
... component s in the system unit
2. The processor finds the ROM chip(s) that
contain the BIOS (basic input output
3. The BIOS performs the POST(power-on self
test), which checks components such as
mouse, keyboard and adapter cards.
Low-level formatting or physical formatting
... To use a disk to hold files, the operating system still needs to record its own
data structures on the disk. It does so in two steps.
(a) The first step is Partition the disk into one or more groups of cylinders.
Among the partitions, one partition can hold a copy of the OS‘s executable
code, while ...
Windows booting procedure
... a) POST - POST stands for Power On Self Test. POST checks all the hardware devices connected to a computer like RAM, hard disk etc
and make sure that the system can run smoothly with those hardware devices. If the POST is a failure the system halts with a beep sound.
b) Now BIOS checks the boot prio ...
Implementing hard drive.
... Uses 32 bits to describe each cluster
Cluster size can drop to reasonable size compared
A 2-GB volume using FAT16 would use 32-KB
clusters, while the same 2-GB volume using FAT32
would use the minimum cluster size (4KB).
FAT 32 support partition up to 2 terabyte.
Linux Booting Procedure
... OS is booted from a hard disk, where the
Master Boot Record (MBR) contains the
primary boot loader
The MBR is a 512-byte sector, located in
the first sector on the disk (sector 1 of
cylinder 0, head 0)
After the MBR is loaded into RAM, the
BIOS yields control to it.
Operating system flexibility - La page d`accueil du P:L:O:U:G
... Different operating systems have different limitations on how and where they can be installed on the hard drive. Linux is
probably the most adaptable OS for multi-boot systems. It will boot from both primary and logical partitions and from a
secondary hard drive. Other operating systems have very li ...
DOS - InfoShare.tk
... MS-DOS is a disk-based, single-user, single-task operating system. These
qualities make it one of the easiest disk operating systems to understand.
... We illustrate them with a request queue
Identify Steps in the Startup Process
... Master boot record (MBR) is the first sector of the first hard disk; a
physically small but critical element in the startup process on x64 and
x86-based computer. When a computer is booted, it processes a series
of self-tests and then reads the MBR. The MBR contains instructions
that locate the disk ...
Linux Pres1 - Parent Directory
... The recommended place to install boot Loader, unless the MBR already starts
another operating system loader, such as System Commander or OS/2's Boot
Manager. The MBR is a special area on your hard drive that is automatically
loaded by your computer's BIOS, and is the earliest point at which Boot Loa ...
... • Uses on/off switch
• More stressful on the machine because of power surge
Booting a PC
... Since we can't actually load the kernel at physical address
0xf0100000, we will use the processor's memory management
hardware to map virtual address 0xf0100000 -- the link address
at which the kernel code expects to run -- to physical address
0x00100000 -- where the boot loader actually loaded the ...
OS Services System calls and their types
... computer resources
– Protection and security - The owners of information stored in a multiuser or
networked computer system may want to control use of that information,
concurrent processes should not interfere with each other
• Protection involves ensuring that all access to system resources is con ...
Things to Know while installing Linux OS
... • Backup and Recovery - Easier backup and recovery.
• Stability and efficiency - You can increase disk space efficiency by formatting
disk with various block sizes. It depends upon usage. For example, if the data is
lots of small files, it is better to use small block size.
• Testing - Boot multiple ...
Booting and Shutting Down UNIX Flavored Operating Systems
... system is fully operational, but additional
processes have to run in order to allow
multiple users to log on to the system.
The getty process listen for logins which is
spawned from init.
Graphical login systems include xdm, gdm,
Windows Vista Boot process
... The function of the Windows Boot Manager is to read the boot configuration data(BCD) and display an
operating system selection menu, as NTLDR in Windows XP, A big difference is that the Windows Boot
Manager is invoked by pressing the space bar instead of the F8 function key. The F8 key still remains ...
Run Standard Diagnostic Tests
... corrupted the file system or Master Boot Record
3. A common mistake is a floppy disk being left in the
4. Cables not connected to hard disk drive properly.
Formatting and Partitioning Hard Drives, and DOS
... Microsoft developed (DOS), in 1981. DOS was
designed for the IBM Personal Computer
DOS is a collection of programs and commands used to
control the overall computer operation in a disk-based
Three sections make up DOS:
File management files
A simple operating sy ...
slides - Caltech
... began providing more detailed information to the OS
• Frequently exposed as tables of data set up by the BIOS
... A cylinder is the collection of all
the same tracks across all the
multiple disk surfaces.
There is a time associated with
turning heads on and off so that a
different surface can be accessed.
We call this overhead the headswitching time.
Master boot record
A master boot record (MBR) is a special type of boot sector at the very beginning of partitioned computer mass storage devices like fixed disks or removable drives intended for use with IBM PC-compatible systems and beyond. The concept of MBRs was publicly introduced in 1983 with PC DOS 2.0.The MBR holds the information on how the logical partitions, containing file systems, are organized on that medium. Besides that, the MBR also contains executable code to function as a loader for the installed operating system—usually by passing control over to the loader's second stage, or in conjunction with each partition's volume boot record (VBR). This MBR code is usually referred to as a boot loader.The organization of the partition table in the MBR limits the maximum addressable storage space of a disk to 2 TB (232 × 512 bytes). Therefore, the MBR-based partitioning scheme is in the process of being superseded by the GUID Partition Table (GPT) scheme in new computers. A GPT can coexist with an MBR in order to provide some limited form of backward compatibility for older systems.MBRs are not present on non-partitioned media like floppies, superfloppies or other storage devices configured to behave as such.