Political Neutrality in Europe during World War II
... By June of 1940, Franco had taken a foreign policy stance of non-belligerency, and
encouraged by German successes led him to believe that an Axis victory was close at hand. So
much so, that on June 19, 1940 Franco dispatched a letter to Berlin, stating that Spain was
prepared to enter the war on the ...
Clearing. Der Zahlungsverkehr der Schweiz mit den
... government granted the first advances in the summer of 1940 (150 million Swiss francs for
Germany and 75 million for Italy). The interest-free clearing credit to Nazi Germany was
increased one year later to 850 million Swiss francs and again in 1943 by additional Federal
advances of 271 million Swis ...
The Bergier commission in Bern was formed by the Swiss government on 12 December 1996. It is also known as the ICE (""Independent Commission of Experts"").Founded in a decade when Switzerland had come under recurring criticism for its behaviour during World War II, particularly with respect to its relations with the Nazi government in Germany, the commission was established by the Swiss Parliament and headed by Jean-François Bergier, an economic historian. Made up of Polish, American, Israeli and Swiss historians, the Commission's mandate was to investigate the volume and fate of assets moved to Switzerland before, during, and immediately after the Second World War. The investigation was to be made from a historical and legal point of view; with a particular emphasis on the links between the Nazi regime and Swiss banks. The mandate covers almost every type of asset, including gold, currency and cultural assets. The content of the research program was broadened by the government to include economic relations, arms production, ""Aryanisation measures"", the monetary system, and refugee policy.