George Soros (/ˈsɔroʊs/ or /ˈsɔrɒs/; Hungarian: Soros György; Hungarian: [ˈʃoroʃ]; born August 12, 1930, as Schwartz György) is a Hungarian-born American business magnate, investor, author, and philanthropist. He is chairman of Soros Fund Management. He is known as ""The Man Who Broke the Bank of England"" because of his short sale of US$10 billion worth of pounds, making him a profit of $1 billion during the 1992 Black Wednesday UK currency crisis. Soros is one of the 30 richest people in the world.Soros is a well known supporter of progressive–liberal political causes. Between 1979 and 2015 Soros donated more than $11 billion to various philanthropic causes. He played a significant role in the peaceful transition from communism to capitalism in Eastern Europe (1984–89) and provided one of Europe's largest higher education endowments to Central European University in Budapest. Soros is also the chairman of the Open Society Foundations.