Corporal punishment in the home
Domestic corporal punishment (also referred to as corporal punishment in the home or parental corporal punishment) is the use of physical force in a domestic context for the purpose of managing or punishing the behaviour of another person—typically a child, in which case it is usually performed by a parent or other adult guardian. It may take the form of spanking or slapping the other person with an open hand or striking with an implement such as a belt, slipper, cane, hairbrush or paddle, shaking, pinching, forced ingestion of substances, or forcing children to stay in uncomfortable positions. Corporal punishment of children also includes more violent acts such as kicking, biting, scalding, and burning. Severe forms of corporal punishment can constitute unlawful child abuse.In most cultures, parents have historically been regarded as having the duty of punishing their children, as well as having the right to use physical force in doing so. During the 20th century, many statutes regarding criminal battery and child abuse were written to include exceptions for ""reasonable"" physical punishment by parents. Some countries began to take the opposite approach, removing legal defenses for adult guardians' use of corporal punishment and then banning the practice outright, although such bans often do not carry criminal penalties. Since Sweden's 1979 ban on all corporal punishment of children, an increasing number of countries have enacted similar laws, particularly following international adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, as of January 2015, domestic corporal punishment of children is still legal in most of the world.Many professional and human-rights groups oppose any form of physical punishment of children. Researchers have observed that spanking and other physical punishments, while nominally for the purpose of discipline, are more often used when parents are angry or under stress. Most research on the topic has found corporal punishment to be ineffective in promoting desirable behaviours, and numerous adverse effects, such as increased aggression, mental illness, and crime, have been linked to the use of corporal punishment by parents.Social acceptance of corporal punishment is high in countries where it remains lawful, particularly among conservative religious groups. Portions of the Christian Bible are often used in support of the right of parents and other guardians to employ corporal punishment when dealing with children. In countries banning the practice, approval of corporal punishment among the public tends to fall following the ban.In some cultures, the spanking of adult women by the male head of the family or by the husband (sometimes called domestic discipline) has been—and sometimes continues to be—a common and approved custom. In those cultures and in those times it was the belief that the husband, as head of the family, had a right and even the duty to discipline his wife and children when he saw fit, and manuals were available to instruct the husband how to discipline his household. In most western countries, this practice has come to be regarded as socially unacceptable wife-beating, domestic violence or abuse. Routine corporal punishment of women by their husbands, however, does still exist in some parts of the developing world, and still occurs in isolated cases in western countries.